Category Archives: Europe

Turkey Supports ISIS. … Now Declares “War Against ISIS”, But Instead Bombs Its Political Rival, Which Is the Most Effective Force Fighting ISIS

These attacks by Turkey are waging war on the most effective armed fore fighting ISIS. ISIS, on the other hand, was left virtually untouched. ISIS enjoys massive support from Turkey at all levels all the way down to local police forces. Most ISIS oil smuggled out of the country goes directly through Turkey with the knowledge and help of the Turkish government.

Every day dozens to hundreds of trucks pout across the Turkish border directly into Syrian territory controlled by ISIS. They are carrying arms, men and supplies to ISIS from Turkey. These convoys were photographed by a German journalist at the Turkish border last November. It is not Turkey itself that is supplying those trucks. Instead the trucks are being driven by ISIS drivers currying supplies from ISIS supply depots and men from ISIS bases across the border. The Turkish military at the border simply looks the other way. However there is some excellent evidence that Turkish intelligence has been working with ISIS for some time now.

ISIS has training camps and safehouses all over Turkey. When Turkish police battled Kurdish demonstrators protesting Turkish efforts to impede Kurdish help for city under seige by ISIS, scores of Turkish police in full uniform chanted pro-ISIS slogans. You wonder where ISIS is getting all of that wonderful equipment?

The military supplies come from Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Turkey. Saudi support for ISIS goes way back. In fact, ISIS was originally a Saudi operation, the pet project of none other than Prince Bandar. Now ISIS infests Saudi Arabia itself, engaging in regular terrorist attacks in the Kingdom. Saudi Arabia has created a Frankenstein. It’s gotten up from the table, is walking on its own, and it’s coming to kill the Saudi mad scientists who made it.

Most of this is US weaponry. That is why you so often see ISIS with with US weapons. ISIS is being continually supplied mostly with US weapons. It’s US weaponry that keeps them going. In other words, Turkey and some partners have been backing ISIS for quite some time now.

The terrorist bomb blast against an unarmed, mostly Kurdish leftist group in Suruc recently was claimed by ISIS. I am quite certain that the Turkish government was in on that attack – probably Turkish intelligence. The group is made up of Leftists and Kurds, and those are the two principal enemies of the Turkish state for a very long time now. Sunni Salafis like Al Qaeda and ISIS are not enemies of the Turkish state – in fact, they are its allies.

Soon after the bombing, the PKK (a group which has my full support) launched an excellent operation, shooting dead two policeman who it said were cooperating with ISIS. It is a fact that many Turkish policemen are ISIS supporters, and its probably true that a lot of them are working with ISIS. I don’t think the PKK killed those two cops for no reason. PKK intelligence is very good. They wouldn’t kill innocent cops. If the PKK says they were cooperating with ISIS, you can be sure that they war.

As you can see, Turkey is using this fake war against ISIS to launch its real war against the Turkish Left and the Kurds (the PKK). The war against the PKK is not only against the armed faction of the Kurds (the PKK) but is also against the peaceful aboveground component in the Kurdish political party HDP which recently won 13% of the votes in the last election, setting off alarm bells all over Turkey.

Turkey claims that this political party has links to the PKK and it says the party’s representatives in Parliament have ties to the PKK. That’s probably not true. The PKK is a military organization, and the HDP just does politics and has nothing to do with anything military if the two groups have any links at all, and there is no evidence that the HDP is the aboveground component of the PKK anyway.

But most of these groups separate their military and political arms. For instance, the PFLP and Hamas in Palestine have political wings and armed wings. The politicians really have nothing to do with the military group except perhaps telling them to start shooting or giving them the go ahead to start shooting. The Hamas political wing has nothing whatsoever to do with the armed wing’s military strategy.

That’s all done by the armed wing – 100% by the armed wing. Although in states the division between politics and the military is a lot less clear, extra-state armed groups are generally very clear that their armed and political wings have nothing to do with each other. The people in the political wing don’t carry weapons. They don’t supply or smuggle weapons. They don’t run training camps for the guerrillas. They probably don’t have much to do with safehouses for the armed groups either. They know nothing about military strategy and have no role in planning it. They probably rarely see or talk to people in the armed wing. The two groups don’t have much to do with each other.

This is why targeted the political wing of these groups is almost always a crime. Yes they are “supporters” of the armed group, but so what? Since when is “support” a crime. Their support is psychological or verbal. So what? Since when is it illegal to say, “I support Hamas”? What the Hell kind of a crime is that?

This whole charade is utterly repulsive. As you can see, NATO is backing Turkey to the hilt in its war against the Kurds, which is really a war in support of ISIS. So NATO is supporting a war against the most successful anti-ISIS fighters. That means NATO is supporting ISIS, but I say NATO has been supporting ISIS in one way or another for a long time now.

Why would NATO be so insane as to support ISIS. NATO, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar all support ISIS? How much they support them ideologically is not known. But every one of these factions wants Assad gone. Turkey, the Saudis and Qatar all want him gone because he is a Shia and they are on radical Sunni anti-Shia campaign to wipe out Shia power all over the Middle East.

In the process, hundreds of thousands of Shia have been slaughtered. All three are supporting ISIS and Al Qaeda, groups that have launched near genocidal massacres against the Shia. So it can be argued that Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar want to Holocaust the Shia Muslims of the Middle East. Of course the US, NATO and Israel are all backing this Shia Shoah to the hilt. Whenever there’s mass murder anywhere in the world, Israel’s probably not far away. The Israelis just can’t stop killing people. Mass murder is in their blood.

Turkey Supports ISIS…Now Declares “War Against ISIS”, But Instead Bombs Its Political Rival, Which Is the Most Effective Force Fighting ISIS

By Global Research

NATO member Turkey has been busted supporting ISIS.

The Guardian reported this week:

US special forces raided the compound of an Islamic State leader in eastern Syria in May, they made sure not to tell the neighbors.

The target of that raid, the first of its kind since US jets returned to the skies over Iraq last August, was an Isis official responsible for oil smuggling, named Abu Sayyaf. He was almost unheard of outside the upper echelons of the terror group, but he was well known to Turkey. From mid-2013, the Tunisian fighter had been responsible for smuggling oil from Syria’s eastern fields, which the group had by then commandeered. Black market oil quickly became the main driver of Isis revenues – and Turkish buyers were its main clients.

As a result, the oil trade between the jihadis and the Turks was held up as evidence of an alliance between the two.

***

In the wake of the raid that killed Abu Sayyaf, suspicions of an undeclared alliance have hardened. One senior western official familiar with the intelligence gathered at the slain leader’s compound said that direct dealings between Turkish officials and ranking Isis members was now “undeniable”.

“There are hundreds of flash drives and documents that were seized there,” the official told the Observer. “They are being analyzed at the moment, but the links are already so clear that they could end up having profound policy implications for the relationship between us and Ankara.”

