Category Archives: Europe

Is English a Scandinavian Language?

Philip Andrews writes:

It is surprising how little attention is paid to the influence of the Danelaw on the English language. no one in Old English academia seems to want to touch it. It’s a Norwegian article that has claimed English is a Scandinavian language.

Anglo-Saxon and the Early post-Norman Conquest English church put the dampers on the Scandinavian influence. Even the story of the Norman Conquest’ reads quite differently in the Norse Saga version to how it comes through the AS Chronicle.

AS lost most of its grammar to the Norse of the Danelaw. That’s why English has not the inflection system of Continental Germanic but rather that of Norse. I’m happy to think of English as Norse in grammar and Syntax but mostly Latin-French in vocabulary. About 60+% of English derives from Latin-French.

Personally I question the old story of the Normans being ‘Northmen’. Another AS/Norman manipulation. It was 1,000 years ago but the Normands were in what is now France earlier. Records 1,000 years ago as now were subject to political manipulation.

Why did William go to the Pope for a Blessing for a Crusade? Because he was intent on driving the pagan Vikings out of England and Christianizing the place under Norman tutelage. Hence the Harrying of the North. Yorkshire is still far more ‘Norse’ than any other part of England. Listening to people north of Watford speak English and you’re listening to Norse accents speaking English. With Norse words in dialects. If William hadn’t come with mounted archers (from the East) he could never have defeated the Vikings.

Much of English history abroad (empire etc.) equates to versions of Viking raiding. Old Norse habits die hard.

I don’t really agree with this, but it is an interesting idea anyway.

I did some research on this question recently. England was settled by the Angles, the Saxons, and the Jutes.

There is a Low German language called Anglish which is spoken in an areas of the far north of Germany called Schlesweig-Holstein. Anglish is apparently the remains of the Low German language spoken by the Angles. This is a peninsula that connects Germany with Denmark. The southern half of the peninsula is Germany, and the north half is Denmark. Anglish is not readily intelligible with any other Low German language, even those nearby.

The Saxons were found a bit to the south, but I believe that they also came from this peninsula.

And it is interesting that in this part of Germany, especially around Fleisburg on the border, the dialect of Low German that they speak is more or less intelligible not with Danish but with a Danish dialect called South Jutnish that is so divergent that in my opinion, it is a separate language from Danish. Danish speakers have poor intelligibility of South Jutnish. From the Net:

Sønderjysk is often seen as very difficult for other speakers of Danish even other Jysk or Jutnish dialects to understand. Instead of the normal Danish stød, it has tonal accents like Swedish. Many of the phonemes are also different, including velar fricatives much like in German. It also has the definite article before the noun, as opposed to the standard Danish postclitic article. South Jutlandic is surely a separate language.

So in this part of Germany, there are Low German lects that are actually intelligible with Danish lects. So here is where “German” and “Danish” are nearly transitional. However, Standard German and Standard Danish are not intelligible with each other at all. Nevertheless, German speakers can pick up Danish and other Scandinavian languages pretty easily.

And South Jutnish itself is interesting in that Jutnish was one of the languages spoken by one of the tribes that invaded England, the Jutes. So one of “Anglo-Saxon” tribes that invaded England actually spoke something like “Danish.” South Jutnish itself is said to be quite a bit like English, especially the older forms of English. There are stories about speakers of the pure Scots language spoken in Scotland going to the South Jutnish area and being able to converse with South Jutnish speakers.Scots can be thought of as English  from 500 years ago because Scots split from English about 500 years ago. So in this case we have West Germanic and North Germanic speakers who are able to actually converse.

There is also a suggestion based on the fact that North Germanic South Jutnish is intelligible with whatever odd West Germanic Low German lect is spoken near Fleisburg that South Jutnish itself may be nearly German-Danish transitional.

