Category Archives: Bhutan

Paleomongoloids and Neomongologoids in Northeastern India

Sagar Boro writes, in regard to this piece:

Who are the Nagas??? What about the people of Northeast India like the Bodos, Apatani, Mizo, Kuki and Manipuri?

The Nagas are one of the best examples of a Paleomongoloid that I can think of. They reside, like the rest you listed, in Northeastern India. Sometimes I wonder if the Nagas are Australoids, but they are probably just transtionals. But they are quite primitive and archaic in phenotype. Go look at some photos of them and see.

I do not know of the rest, but I am familiar with the the Mizos are probably Neomongoloids. It is a bit odd to have Neos in this part of the world, but many Burmese are Neos, as are Thais. There are many Neos in Tibet, Bhutan, Sikikim and Yunnan. The Mizos are very advanced. Go look at some photos and see. The women are very beautiful and look sort of like Japanese women or maybe Thai women.

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Filed under Anthropology, Asia, Asians, Bhutan, Burmese, East Indians, India, Physical, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, SE Asians, South Asia, South Asians, Thai, Tibet

Bigfoot News December 14, 2013

Interesting news – Jeff Meldrum reportedly had his first Bigfoot encounter in Canada earlier this year. The rumor is that John Bindernagel was with him on this trip. The location is somewhere in Alberta, Canada, and it is said to be one of the hottest research spots in North America right now. The news I got said that Meldrum had at the very least one Class B encounter and possibly more than one. She also stated that it was at the very least a Class B encounter, and it may in fact have been a Class A encounter.

Although Meldrum has not spoken about it publicly, he has definitely spoken about it privately. I understand that he is under some sort of an NDA about this incident though, so he may not talk about it much. The encounter must have occurred earlier this year because that area is now under many feet of snow, and it’s colder than a meat locker up there. Specifically, I believe the incident may have occurred in the fall. The source also told me that the full story of their encounter(s) would go public in a while anyway. There is apparently a lot more to this story, and I am digging into it right now.

This would apparently be Meldrum’s second Bigfoot encounter. His first was in the Siskiyou Mountains of Northern California when a Bigfoot repeatedly walked through their camp late at night. The Bigfoot apparently put its hand on Meldrum’s tent, and Meldrum could see the outline of its hand.

I really do like Jeff Meldrum a lot, even he has some detractors, or worse – enemies – in the community for sure. To be more specific, there are those in the community who absolutely despise him. Having spoken to him on the phone, I do think that Meldrum is a good man though. He comes across as very sane and very warm. He is amiable and even charming, which is interesting for a scientist as a lot of these fellows are pretty cold fish. Jeff is like your best friend.

I also felt that he was very careful in all of his statements to me. It seemed he was hedging himself like a true scientist should. He does has a public image to manage, and he doesn’t like things that mess up his media persona. After a bit of time in front of the TV camera, he is turning into a bit of an “actor type,” but that goes with the territory, and he plays the actor role well. He has a very interesting personality and mind, and that is clear if you watch him on TV.

I also like John Bindernagel a lot. He has a very good heart, and that comes through if you see his speeches or listen to his shows.

John Green is also a great guy, though sadly he is dying of prostate cancer.

I actually like all of these academic types. They are some of the finest people in our field.

Bigfootery is so sleazy that it tends to taint if not ruin the best of human beings due to the nature of the game – a race to the bottom where the biggest sleazeball wins and the nice guys are all left mugged, holding the bag and wondering what hit them. It’s nice to see that the academic types have not been dragged down by the “Bigfoot undertow.”

Bow hunting Bigfoot in Idaho. I actually like this video a lot, and it has at least one feature in it that hoaxers never seem to get right – actually they do not even try to replicate this feature. I won’t mention it, but the Facebook Find Bigfoot guys used to talk about it a lot. There is not a whole lot to see here, but I could not help notice that when it walked away, it looked a lot like some of those Bigfoots walking in the forest in the Erickson Project video. The general feeling out there is that this is a hoax, but I say not so fast now.