***

However, Turkey has openly supported other jihadi groups, such as Ahrar al-Sham, which espouses much of Al-Qaida’s ideology, and Jabhat al-Nusra, which is proscribed as a terror organization by much of the US and Europe. “The distinctions they draw [with other opposition groups] are thin indeed,” said the western official. “There is no doubt at all that they militarily cooperate with both.”

***

One Isis member says the organization remains a long way from establishing a self-sustaining economy across the area of Syria and Iraq it controls. “They need the Turks. I know of a lot of cooperation and it scares me,” he said. “I don’t see how Turkey can attack the organization too hard. There are shared interests.”

While the Guardian is one of Britain’s leading newspapers, many in the alternative press have long pointed out Turkey’s support for ISIS.

And expertsKurds, and Joe Biden have accuses Turkey of enabling ISIS.

Has Turkey Changed Its Ways?

On Tuesday, Turkey proclaimed that it will now help to fight ISIS.

Don’t buy it …

Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson – former chief of staff to Colin Powell, and now distinguished adjunct professor of Government and Public Policy at William & Mary – asked yesterday:

What is [Turkish president] Erdogan’s ultimate purpose? He hates Assad. He’d love to bring him down. Is that why he’s doing this?

There’s also the Kurds …

As Time Magazine pointed out in June:

Ethnic Kurds—who on Tuesday scored their second and third significant victories over ISIS in the space of eight days—are by far the most effective force fighting ISIS in both Iraq and Syria.

And yet Turkey is trying to destroy the Kurds. Time writes:

Since [Turkey announced that it was joining the war against ISIS] it has arrested more than 1,000 people in Turkey and carried out waves of air raids in neighboring Syria and Iraq. But most of those arrests and air strikes, say Kurdish leaders, have hit Kurdish and left wing groups, not ISIS.

***

Kurds are an ethnic minority that live in parts of Syria, Iraq, Turkey and Iran. They have been persecuted for decades — from Turkey’s suppression of Kurdish identity and banning of Kurdish language to Saddam Hussein’s use of chemical weapons on Kurdish communities. Their leaders, from the numerous different parties and rebel groups that represent them, have long sought an independent Kurdish state encompassing that territory and have fought against their respective governments to try to achieve that.

***

Hoshang Waziri, a political analyst based in Erbil, says the Kurds’ recent territorial gains in Syria along Turkey’s border and their increasing political legitimacy in the eyes of the West, have made the Kurds a bigger threat to Turkey than ISIS. “The fear of the Turkish state started with the Kurdish defeat of ISIS in Tel Abyad,” says Waziri.

***

The image in the West of the Kurds as a reliable ally on the ground is terrifying for Turkey,” says Waziri. “So before it’s too late, Turkey waged its war — not against ISIS, but against the PKK.

***

Some see the war against ISIS simply as a cover for an attack on Kurdish groups. Of the more than 1,000 people Turkey has arrested in security sweeps in recent days, 80% are Kurdish, associated either with the PKK or the non-violent Kurdish Peoples’ Democratic Party (HDP), says İbrahim Ayhan, a member of parliament for the HDP.

***

Ayhan says the AKP needs a state of “chaos” to persuade voters that it is the only bulwark against chaos. As of yet no new government has been formed in Turkey and if that doesn’t happen in the next few weeks, new elections will be called. By that time Ayhan fears many of the leaders of his HDP party will be in jail and some even worry the HDP will be outlawed. At the same time, Erdoğan and his AKP hope they will have shown only they can defend Turkey from internal and external threats.

The Wall Street Journal reports:

Turkey’s military activity against Islamic State does not stem from sudden realizations about threats from ISIS but appears designed to elicit international support for its fight against the Kurds.

The Kurdish Workers’ Party, known as the PKK, was locked in a bloody war with the Turkish state from the mid-1980s until 2013. The cease-fire has, for all intents and purposes, been destroyed. Turkey is battling both ISIS and the PKK under the guise of fighting terrorism. Yet Turkish attempts to conflate ISIS and the PKK–even in the wake of the suicide bombing in a Kurdish border town that killed 32 young people–effectively ask people to overlook some salient facts:

The Kurds are Islamic State’s ideological opposites. The Kurds have been fighting ISIS in Syria and Iraq for some time; in particular, the Kurdish People’s Protection Unit (YPG) in northern Syria has been among the most effective forces at repelling ISIS efforts to take control of the Syrian-Turkish border. Kurdish military resistance in Syria and, to a lesser extent, the Kurdish autonomous government in Iraq have shouldered the lion’s share of the ground conflict against Islamic State, standing their ground at high cost and with limited support from the Western coalition.

***

A declaration of a state of emergency in Turkey would give the Justice and Development Party (or AKP), which lost its parliamentary majority in June elections, more flexibility to crack down on political opponents such as the Kurdish majority People’s Democratic Party. More than 1,300 people have been detained recently under the guise of cracking down on domestic PKK and ISIS elements in Turkey.

The AKP has declared the peace process with the Kurdish separatists dead and is trying to discredit the only recognized political representatives of the Turkish left and the Kurdish population; the Kurdish People’s Democratic Party won a 13% share of the Turkish parliament in the June elections–a sign of its rising popularity not only among Kurds but also with increasingly disgruntled Turkish liberals.

***

If a governing coalition isn’t formed, early elections will be held. The AKP appears to be hoping for that–under the thinking that a majority of voters would seek to maintain the status quo in a time of uncertainty and potential civil war, and that AKP’s standing in parliament would, in turn, be strengthened.

Zero Hedge adds:

Even the most mainstream of news outlets are unable to completely obscure the fact that Turkey’s ISIS “offensive” may amount to nothing more than a smokescreen, as Erdogan launches a renewed effort to crush the PKK and nullify opposition gains won at the ballot box early last month when, for the first time in more than a decade, AKP [Erdogan’s party] lost its parliamentary majority.

Coalition building efforts since the election have gone largely nowhere, and in what amounted to a sure sign that some manner of crackdown was likely just around the corner, Erdogan warned on June 21 that “if politicians are unable to sort [it] out, then the people are the only recourse” – a nod to his right under the constitution to call new elections.

Critically, AKP doesn’t need much to push them back over the top in terms of regaining their majority in parliament. Consider the following from WSJ:

Turkey’s government—which lost its parliamentary majority last month— bills its new two-front war against Kurdish militants and Islamic State as a much-overdue reaction to terrorism. But, on the third front of domestic politics, this violence could also help President Recep Tayyip Erdogan and his party regain control.

In the June 7 parliamentary elections, Mr. Erdogan’s Justice and Development Party, or AKP, lost its majority for the first time in 12 years, and has been in coalition talks since. If these negotiations fail in coming weeks, Mr. Erdogan has said he will send the country back to the polls.