A few take-home points: the “Anglo-Saxons” actually something a lot more like Low German than Standard German. Low German and Standard German are separate languages and German speakers cannot understand Low German. And the “Anglo-Saxons” also spoke something like “Danish” in the form of Jutnish. Also all of these Low German lects that made up “Anglo-Saxon” came from the far north of Germany where “German” and “Danish” start to nearly blend into each other or better yet where West Germanic and North Germanic are almost transitional.

In addition to the evidence coming from the Danelaw area of England where actual Danish speakers settled, it appears that the Scandinavian or North Germanic influence in English is more with Danish than with any other Scandinavian language.

However, 2/3 of the Anglo-Saxon components were actually from West Germanic Low German lects which are not readily intelligible with any Danish, not even with South Jutnish.

It is often said that the closest language to English is West Frisian, spoken in the northwest of the Netherlands. This is a Germanic language that is close to Dutch. In fact, some say that West Frisian itself is straight up from Old Saxon, which is the language that the Saxons of the Anglo-Saxons spoke. A man who is able to speak Old English went to the West Frisia area of the Netherlands and spoke to an old farmer there who spoke good West Frisian. They were actually able to hold a conversation in English from 1,000 years ago and West Frisian of today. West Frisian of course is a West Germanic language.

However, if you look into the mater a bit more, the language that is closest to English is the endangered North Frisian, with 66% cognates with English in the most frequently used words, a bit more than West Frisian. Nevertheless, 66% cognates in the most frequently used words doesn’t do any good for intelligiblity. I listened to a 10 minute broadcast of an old woman speaking North Frisian and I could not understand one word.

North Frisian, which actually may be up to five separate languages, is also spoken in that same peninsula of far northern Germany that Anglish, Saxon and Jutnish were spoken in. However, it is spoken on the east coast of the peninsula whereas Anglish and Saxon were spoken more to the west. So once again with North Frisian and English we see one more connection with this far northern part of Germany that borders on Denmark. Yet North Frisian is a West Germanic language, not a North Germanic Scandinavian language.

A language called Ingeavonic was spoken long ago in this region, and some put “Anglo-Frisian” in a West Germanic node under Ingeavonic. For a long time there was something called the North Sea Fisherman’s lect that originated in this same part of Germany but over on the west coast by Fleisburg rather than on the east coast by the North Frisian language. It was said that fishermen from all over the North Sea from the nations of Germany, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, Norway and Sweden spoke this lingua franca or trade language. This North Sea Fisherman’s language is said to have looked a lot like Ingaevonic.

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Filed under Balto-Slavic-Germanic, Britain, Danish, English language, Europe, European, Frisian, German, Germanic, Germany, History, Indo-European, Indo-Hittite, Language Families, Linguistics, Low German, Regional, Scots, West Frisian

Another ISIS Attack in France!

Two Islamists armed with knives invaded a Catholic Church in Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray in Normandy, slitting the throat of an 86 year old priest and taking some nuns hostage. In addition to the martyred priest, a male churchgoer was very seriously wounded in the attack and is fighting for his life. Police surrounded the church. The two attackers came out of the church and were shot dead by police. A third man was arrested outside the church in connection with the attack. The attackers claimed the attack in the name of ISIS.

Jesus, these Islamic global jihad terrorism attacks are coming just about every day now.

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Filed under Europe, France, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Terrorism

Two New Attacks by Muslims in Germany Today!

Wow.

The first one occurred when a suicide bomber blew himself up outside a restaurant at Ansbach Music Festival in Ansbach, a city in Bavaria. The bomber was killed and 12 others were wounded. This definitely looks like a global jihad attack. The attacker was a Syrian refugee whose request for asylum had been turned down last year, but he had a temporary permit to stay. He had been treated twice at a psychiatric hospital for two prior suicide attempts. Police are calling it a potential terror attack for now.

Earlier today, another Syrian refugee attacked people with a machete in Reutlingen. That attack was preceded by some sort of an argument and police ruled out Islamic terrorism. A pregnant woman was killed and two others were wounded in that attack.