Mississippi skunk ape video. This is an extremely interesting video shot near Tupelo, Mississippi. The Bigfoot is apparently grubbing a rotten log and eating bugs (maybe grubs) out of the log. We are apparently looking at it from the back end as it grubs the log. There are at least four features about this Bigfoot that hoaxers never get right (they never even try to replicate these features), and that is why I think this is real. From the rear this looks like a lot of Bigfoot videos – the Poland video of the Bigfoots in the rocks, the end of the Patty video when we see her from behind, the Georgia Bigfoot video when the boy sees the Bigfoot. This one is also being called a hoax, but I doubt if it is.

Mass Bigfoot sighting in British Colombia recently. One of the largest mass sightings in history occurred in BC recently. 26 people, all men, reportedly saw a Bigfoot at a location that I believe is called Wheeler Ridge. I believe they were all loggers or forest workers. I do not think there is video available. I am looking into this right now.

Rick Dyer story. Apparently Dyer is still going to reveal his Bigfoot to the world on or about December 31, 2013. He has scheduled a pay per view video on Youtube, but there is no date on it yet.

Rick Dyer’s home broken into by haters. Haters apparently broke into Dyer’s apartment and completely trashed the place. Apparently either these folks or other haters were also caught stalking Rick and his wife. This is why Rick moved out of his apartment very quickly afterwards. This is also the reason why Rick issued his “Quitting Bigfootery” video that everyone took to be an acknowledgement of a hoax. This incident freaked him out and made him want to step back from the scene to say the least.

Man invades Dyer’s apartment, fight ensues. A hater apparently invaded Rick’s apartment some time back. Rick was home at the time and confronted him. A fistfight then ensued. I do not any more have details on this incident. As you can see, Rick’s haters have been getting pretty out of control.

Frank Cali quits Team Tracker, says he is spilling the beans. Cali quit and reportedly spilled the beans on Rick, calling the whole Dyer affair a great big hoax. However, he offered no evidence to prove this. Frank and Rick had had a huge falling out a little while beforehand, and that is what spurred this incident. Frank’s story has changed over and over and does not seem to make sense.

Frank Cali and Craig Phillips never saw Dyer’s Bigfoot. But they both lied and said they did. Phillips even made a video detailing his viewing, which fooled some people who stated that it seemed very credible.Well, it wasn’t. Remember how his eyes never looked at the camera and always looked down? There you go. Why did these men lie and say they say a Bigfoot that they never saw? Rick states that both men desperately wanted to see the Bigfoot, so Rick said they could make videos saying they saw it even though they never did. Sleazy, huh? Well, Rick Dyer is the king of sleaze, you know?

Dyer makes fake video claiming that the Men In Black stole his Bigfoot. Apparently this was all another gigantic hoax “to fool the haters.” A few people were kicked out of Team Tracker due to this video. More of Rick’s sleazy hoaxing and nonsense. Whether or not Rick actually shot a Bigfoot, and especially whether or not he has possession of one, Rick has definitely been hoaxing and lying like crazy all through this Dead Bigfoot affair.

Really nothing new on the Dyer front. Some time has passed since I last wrote about Dyer, but the main thing you need to know is that there really is nothing new to report here. In the interim, no new evidence has been offered up to prove that his story is true. On the other hand, his detractors have not yet proven the case is a hoax either. So there it lies, in stasis. We can’t prove it’s true, and we can’t prove it’s false. And there you have it.

Date fast approaching for Dyer’s reveal. Dyer was originally going to reveal on December 15, but after the break-in, he changed his mind and postponed it indefinitely. Later he said the reveal would happen on December 31.

Melba Ketchum, teen book author. From the comments section of Over the Line, Smokey, a hardcore Ketchum-hating blog.

December 15, 2013 at 2:57

Melanie F Reed is actually “The Ketchum” and I have some information on what the Ketchum lady is up to these days. She is starting or has started a new publishing company.