A rise in nationalist feelings amid the bloodshed and an unfolding crackdown on the government’s Kurdish political foes could bolster AKP’s chances in such a new election, many analysts say.

A two-percentage point shift from the last election could restore AKP’s absolute majority, making concessions demanded by its potential coalition partners on press freedom, corruption prosecutions and foreign policy unnecessary. This could also allow Mr. Erdogan to proceed with controversial plans to turn Turkey into a presidential republic and solidify his personal power.

The last passage there is critical.

AKP needs but a two percentage point swing in order to pave the way for Erdogan’s power grab and there’s no better way to stoke a renewed sense of nationalism and turn voters away from HDP than to invent a conflict and then trot out a few causalities as proof of what can happen when Kurdish “terrorists” are emboldened by a victory at the ballot box.

Given this, one could be forgiven for casting a wary eye at the rather convenient series of events that has now culminated in Ankara going back to war with the PKK. Here’s a recap:

NATO representatives met in Brussels on Tuesday after Turkey made a rare Article 4 request which compels treaty parties to convene in the event a member state is of the opinion that its “territorial integrity, political independence or security” is being threatened.

That’s the case in Turkey, where the security situation has rapidly deteriorated over the past two weeks following a suicide bombing in Suruc (claimed by Islamic State) and the murder of two Turkish policemen in the town of Ceylanpinar (at the hands of the PKK, which claims the officers were cooperating with ISIS). Ankara responded by launching airstrikes against both Islamic State and PKK.

So, ISIS launches a suicide attack and the PKK (whose Syrian affiliate YPG is battling ISIS just across the border) retaliates by killing two Turkish policemen, an event which gives the government an excuse to tighten the screws on the Kurds with virtual impunity under the guise of stepping up its efforts against ISIS.

Better still, the ISIS red herring has allowed Ankara to effectively obtain NATO’s blessing for a brutal crackdown on its Kurdish political rivals. To wit, from Salon:

The choreography attaching to the accord authorizing Turkey’s entry into war as a combatant is, as often, so careful and predictable as to be self-evident. On Sunday Ankara announced that it had requested a meeting of NATO ambassadors to consider its new circumstance. The outcome was obvious from the first.

Jens Stoltenberg, NATO’s Norwegian secretary-general, suggested Monday that Turkey was unlikely to get “any substantial NATO military support.”

This was a straw man: Material support is not what the Erdogan government wants. In its fight against ISIS and the Kurds—against both, note—it wants “solidarity and support from our NATO allies,” as the foreign ministry in Ankara later made clear.

Legitimacy, in other words. And it got it Tuesday in Brussels, where Stoltenberg announced, “We all stand united in condemning terrorism, in solidarity with Turkey.”  See the problem? Not “united against ISIS,” but “united in condemning terrorism.”

Erdogan understood. Within hours he declared that no peace process with the Kurds is possible—and then urged parliament to strip legislators with ties to the PKK of immunity from prosecution. An Istanbul source wrote Tuesday afternoon to say that some sitting parliamentarians have already been arrested.

So there you have it – mission accomplished. Erdogan has now secured Western support for his effort to nullify an election result he did not like.

***

Consider the following from Al Jazeera:

“When AK party lost [its] absolute majority [in parliament] on June 7, while HDP won, getting over the 10 percent barrier, the results showed how people started seeing that not every Kurd is a terrorist,”  Ilya U Topper, an Istanbul-based analyst on foreign affairs and democracy for the M’Sur, a Spanish media outlet added.

He noted that HDP was able to perform so well in June’s elections because there was peace.

“Two years of peace make people forget bloodshed and give them hope. Now we are back to square one. Kurds are ‘terrorists’ again,” he said. “If elections are repeated, HDP might fall under the barrier and AK party will achieve [an] absolute majority in the elections. The big question is why the PKK accepted that game.”

And that is a very good question.

Why would the PKK, whose political affiliate had just won a major victory at the ballot box, suddenly decide that now is the time to break a fragile cease fire, likely knowing that doing so would imperil further political gains and legitimacy for HDP?

***

In the final analysis, Turkey wants Assad out of Syria and that means backing anyone and everyone who is willing to help make that happen (including ISIS) with the exception of the PKK, who Ankara is keen on crushing especially after June’s election results. So now, Turkey will use ISIS as an excuse to procure NATO support for a politically motivated rout of Kurdish “terrorists”.

The West will hope that ISIS will suffer more damage than YPG, Turkey will hope that PKK and, by extension, YPG will suffer more damage than ISIS, and everyone – Ankara, Washington, ISIS, and PKK – will hope the when the dust (and blood) finally settles, Bashar al-Assad will have met a Gaddafiesque end.

So Turkey isn’t really going after ISIS … instead, the ruling party is going after its main political threat – the Kurds – and continuing its long-term effort to overthrow Syria’s Assad.

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Filed under Ethnic Nationalism, Europe, Geopolitics, Iraq, Islam, Israel, Kurds, Left, Middle East, Nationalism, Near Easterners, Political Science, Politics, Race/Ethnicity, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Saudi Arabia, Shiism, Sunnism, Syria, Terrorism, Turkey, USA

New Author: Afrosapiens

Nok culture terracotta, Nigeria (1000 BC – 300 AD)