Refugees welcome!

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Filed under Arabs, Europe, Germany, Immigration, Islam, Race/Ethnicity, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Syrians, Terrorism

Munich Shooting Not Terrorism and Had Nothing To Do With Islam

Cyrus writes:

Mr. Lindsay, an update on certain aspects of this article might just be in order, perhaps? It appears to be much more interesting from a psychological standpoint than we had originally been led on to believe.

“The teen gunman who killed nine people in a shooting rampage in Munich on Friday was a mentally troubled individual who had extensively researched spree killings and had no apparent links to ISIS, police said.”

Yes this had nothing to do with Islam. It has about as much to do with Islam as the Cho and James Holmes shootings did. This is like the Aurora shooting. Was that about Islam? Neither was this.

Also he was a Shia Iranian. Iranians are not involved in the global jihad “kill the infidels” thing. That is exclusively Sunni. At least at this moment, the Shia do not believe in aggressive jihad to conquer non-Muslim lands and make them Muslim. Also the Shia have no connection to ISIS or Al Qaeda or any of these groups carrying out terror attacks on the infidels. In fact, the Shia are the victims of the global jihad types, as these types kill and persecute the Shia everywhere they find them.

Furthermore, he wasn’t even 1% religious. He chose the anniversary of and the Anders Brevik mass shooting in Norway and regarded Brevik as some sort of hero. He wanted to redo the Brevik shooting and indeed, like Brevik, he went after mostly young people. His room was full of books about mass shooters as he had been researching the subject extensively.

He’s just another “school shooter” type.

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Filed under Crime, Europe, Germany, Iran, Iranians, Islam, Race/Ethnicity, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Shiism

Terror Attack in Germany

Three gunmen armed with longarms attacked a large shopping mall in Munich, Germany, killing six and wounding a number of others. Online videos show people at the mall panicking and running away in large numbers. The three gunmen are on the loose. There are unconfirmed reports of other shootings in the city. The German government is calling the attack “terrorism.” ISIS supporters are celebrating the attack online. It appears to be a radical Islamist global jihad attack possibly supported and planned by ISIS.

Another attack occurred in Munich in May when one person was killed and others were wounded as a man on a train attacked passengers with a knife in a lone wolf jihad attack.

Two days ago, a 17 year old Afghan refugee attacked passengers on a train with an ax, killing one and wounding others. A paper praising ISIS was found in his wound. ISIS claimed the attack as done by one of its fighters, but this was probably just another lone wolf attack similar to the one in Nice that killed 84 people and wounded many more. ISIS is not in control of any of these attacks and knows nothing about them until they start. These are all just lone wolves who are carrying out attacks on their own inspired by ISIS’ call on Muslims worldwide to carry out jihad attacks on infidels.

However, most of these attacks with more than one attacker are obviously not lone wolf attacks and seem to be done by larger organizations or cells. Most multiple gunmen attacks seem to have been planned by ISIS or one of its subsections. This includes the attacks in Belgium, Paris, Dhaka and Istanbul.

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Filed under Europe, Germany, Islam, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Terrorism

The Lowdown on the Venezuelan Oil Industry, Pre-Chavez and Post-Chavez

William writes:

I had the impression that the Chavistas had nationalized the Oil industry; I.E. it was essentially a form of revenue for the government, run by the government, etc. Profits went towards social programs, etc. But that does not equate to “full socialism”…

Venezuela nationalized their oil industry long ago, in 1976. However, it was a patronage aspect of the state, and the workers and management of the state oil company grabbed most all of the oil money, leaving little else for anyone else or certainly for state projects.

The state oil company went on strike and shut down production all over the country in an earlier attempt to ruin the economy a few years into Chavez rule. This latest “make the economy scream” project was not the first – there were a few others before which all failed.