Dear Robert,

I realize that I took too much advantage of your tolerance, I failed to take your warnings seriously and I apologize for having surpassed the limits too many times. I know that many commenters did not benefit from your patience as much as I did. However, I believe with great humility that my contributions to the conversations are generally positive. I try to bring objective and articulate insight in the discussed topics and I do everything I can to stick to the best conduct standards in spite of all the expressed opinions that hurt my sense of morality and rationality.
If you wonder why I got near-emotional when commenting on some posts, the first thing I must say is that many mentioned my name, quoted statements of mine or were clearly derived from discussions I took part in. But that’s not all.
As you noticed it, my interest in the posts about blacks and especially West African blacks is linked to my ethnic background. I’m an Haïtian Black adopted by White Gallo-Roman Catholic parents which in France stands for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant in the USA. It means more than white, it means the native ancestral dominant elite stock, “la crème de la crème” in other words. If you want to make an analogy with the US, I don’t react here as a black person but rather as typical liberal New Englander.
The story of my life has doomed me to become the most leftist among the Leftists, not the pro-welfare kind but the pro-self empowerment kind, giving people the opportunity to do the best for themselves is what true liberalism is to me. I know where I come from and I know where I ended up, I see the contrast and I realize how much life is not only about merit.
I was born in the worst slum of Port-au-Prince and now I’m just starting a professional career at 23, I’m starting as a lawyer by September. I don’t do it for money but for self-fulfillment, I don’t need to earn money because I’m already wealthy, not by birth but by adoption and it feels totally different as I know how short I fell of living a life of slum dweller. Now I have a master’s degree and I grew up in an environment that engineered me for excellence.
Now you will ask what is my relationship to West Africa. Until I went to high school, my environment was almost 100% White native French, that’s only when I went to the elite Lycée of my city that I met West Africans who were almost the only minority alongside the Vietnamese in an otherwise still 95% White native French environment.
Acknowledging the link between Haïti, my birth country and West Africa, the region where some (a minority) of my best friends’ parents were born, I developed a deep interest in the culture, history and society of this region of the world. This interest gradually extended to the wider West African diaspora with my focus on African Americans recently reaching its peak in a context of increased racial tension in the USA.
After high school, I enjoyed a gap year to do volunteering across West Africa and Haïti, it then became an annual holiday hobby and these volunteering experiences in the 4th world are the most valuable parts of my life. In addition to that, I travel to other places as well, I’ve stayed two months in Toronto, went to Chicago, New York City, the UK, Germany, Italy and Spain for cultural trips. So I believe I have solid knowledge of different parts of the world.
You said I did quite well in keeping my cool on your blog and I can’t agree more. Scientific racism doesn’t only insult me, some of the most formidable persons I’ve met and millions more for nothing that we deserve, it is a great lie supporting a genocidal agenda and I can tell you I’m in a crusade against HBDers, race realists, hereditarians or whatever you want to call them. Even though I often feel targeted by these theories, I don’t lose my sense of objectivity and there is no truth that I avoid.
If you give me one last chance, I promise I never break any rule on the blog and keep the standards of intellectual quality I impose to myself in my comments.
Regards,
This is an edited version of the petition for reinstatement that I had to send when Robert banned me as a commenter posting under the pseudonym “Anti-Hereditarian”. Now as you can see, our relation has improved a lot, much more than my English. Robert has not only forgiven me, he has promoted me to the status of author and gave me a second reason to thank him. It’s already all said in the above letter, I’m an anti-racist liberal young black Frenchman, no one is perfect. I won’t be a very prolific author and most of my posts will deal with the controversy over race, the controversy over intelligence and the controversy over race and intelligence. I hope you will enjoy my post and have great conversations about them.

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Filed under Africa, Americas, Anti-Racism, Blacks, Caribbean, Civil Rights, Europe, France, Guest Posts, Haiti, Intelligence, Latin America, Left, Liberalism, Meta, North America, Political Science, Psychology, Race Realism, Race/Ethnicity, Racism, Regional, USA, West Africa

How the (West African) Dating Scam Works

Do people still fall for the Nigerian internet scam? Or have they progressed to more sophisticated methods? Even I sometimes get friend requests on facebook from profiles that have a picture of an African woman. I don’t know where they get my contact from, but common sense tells me to stay away, no matter how hot the woman in that picture may be. I guess it’s mostly the dumbest segment of western women, rather than men, who fall for Nigerian dating scams, and they are most likely to be fat and ugly.

They have totally branched out from that stupid 419 scam that everyone is so familiar with. They hatched dozens of new scams and they come up with even newer ones all the time.

Many people are falling for the various dating scams, which are also run by Russian organized crime and now even Filipinas and Chinese East European women. Women all over the world are getting in on the dating scamming. Most people don’t have the faintest idea what the dating scam even is. It is far more sophisticated than the stupid 419 scam.

Furthermore, scammers and criminals have almost completely taken over many dating sites to the point where there are hardly any real women on there anymore. A friend of mine is on Badoo and he says fake beautiful young women come to him all the time. He can spot these African criminals a mile away blindfolded and he instantly figures them out and reports them. But then new ones keep flooding in. He says 90% of the “women” he talks to on there are either fakes or real women who are scamming. It’s rare to run into an real female who is not trying to steal from you somehow.

These stupid sites do not try to weed out the scammers because the dating sites are run by the sleaziest capitalists of them all. Weeding out scammers is a cost, and they don’t feel like spending money to protect you against crooks using their site to victimize you. Also they really don’t care if 80% of the site is scammers, and they often will not even delete the scammers if you report them because these sites are in competition to see how many members they have. “4 million members” is a great selling point, and they could care less if 80% of them are not even real humans at all but are just criminals using fake pics to steal from you.

For women, they use pictures of the hottest men out there. They often pretend to be divorced with kids and a huge house. They have photos of all of this to prove it. They claim to be Western men who are overseas in Africa on some sort of job. Of course the inevitable horrible problems befell this poor fellow (wink), or he falls madly in love with you, and yes he does need that plane ticket to fly back to the US so you can live happily ever after with your Dream Man.

Yes, many of the women who fall for it are older, and they are often heavy and not very good-looking. However, quite a few older women who look great also fell for it. Some women in their 20’s and 30’s also fell for it, and some of those women were quite attractive. It’s easy to fall for a handsome model type guy.

We had women who lost vast sums of money in the tens of thousands of dollars. Some even lost homes worth up to $300,000. The women were often devastated by the experience. Some quit working and went into depressions, and many women were in therapy or on antidepressants. There were suicide attempts among our female victims, and I understand that a few women committed suicide after being scammed.

The dating scam was being continuously refined while we were dealing with them. They even sent spies into our group that was fighting them. They would figure out how we were getting onto their tricks by all the subtle and ingenious ways we accumulated to spot the scammers, who are not easy to spot at all. Then they would very quickly refine the scams to change the way they did them so they were not making the mistake that allowed us to get onto them.

Eventually we had to throw out all the Africans in the group as possible scammers or spies, and then we made a new Jim Crow type “No Africans Allowed” rule because we just couldn’t trust any of them anymore, and we couldn’t figure out who the spies were and which Africans were bad and which were ok. There were a few decent West Africans who worked with us and gave us a lot of brilliant info to fight the scammers. They are not all bad people over there.

Scam is similar with men. They use photos of beautiful women who claim to be over in Africa on work or vacation. Of course they inevitably get stranded over there with no way home, fall very ill and have to go into the hospital (wink) or fall wildly in love with you to where you really need to buy her a plane ticket to fly to the US so you can marry this hot model babe. All sorts of men fall for it.

Yes, quite a few were not particularly desirable men who might have a hard time getting a woman, but we also had a number of high quality, often very handsome men who were getting scammed. After all, good looking, high quality men can fall for a hot model babe quite easily also.

The men often reacted with sheer rage. Some were even threatening to get some weapons, go to Nigeria and kill scammers. Others were threatening to go to Nigeria, acquire some bombs and blow up Internet cafes.

We had men who had lost up to $32,000 to scammers, and a number of them had fallen for the scam quite a few times. These fellows were often not the sharpest tools in the shed, and I must say, if you keep falling for this scam many times, you truly are an idiot.

The scams being run by Chinese and East European women and Filipinas were run along similar lines, however, there you are often dealing with a real woman who is just trying to milk you for some cash. And she might just need that plane ticket to come see you too seeing how she is madly in love with you (wink).