Chavez broke the strike by firing all of the striking management and any workers who supported the strike. A lot of the regular workers were kept on. He replaced fired workers with Chavistas, who were all quite qualified. Chavez then turned the state oil company, formerly a vehicle for nothing but patronage and corruption of an upper middle class light skinned elite, into a state oil company the purpose of which was to provide a vehicle for mass wealth redistribution down to the poorer classes via massive government spending projects.

So there’s your Venezuelan socialism: using the state oil company to mass distribute money down to the people in the form of government spending and social spending projects. But this is pretty much what Saudi Arabia, Iran, Libya under Ghaddafi, Russia under Putin, Norway and oil producing countries have done though, so it is bizarre that we flipped out when Chavez did the same thing.

The Chavistas engaged in a lot talk about building socialism, but honestly as a socialist, they never got around to it.

Incidentally, the US-supported strikers caused major damage to the oil industry during this strike via mass sabotage. There was so much equipment destruction that it took years to get the oil industry back online. So another one of their ways to get rid of Chavez was to try to destroy the state oil company through mass sabotage of its equipment. Incidentally, the US government was massively in on the strike and the sabotage.

You can see that the opposition has tried every tactic they can think of, legal and illegal, to take down Chavez. The only difference now is that they seem to have finally succeeded in making the economy scream.

The oil industry management had gotten hugely wealthy off of what amounted to theft from the state oil industry, and after Chavez fired all of them, these formerly well do to people all lost their very lucrative jobs with nothing to replace them with. So this was one very pissed off group of people who are frankly furious that their huge unearned privileges in Venezuelan society had been revoked. Former state oil company employees are one of the major players in the Venezuelan Opposition.

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Filed under Africa, Asia, Economics, Eurasia, Europe, Government, Iran, Labor, Latin America, Libya, Middle East, North Africa, Norway, Regional, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Socialism, South America, USA, Venezuela

What Caused the Oil Price Crash?

William writes:

I suppose embargoes on the oil (now owned by the government, now a big source of revenue) is what caused this to a large degree?

There are no embargoes on Venezuelan oil. I know this sounds insane, but the US has not embargoed Venezuelan oil, and in fact we buy a tremendous amount of oil from what Washington calls the enemy state of Venezuela.

The oil price collapsed, and this in part caused this horrible problem in Venezuela for a variety of reasons.

Venezuela is not alone. All oil producing states are suffering from the oil price crash, and furthermore all of Latin America is in a bad recession.

Incidentally the oil price crash itself was engineered by John Kerry and Joe Biden along with the Saudi royalty as a project to radically ramp up Saudi oil production in order to crash the world oil price as a way to destroy:

  • Russia – Paybacks for Russia out of US fury over the Ukraine situation.
  • Iran – Mostly a Saudi concern. The Saudis have always considered Iran to be their worst enemy, but the feeling is not mutual. I think the Iranians would just like to get along with Saudi Arabia and other Sunni states.
  • Venezuela – Regime change Venezuela is a long term US project.

I am not sure what we offered the Saudis in return, I think maybe helping them with the Syrian regime change project. Also I think we might have given them a lot of weaponry.

The Saudis had their own reasons for doing this. They not only have huge oil reserves, but at the time, they were sitting on a huge pile of cash reserves in their Treasury. They figured they could ride out the price crash via dipping into cash reserves, which incidentally will be totally depleted in a couple of years.

However, the Saudis had a devious project in mind. Even though the plan was hatched with the Americans, bear in mind that capitalist countries generally have no allies, as the remainder of the paragraph will demonstrate. A major Saudi project was to crash the price of oil and hence ruin the US oil shale or fracking industry, which the Saudis see as serious competition. Fracked oil costs a lot to produce, and the Saudis have some of the lowest production costs in the world. By crashing the oil price, the Saudis could effectively bankrupt the US fracking industry, which is exactly what it happening right  now.

The Saudis are morons though for doing that, as their own economy is getting screwed hard by the oil price crash.