And for a long time, we would keep a lot of the ways that we spotted them fairly secret, and we would refuse to publish our how we caught them. I am still not going to tell you even in this post many of the ways we figure these idiots out because once the scammers learn how we get onto them, they often modify the scam so we can’t use that method to catch them anymore. It ends up being an intelligence arms race, and that’s no way to fight crooks.

In some ways, these Africans seem dumb as doorknobs, but in other ways, they are absolutely brilliant. They are perfect at reading people and have fantastic knowledge of human psychology like most con artists. And after a while, I was amazed at how adaptive these Nigerians were. When it came to being adaptive, these crooks were some of the most brilliant people on Earth. But then I do think that Blacks are a quite adaptive race, and they are very interesting that way. They don’t call it nigger-rigging* (jerry-rigging) for nothing.

*Not used as a slur in this post. The term was used for informative purposes only.

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Filed under Africa, Asia, Capitalists, China, Crime, Europe, Nigeria, Philippines, Psychology, Regional, Romantic Relationships, Scams, Scum, SE Asia, West Africa

What’s Up with the European New Right

RudyM writes:

Not to piss you off Robert, but sometimes you seem to fit more in a current European “new right” category, along the lines of people like Alain Soral or some of the people covered on Joaquin Flores’ site, for instance.I have felt a little attraction to that variety of “new right,” but I find I am too socially liberal, maybe way too socially liberal, to feel comfortable under that label.

I might be down with them. I like the Left-Right National Bolshevik type coalition in Greece and I am a huge fan of Edouard Limonov. I love the Russian Communist Party and Zyuganov. The KPRF is extremely non-PC and would be despised by most Western Leftists. The Russian Commies are also extremely nationalistic and they are quite socially conservative.

I like that New Right guy in Hungary, and I very much like the left-right National Bolshevik style uprising in the Donbass. I don’t mind the left-right mixture called the Syrian regime.

Is the European New Right the same as the Net Alt Right? Because I hate the Alt Right. People keep saying I am Alt Righ,t but I went to a number of Alt Right sites, and they were sickening and repulsive. Quite a few were out and out fascists, and I saw a lot of Evola worship. I am very wary of Evola as he is said to be a fascist. I am pretty much a bash the fash type Commie. I am like a Red Army guy in WW2 when it comes to fascists. No pasaran!

I like Joaquin Flores site a lot, but I have no idea what his political project is over there. I like Keith Preston a lot, and he likes me very much, which surprised me. Preston said, “If I were a Marxist, I would be Robert Lindsay.”

So how to characterize me? I think maybe National Communist, Communist nationalist or some sort of socialism combined with nationalism (not national socialism fash!) would be where I am at.

Remember the anti-immigrant Left of the early 1900’s? I am with them, even all the way down to the eugenics stuff. They were right.

Actually I think I might be the mirror of the Alt Right. Some White nationalist types are saying I am the Alt Left. Maybe I am. I ok with that.

Most people think I am sort sort of a bizarre political freak but that’s not true, as most folks are a bundle of contradictions anyway who are lying to themselves saying they are following some sort of coherent political line that is not contradictory.

Soral and Diudonne are crazies; they take the Jew thing way way too far off into some really ugly and stupid level of anti-Semitism. I am as as Jew-wise as a human can be. I know these people like the back of my hand.

Nevertheless, at some point when they are taking it way too far, anti-Semites are ugly people who are allying themselves one of the most evil ideologies of the 20th Century – fanatical anti-Semitism or Nazism. You don’t have to like Jews. I know a lot of Jews who don’t like Jews! But you don’t have to line up with Nazis. Fuck that.

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What Liberal Race Realism Is and What It Is Not

alan2102 writes:

An appeal:I call upon you, Bob Lindsay, to recognize that “race realism” is a crumbling edifice, never highly convincing, and now rapidly descending into clear cut falsehood and irrelevance. And, to top it off, it never had anything really to recommend it, no desirable practical utility or application, even if technically correct. The only “desirable” (ha) utility it ever had was to justify the animosity of racist assholes. That’s it. That’s the sum of the contribution of “race realism”.

And, a LEFT “race realism”?! Forget it! Contradiction in terms. It will NEVER attract any support from left-minded people — as well it should not! Leftish people immediately identify it as shit. It does not and never has passed the smell test.

I call upon you, Bob Lindsay, to renounce this “race realism” nonsense, to admit that you were (as was I! past tense) taken in by it, for a time… seduced into thinking that it had SOMETHING of importance or value… or so it SEEMED. But no. We were wrong. It has no importance, and no value.

Whatever slight genetics-dependent differences might exist are of little or no practical significance, nothing can be done about them, and — regardless of all the foregoing — further discussion of them does NOTHING but energize the worst kinds of reptiloid right-wing scumbaggery. (Just witness some of the discussants that you’ve attracted, here on your blog!) The whole thing is a fetid piece of shit, overdue now for flushing down the crapper.

Come out of her, Bob Lindsay, that ye not further partake of her sins!

No I am going to continue promoting it, but Liberal Race Realism isn’t really hard HBD. It is probably somewhere in between hard HBD and the radical environmentalists like you, swank and Anti-Hereditarian. So you misunderstand Liberal Race Realism.

It doesn’t say that any groups are doomed or anything like that.

My opinion is more that some groups, due to their genetic set are going to require some pretty extreme environments in order to even match other groups. And that’s just for intelligence. While other groups like NE Asians will probably flourish even in lousy impoverished environment.

So Black native IQ is set at a low level. That’s what they bring to the table genetically. Then native Black personality doesn’t exactly create the best environment for furthering intelligence. More the opposite.

However, some of the information coming out of the UK may indicate that UK Blacks, including 3rd generation Jamaicans, may be coming close to matching Whites on some tests. For instance, Jamaican Black GCSE scores at age 17 may now match Whites. It’s not IQ, but it predicts job performance as well as IQ. I need to look into this a lot more, as it is very interesting. Anyway, I have been hoping for a long time that Blacks and others could close some of these gaps and I never said they could not, so the fact that they are is right in line with Liberal Race Realist theory.

I figure what has gone on here is that the UK is the ultimate PC society. Perhaps they have completely maximized the environment for Blacks in a way that no other society has done. So yes, Blacks can be lifted up, but most of the time, in most countries, they are not, and they just fall back on genetic IQ of ~70-90. You can raise them above that level, but you are going to have to create some super-environments, and most societies are not so good at that.

Modification of basic racial personality and proclivity to crime and violence seems nearly impossible.

I would also point out that this site is wildly successful. As it is considered the part of the HBDsphere, this site is in the Top 10 of HBD sites. It gets far more traffic than even the most famous HBD sites: 6,500/day. This site goes like gangbusters. Liberal Race Realism seems to be a pretty good sell, along with all the other stuff that gets talked about on here.

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Letter From the UK

JackiLB writes:

The Mirror is leftwing tabloid. The Guardian was very pro-Greens in the run-up to the election (who are far Left) and i personally feel the Guardian is the most leftwing of our broadsheets. Remember that it was the Guardian who printed all the Wikileaks info originally. They are also pro-Jeremy Corbyn too, so I do feel the newspaper is more to the Left rather than Centralist. Owen Jones is a regular writer and he is definitely socialist, but then Mark Steel writes for the Independent and he is also a socialist.

The rightwing newspapers to avoid are:

The Sun (Murdoch)
The Daily Mail (has fascist roots)
The Express
The Telegraph (Murdoch)
The Times (Murdoch)

Unfortunately here in the UK so many people are influenced and dumbed down by our horrible right wing tabloid press. Only 24% of the country voted for the Tories in the last election, but as with all corrupt countries, the most powerful, wealthy and corrupt people always get their ways and screw democracy by cheating (the Tories changed the constituencies to suit them). So even though it would appear that most people in the UK have gone to the right, it’s actually not the case at all. Most people awoke the next day of the election in total shock, and there has been a huge increase in people moving abroad in response to more years with a Tory government. I want to go to Spain.

As far as UKIP goes, ‘kippers’ are a mix of far Right fascists (defected from the Tories or the BNP) but there are also solid working class leftwing union people too who joined UKIP as they became disaffected from Labour. Not because these people became rightwing, but rather than they felt UKIP spoke to the ordinary man when it came to protecting jobs from cheaper foreigner workers. When UKIP was first formed, it was purely anti-EU, but it got hijacked by the Tories (most UKIP MP’s are Ex-Tories, and they receive a lot if funds from the Tories). I honestly think this hijacking was engineered by the Tories to screw over Labour, and if the Tories hadn’t won a majority, then THE only party they could have formed a coalition with would have been UKIP.

Our Tory government here is truly terrifying. They are literally tearing apart the welfare state and all the progress that the Liberals and Labour put into place over the years. They won’t stop until the poor are literally being kicked in the street. They want to change our Human Rights Act, and they have discriminated against the disabled so badly that we are the very first country to be investigated by the UN for human rights abuses. I don’t know my country anymore. It’s truly terrifying. I wish Guy Fawkes would reappear and destroy Westminster. Its sick, corrupt and very, very, very nasty.

With the events unfolding in Greece, the Left too is now becoming anti-Europe. We have been terrified of the start of the TTIP with Europe and America, but seeing the eradication of democracy by the power of the banks and big business, we have very rapidly see our European life being twisted into a form no one recognizes.

Unless Labour can regroup to the Left and win the next election, then we are well and truly doomed.

I saw some leftwing UKIP guy speaking the other day and I was really impressed. He was great! He was everything Labour ought to be. Supposedly there is this Left tendency in UKIP which you allude to here and he was representative of that. But commenters said that the Left tendency was completely at odds with the official positions of the party. However, UKIP is apparently a multitendency party which believes in complete democracy within the party so that is why a Left UKIP exists at all. I do like the idea of a multitendency party with internal democracy though.

I did not know that these modern Tories were so horrible. Someone told me that the new Tories were “the moderate Tories” and that the party had completely abandoned Thatcherism. According to the above, this is not the case.

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Political Parties and Newspapers in the UK

From the UK wrote:

The Mirror is to the left of The Guardian but is a tabloid. The Independent, while ostensibly supporting no party, does seem to have more left-wing sympathies than The Guardian.

The Lib Dems are an odd mixture – partly to the left of Labour and partly to the right – however in the last election they were pretty much wiped out and are hence an irrelevance at the moment!

Would you say that The Guardian represents the left wing of Labor, the center of Labor, or the right wing of Labor? I am sort of thinking it is like the rightwing of Labor and maybe the leftwing of the Lib Dems.

Personally, the Lib Dems struck me as in between Labor and the Tories, sort in the center of the two, which would make them to the right of Labor.

UKIP is the to the right of the Tories, correct? Or they are the rightwing of the Tory Party. They remind me a lot of the US Republican Party.

I liked The Mirror a lot, but some of my UK friends flipped out when I said that. They said that all of the tabloids were rightwing. They were all like the US Republican Party. But then I would go and read The Mirror and it sure didn’t seem so. They also said that no decent person would be caught reading a tabloid, as they were just crap papers for idiots. But I found a lot of wheat among the chaff on The Mirror anyway.

The Independent seems good. They run Robert Fisk right? I could never see The Guardian running Fisk. He’s pretty brutal on US foreign policy, and The Guardian reads like it’s headquartered in the Washington DC White House.

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Conundrums about the UK Black IQ in Minors and Adults

swank writes:

UK African blacks according to Lynn had an IQ of 86. Recent scores on the CAT for the children of UK Africans put them at ~94.

How old were these children who scored 94, and what is the CAT?

My information is that yes, some groups of UK Blacks are doing very well on IQ as children. In fact, one recent study found that very young UK Blacks (age 6) were scoring as high as 106 on IQ tests. However, testing of adult UK Blacks shows them at 86, so apparently these children are crashing down from 106 to 86. Scores following British children by age shows them slowly crashing back down from 106 or wherever down to 86 by age 24. I do not know what is going on here, but early gains do not seem to be sustained for some reason. Does anybody have any idea how a Black child in the UK scores 106 (!) on an IQ test but then crashes all the way back down to 86 by age 24. That’s seems so odd.

Also the 86 score is only for UK Blacks born in the UK. Their parents or grandparents who were born in Jamaica continue to score 71, the same as they did in Jamaica.

However, somehow their children got a 15 point IQ gain simply by being born in the UK. Does anyone have any idea how that could be possible?

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There Is No Left in the UK

I am starting to get a very bad feeling about the UK. Correct me if I am wrong here, but the Left in the UK is essentially the Labor Party, right? The Labor Party is the equivalent of the US Democratic Party. And correct me if I am wrong once again, but the house organ of the Labor Party is basically The Guardian, correct? The Guardian tends to represent the views of the Labor Party of the UK, I imagine most of its readers are Labor supporters, and if you want to know what Labor thinks about anything, read The Guardian.

Problem is that on foreign policy, The Guardian is utterly reactionary. It might as well be the New York Times. Guardian foreign policy is exactly the same as US foreign policy. No matter how crazy US foreign policy is, The Guardian simply supports and goes along with it.

This has been going on for some time now with the Labor Party. The foreign policy of the Labor Party in government is simply US government foreign policy. Even when a crazy Republican US government is in, Labor simply follows and supports every nutty and reactionary thing that the US does.