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Filed under Capitalism, Economics, Eurasia, Europe, Geopolitics, Government, Iran, Islam, Latin America, Middle East, Regional, Religion, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South America, Sunnism, Syria, Ukraine, USA, Venezuela

Syrian Government Sued for Killing US Journalist

Here.

I am sure that they did it. That’s a nasty little regime they have over there in Syria. On the other hand, Assad seems to be better than any of the alternatives, which isn’t saying much.

I never agree with targeting journalists during war, but increasingly just about everyone does it. We definitely targeted journalists and even whole media outfits in the first weeks of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars. We bombed the Al Jazeera building in Kabul, and we attacked Al Jazeera reporters in a Baghdad hotel. There were fatalities in both cases. In both Iraq wars, the US bombed all major Iraqi news outlets and newspapers, but most of them kept reporting anyway. The Pentagon said they were targeted for “disseminating enemy propaganda in wartime.”

Recent Pentagon documents discuss the need to “control the narrative” during wartime and speak of another need to silence enemy critics and journalists who are seen as combatants in an information war. The language used to describe propaganda, controlling the narrative and targeting journalists sympathetic to the enemy is genuinely creepy.

Lousy countries always do this sort of thing in wartime, but I thought we were above this.

Putin has had reporters beaten up for reporting on Russian soldiers who were killed fighting in Ukraine when there supposed to be no Russians there. He is also implicated in the killing of journalists, including a woman who was famous for reporting on Russian atrocities in Chechnya.

Turkey routinely targets journalists, especially Kurdish reporters. A number of them have been killed.

Israel is notorious for targeting journalists. Palestinian journalists are arrested regularly, and a number have been shot by soldiers. A fair number of them have been killed. Some American journalists have also been killed by the IDF, and at least one was killed.

The US would not defend this journalist at all, and instead seemed to take Israel’s side. So here we have a government that supports a foreign state over its own people. Our country should be called “USrael” to symbolize the extent to which we dutifully support this foreign country against all common sense. An interview with a representative of the Israeli government regarding this case was tense and combative, and the Israeli seemed to be arguing that journalists were legitimate targets as some sort of “terrorist supporters” or “terror propagandists.”

I was always taught that my country was the good guy. I was taught how we generally fought fair and square in World War 2. This made me so proud to be an American. I learned quite a few things since then that made me question that line. But this recent behavior of the Pentagon’s has made me lose all hope. I had thought we were above this sort of crap and that we believed in fighting fair at least out of a gentlemanly honor. Turns out I was wrong. While we do fight quite a bit more fairly than most other countries (and so do the Israelis), a lot of our behavior is scumbucket low down there with the worst Turd World shitholes.

Color me disenchanted. I am not so much an America-hater as a disappointed patriot gone sour.

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Filed under Caucasus, Chechnya, Eurasia, Europe, Government, Iraq War, Israel, Journalism, Middle East, Near East, Regional, Russia, Syria, Turkey, Ukraine, US War in Afghanistan, USA, War, World War 2

Tolerance for Male Homosexuality in the Muslim World

Afghanistan, Pakistan and the Gulf countries tolerate it well, and it is said to be epidemic in places like Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. There is also quite of bit of it in Syria, Egypt and Morocco.

It is not tolerated at all in Iran, Iraq, or Shia Lebanon, as Shia Islam is much more condemning of male homosexuality than Sunni Islam.

It is not that Sunni Islam necessarily is more tolerant of male homosexuality but that there is more variation in the Sunni world.

Palestine is not tolerant of male homosexuality at all, as gay men are frequently killed there. They are also commonly killed in Iraq and Iran. Syria used to be relatively more tolerant, but the parts of Syria taken over Islamists are very intolerant of gay men to the point where they are murdering them.

I have no data on male homosexuality in Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Jordan or Sunni Lebanon.

I also know nothing about it in the Muslim Sahel, Horn of Africa and West Africa.

I know nothing about male homosexuality in Muslim Europe such as Bosnia and Albania, although I assume it is more tolerated there than elsewhere.