This monkey see, monkey do, poodle behavior has been referred to as “Atlanticism” for some time. Atlanticism is simply the pro-US foreign policy of many northern European states such as Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK. What it means in effect is that these Northern Europeans see themselves somehow ethnically, culturally or otherwise in alliance with the US to the point where they are nearly states of the US like California and New York. Everyone thinks that those countries are leftwing socialist countries, but the truth is that on foreign policy, most of those countries are reactionary and crazy. They simply support US foreign policy no matter how rightwing or imperialist it might be.

If The Guardian is the voice the UK Left, all I have to say is that the Left in the UK can go straight to Hell. And furthermore, they should quit calling themselves the Left. Labor is about as “left” as the US Democratic Party which it increasingly resembles.

Add the UK to the list of Western countries with utterly useless and worthless national politics.

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Repost: Black Males and Testosterone: Evolution and Perspectives

This is one of the most linked articles on the site.

If you have been wondering what I have been doing today, I have been spending most of the day giving this piece a massive work-over, and it’s not even finished.

I have just given it a massive work-over and I think it is a lot better now. However, it is still a work in progress. It gets posted around quite a bit, but unfortunately, most of the people posting it are racist White people.

It also gets posted around to some PC fora, where they absolutely flip out, dismiss the entire paper as a massive lie, and viciously attack me in the most brutal ways. Oh yes, and they always say the paper is “racist.” A lot of Black people come to the site due to this article and post here for the first time. They usually come in the door swinging and are immediately banned. 95% of comments from Blacks on this article are unbelievably hostile.

Nevertheless, I do believe that I am onto something here and at this point, I think we can make a good case that Blacks have higher testosterone than Whites, although the PC Brigade is fighting that notion like madmen and they will probably accept that idea over their dead bodies if at all.

Anyway, I thought you folks might like to read this article. I must say it is one of the best pieces I have ever written.

Feel free to comment. This is a hot area of research.

Black Males and Testosterone: Evolution and Perspectives

by Robert Lindsay

Development of agriculture in modern Blacks also seems to have led to high testosterone levels. Groups with the highest testosterone in the world today are primitive agriculturalists.

Hunter-gatherers tend to have lower testosterone. This is because in hunter-gatherer society, women need men to survive. So they grab one pretty quickly and get married.

In primitive agricultural societies, women do not need men, since they can farm on their own. So they can afford to be choosy. These societies have tended to develop in a polygynous way, where a few high-ranking males monopolize most of the females, and the rest of the men get few or none.

Sub-Saharan Blacks are highly polygynous, and this resulted in intense competition for fewer women and selection for very robust male body types. SS Blacks are more robust than Whites on all variables. In Namibia, the polygynous Kavango have much higher testosterone than the much less polygynous !Kung.

Broadly speaking, lifetime exposure to testosterone is reflected in the incidence of prostate cancer, with the world’s highest incidences being among African-American men (Brawley & Kramer, 1996). It was once thought that lower incidences prevail among Black West Indians and sub-Saharan Africans, but this apparent exception is now ascribed to underreporting (Glover et al., 1998; Ogunbiyi & Shittu, 1999; Osegbe, 1997).

This picture has been confirmed by a recent American study:

From the 1970’s to the current statistical analysis of the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program African-American men have continued to have a significant higher incidence and mortality rate than European-American men. Autopsy studies show a similar prevalence of early small subclinical prostate cancers but a higher prevalence of high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.

Clinical studies show a similarity in prostate cancer outcome when pathological stage is organ confined but a worse outcome when disease is locally advanced and metastatic in African-American vs European-American men. There is increasing genetic evidence that suggest that prostate cancer in African-American vs European-American men may be more aggressive, especially in young men.

It was also confirmed by a recent British study (prostate cancer rates are somewhat lower in Black British men because a higher proportion of them have one White parent):

Black men in the United Kingdom have substantially greater risk of developing prostate cancer compared with White men, although this risk is lower than that of Black men in the United States. The similar rates in Black Caribbean and Black African men suggest a common genetic aetiology, although migration may be associated with an increased risk attributable to a gene–environment interaction” (Ben-Shlomo et al 2008).

We are only just beginning to identify the actual genes that account for the White/Black difference in prostate cancer risk. The most recent study was Benson 2014.

The 2:1 black-to-white ratio in prostate cancer rates is already apparent at age 45 years, the age at which the earliest prostate cancer cases occur.

This finding suggests that the factor(s) responsible for the difference in rates occurs, or first occurs, early in life. Black males are exposed to higher testosterone levels from the very start.

In a study of women in early pregnancy, Ross found that testosterone levels were 50% higher in Black women than in White women (MacIntosh 1997). Ross speculates that exposure to such high levels in utero might reset the “gonadostat feedback loop” which regulates testosterone secretion to a higher level. According to Ross, his findings are “very consistent with the role of androgens in prostate carcinogenesis and in explaining the racial/ethnic variations in risk” (MacIntosh 1997).

Testosterone has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of prostate cancer, because testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, are the principal trophic hormones that regulate growth and function of epithelial prostate tissue.

Many studies have shown that young Black men have higher testosterone than young White men (Ellis & Nyborg 1992; Ross et al. 1992; Tsai et al. 2006).

With respect to the Black/White difference in testosterone level, African Americans have a clear testosterone advantage over Euro-Americans only from puberty to about 24 years of age (Abdelrahaman et al., 2005; Ross et al., 1986; Winters et al., 2001). This advantage then shrinks and eventually disappears at some point during the 30s (Gapstur et al., 2002). The pattern then seems to reverse at older ages. In later years, White men have higher testosterone than Black men (Nyborg, 1994, p. 111-113).

This makes it very difficult if not impossible to explain differing behavioral variables, including higher rates of crime and aggression, in Black males over the age of 33 on the basis of elevated testosterone levels.

Critics say that more recent studies done since the early 2000’s have shown no differences between Black and White testosterone levels. Perhaps they are referring to recent studies that show lower testosterone levels in adult Blacks than in adult Whites. This was the conclusion of one recent study (Alvergne et al. 2009) which found lower T levels in Senegalese men than in Western men. But these Senegalese men were 38.3 years old on average.

These critics may also be referring to various studies by Sabine Rohrmann which show no significance difference in T levels between Black and White Americans. Age is poorly controlled for in her studies.

More seriously however, she used serum samples that the National Center for Health Statistics had earlier collected as part of its Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Only 1,479 samples were still available out of an initial total of 1,998, i.e., one quarter were missing. An earlier study had used the same serum bank for research on a sexually transmitted disease: Herpes Simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).

That study found that more than 25% of the samples for adults between 30 and 39 years were positive for HSV-2. It is likely that those positive samples had been set aside, thus depleting the serum bank of male donors who were not only more polygamous but also more likely to have high T levels. This sample bias was probably worse for African American participants than for Euro-American participants.