Turkey is a mixed bag, as there is said to be a lot of male homosexuality, but it is also officially not tolerated. Sort of a don’t ask, don’t tell thing.

I know nothing of male homosexuality in the Caucasus, Muslim Russia, the Stans, India and Xinjiang.

I do not know what it was like before, but a lot of gay men are being murdered now in Bangladesh. I think there have been 30-40 such murders in the past couple of years. Gay rights advocates rather than gay men in general have been targeted.

I also know nothing about male homosexuality in Muslim Thailand, Muslim Burma, Muslim Cambodia, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia and the Southern Philippines. Male homosexuality is pretty well tolerated in Thailand and the Philippines, but I am not sure how ok it is in the Muslim parts of those nations.

Admittedly I am not the best person to ask about the situation for male homosexuality and gay men in the Muslim World.

Any further information would be interesting.

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Filed under Africa, Albania, Algeria, Asia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Caucasus, Culture, Europe, Homosexuality, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Islam, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Middle East, Near East, North Africa, Palestine, Philippines, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, SE Asia, Sex, Shiism, South Asia, Sunnism, Syria, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey

Blowback in Turkey

Here.

It is such a terrible thing to say, but they really did ask for that airport attack. If you play with matches, you might just get burned. Turkey was playing with fire, and it got burned.

One might wonder why ISIS would even attack Turkey in the first place. Although of course ISIS networks are still huge all across Turkey, the state has been carrying out some raids recently. Quite a few jihadis have arrested, some have been tried and a few have been convicted and sentenced. A number of others have been thrown out of the country.

The MSM says that Turkey has been fighting ISIS in Syria since last year, but that is not really true, and Turkish jets surely do not attack ISIS in Syria. However, Turkey does allow its airbases to be used by the US and especially the West to bomb ISIS in Syria.

And perhaps most importantly of all, Turkey just completed a major security cooperation deal with Israel. No sooner had the ink dried on that document, a mere eight hours later, ISIS unleashed its attackers, one from Chechnya, another from Kyrgyzstan and another from Uzbekistan. They had probably been in a safe house in Turkey for some time, waiting for instructions to set off the hit. With the Israeli peace deal, the order came down from ISIS headquarters in Raqqa to unleash to jihadis to punish Turkey for cooperating with the Israelis.

The area is swarming with US intelligence and Turkish intelligence is also good and pervasive. But neither US, Turkish nor Israeli intel nor were able to intercept the go- ahead. These ISIS guys are pretty evil, but they’re damn good. Give em some credit. ISIS has possibly become one of the most skilled and deadly terrorist groups in recent history.

A US intelligence official said about Turkey,

“The summer of our discontent has begun.”

Before the US idiotically invaded Iraq in its Nazi-like war of aggression and conquest, the Arab League presciently warned,

You are about to unleash the gates of Hell.

Arabs are not stupid. They know their people better than we do. After the US conquered Baghdad, Robert Fisk said,

A modern Western Christian country has just conquered one of the most famous and powerful cities in the Arab Islamic World. This is a breathtaking event, stunning on a world scale. This will set into motion some very powerful forces. We will not see the end of this in my lifetime.

Fisk knows the region as well as the Arab League does. Fisk is still alive, but so far he is right.

First the US played with matches by invading and conquering one of the most powerful and legendary cities in the Arab Islamic world. The US played with fire and it got burned.

Then Turkey played with matches by letting the Hellspawn created by that insane invasion set up camp in its country. Turkey played with fire too,. They not only got burned, but they set off a nasty brush fire that will be very hard to put out.

If you don’t want to get burned, don’t play with fire!

You are about to unleash the gates of Hell…

We will not see the end of this in my lifetime…

The summer of our discontent has begun…

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Filed under Europe, Geopolitics, Iraq War, Islam, Israel, Middle East, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Syria, Turkey, USA, War