Young Black males have higher levels of active testosterone than European and Asian males. Asian levels are about the same as Whites, but a study in Japan with young Japanese men suggested that the Japanese had lower activity of 5-alpha reductase than did U.S. Whites and Blacks (Ross et al 1992). This enzyme metabolizes testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, or DHT, which is at least eight to 10 times more potent than testosterone. So effectively, Asians have the lower testosterone levels than Blacks and Whites. In addition, androgen receptor sensitivity is highest in Black men, intermediate in Whites and lowest in Asians.

Let us look at one study (Ross et al 1986) to see what the findings of a typical study looking for testosterone differences between races shows us. This study gives the results of assays of circulating steroid hormone levels in white and black college students in Los Angeles, CA. Mean testosterone levels in Blacks were 19% higher than in Whites, and free testosterone levels were 21% higher. Both these differences were statistically significant.

Adjustment by analysis of covariance for time of sampling, age, weight, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and use of prescription drugs somewhat reduced the differences. After these adjustments were made, Blacks had a 15% higher testosterone level and a 13% higher free testosterone level. A 15% difference in circulating testosterone levels could readily explain a twofold difference in prostate cancer risk.

Higher testosterone levels are linked to violent behavior.

James Dabbs, Jr., studied 4,462 men in 1990 and found that “the overall picture among the high-testosterone men is one of delinquency, substance abuse and a tendency toward excess.” These men, he added, “have more trouble with people like teachers while they are growing up, have more sexual partners, are more likely to have gone AWOL in the service and to have used hard drugs,” particularly if they had poor educations and low incomes.

A separate study by Dabbs of young male prison inmates found that high testosterone levels were associated with more violent crimes, parole board decisions against release, and more prison rule violations. Even in women, Dabbs found, high testosterone levels were related to crimes of unprovoked violence, increased numbers of prior charges, and decisions against parole.

The latest study by Dabbs et al., which pooled data from two groups of prisoners, measured testosterone levels in the saliva of 692 adult male prisoners. The researchers found that inmates who committed crimes of sex and violence had higher testosterone levels than inmates who were incarcerated for property crimes or drug abuse. In addition, they say, “inmates with higher testosterone levels… violated more rules in prison, especially rules involving overt confrontation.”

Studies suggest that high testosterone lowers IQ (Ostatnikova et al 2007). Other findings suggest that increased androgen receptor sensitivity and higher sperm counts (markers for increased testosterone) are negatively correlated with intelligence when measured by speed of neuronal transmission and hence general intelligence (g) in a tradeoff fashion (Manning 2007).

Black females have higher IQ’s than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as males with IQ’s over 120 and five times as many females as males with IQ’s over 140.

Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Dr. Peter Frost for his invaluable help in writing this paper.

References

Alvergne, A., C. Faurie, and M. Raymond. 2009. Variation in Testosterone Levels and Male Reproductive Effort: Insight from a Polygynous Human Population. Hormones and Behavior 56: 491-497.Ben-Shlomo, Y. S. Evans, F. Ibrahim, B. Patel, K. Anson, F. Chinegwundoh, C. Corbishley, D. Dorling, B. Thomas and D. Gillatt. 2008. The Risk of Prostate Cancer amongst Black Men in the United Kingdom: The PROCESS Cohort Study. European Urology 53:99-105.

Bensen, J. T., Z. Xu, P. M. McKeigue, G. J. Smith, E. T. H. Fontham, J. L. Mohler, and J. A. Taylor. 2014. Admixture Mapping of Prostate Cancer in African Americans Participating in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PcaP). The Prostate 74: 1–9.

Brawley, O. W. & Kramer B. S. 1996. “Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer,” In Volgelsang, N. J., Scardino, P. T., Shipley, W. U., & Coffey, D. S. (eds). Comprehensive Textbook of Genitourinary Oncology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Ellis, L. and H. Nyborg. 1992. Racial/Ethnic Variations in Male Testosterone Levels: A Probable Contributor to Group Differences in Health. Steroids 57: 72-75.

Gapstur, S. M., P. H. Gann, P. Kopp, L. Colangelo, C. Longcope, and K. Liu. 2002. Serum Androgen Concentrations in Young Men: A Longitudinal Analysis of Associations with Age, Obesity, and Race. The Cardia Male Hormone Study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 11:1041-1047.

Glover, F. E. Jr., Coffey, D. S., Douglas, L. L., Cadogan, M., Russell, H., Tulloch, T., Baker, T. D., Wan, R. L. & Walsh, P. C. 1998. The Epidemiology of Prostate Cancer in Jamaica. Journal of Urology 159:1984-1986.

MacIntosh, Hugh. 1997. Why Do African- American Men Suffer More Prostate Cancer? Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89 (3): 188-189.

Nettle, D. 2005. An Evolutionary Approach to the Extraversion Continuum: Evolution and Human Behaviour. Evolution and Human Behavior 26: 363-373.

Nyborg, H. 1994. Hormones, Sex, and Society: The Science of Physiology. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Ogunbiyi, J. & Shittu, O. 1999. Increased Incidence of Prostate Cancer in Nigerians. Journal of the National Medical Association 3:159-164.

Osegbe, D. N. 1997. Prostate Cancer in Nigerians: Facts and Non-Facts. Journal of Urology 157:1340-1343.

Powell, I. J. 2007. Epidemiology and Pathophysiology of Prostate Cancer in African-American Men. Journal of Urology 177:444–449.

Rohrmann, S., Nelson, W.G., Rifai, N., Brown, T. R., Dobs, A., Kanarek, N., Yager, J. D., Platz, E. A. 2007. Serum Estrogen, But Not Testosterone Levels Differ Between Black and White Men in a Nationally Representative Sample of Americans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 92:2519-2525

Ross, R. K., L. Bernstein, R. A. Lobo, H. Shimizu, F. Z. Stanczyk, M. C. Pike, and B. E. Henderson. 1992. 5-Apha-Reductase Activity and Risk of Prostate Cancer among Japanese and US White and Black Males. Lancet 339:887-889.

Ross, R., L. Bernstein, H. Judd, R. Hanisch, M. Pike, and B. Henderson. 1986. Serum Testosterone Levels in Healthy Young Black and White Men. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 76:45-48.

Tsai, C. J., B.A. Cohn, P. M. Cirillo, D. Feldman, F. Z. Stanczyk, A. S. Whittemore. 2006. Sex Steroid Hormones in Young Manhood and the Risk of Subsequent Prostate Cancer: A Longitudinal Study in African-Americans and Caucasians (United States). Cancer Causes Control 17:1237-1244.

Winters, S. J., A. Brufsky, J. Weissfeld, D. L. Trump, M. A. Dyky, and V. Hadeed. 2001. Testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and Body Composition in Young Adult African American and Caucasian Men. Metabolism 50:1242-1247.

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