Her new alias/name is Melanie F. Reed. She will be writing books and publishing more-  but with an all new identity. She is going to great lengths to make “Melanie” an entirely new person so people don’t make the connection back to “Melba Ketchum.” A new saga begins (or, according to Ketchum, The Lost Saga). Supposedly the book comes out in December…Anyone seen it yet? Good times-  good times. Hope y’all can get down to the bottom of all this…more to come I am sure.

The site is here. The webpage is horribly done, so that right there is a clue that this may indeed be one of Melba’s webpages, as her sites are always horrific for some odd reason (Won’t pay for a web designer?). Looking around a bit, we can see that Melba is writing a 3-part teen book series called The Lost Saga. The first book in the series is called Strange World, and it is billed as a supernatural teen fantasy.

From the site, a book description:

Gracie McKay felt both excited and sad. Her family was trading its Manhattan highrise apartment for the sprawling suburbs of Seattle, Washington. Little did she know that as a shy girl soon to be 16, she was about to embark on a supernatural journey that would change her life forever–and lead her headlong into her destiny—a destiny intertwined with an unknown, unseen world.

Very disappointing Bigfoot series out of Channel 4 in the UK. This series, The Bigfoot Files, was billed as the greatest thing since sliced bread by Bigfooters for some time before it aired. Sadly, it was a massive bomb. It featured Dr. Bryan Sykes, who is admittedly a world class geneticist. The purpose of the series was apparently to use Sykes to prove conclusively, once and for all, that there is no such thing to the Bigfoot, Yeti or Almas legends. The show achieved its aims very well.

The first show dealt with the Yeti in the Himalayas. Although no Yeti was found, what was found was that at least some Yeti samples pointed to a brand new bear completely unknown to science (So much for no new large mammals being discovered, eh skeptards?) Most of the hairs were duds, but a few of the samples did match to a bone from an extinct polar bear from 40,000 years ago. This was at the time of the original brown bear (grizzly bear) – polar bear split.

The polar bear is a new species. It split off from the brown bear ~40,000 YBP. So this bear is really a sort of a brown bear-polar bear cross. Polar bears and grizzly bears are very closely related, and in the wild, they can actually interbreed. Somehow this early polar bear/brown bear got stranded up in the Himalayas (possibly in the Ice Age with the retreating glaciers). It lives at a very high altitude where there is snow and ice much of the year, so it is adapted to a polar bear-like environment.

The show also tried to prove that Yeti tracks are really just bear tracks that have partly melted or have been stepped in twice by the bear. This is transparently false, as Yeti tracks look nothing like bear tracks. Skeptics have been saying this about Bigfoot tracks for a long time (They are really just bear tracks that have been stepped in twice), and we shot that argument full of holes way back when.

The discovery of a brand new bear unknown to science is indeed startling news!

But the idea that the Yeti = weird polar bear does not seem to be true. The natives say that there are several different kinds of Yeti. Yeti after all just means ferocious thing or fierce thing in Tibetan. One of the Yetis is indeed said to be a very large bear. There are references to this huge Yeti-bear in Tibetan writings going back centuries.

However, natives are adamant that there is another Yeti that is some sort of a primitive relative hominid. Josh Gates recently cast some excellent footprints in Bhutan. Jeff Meldrum looked at the prints and decided that they were indeed genuine and appeared to be of a hominid. In addition, Dr. Melba Ketchum tested some purported Yeti hair, also from Gates, on a quick and dirty male/female peaks genetic test. The test came out preliminarily that Yetis were relict hominids related to Bigfoots but not the same species.

I am not very familiar with Yeti sightings, and I will have to go back over the historical record again. However, I believe that at least one sighting observed a group of Yeti hominids over a period of 2 hours or more. The Yeti hominid is said to live at a somewhat lower elevation that the Yeti Polar Bear does.

I still believe that there is an unknown hominid in the Himalayas.

The second episode involved Bigfoots in North America. Sykes received ~30 Bigfoot samples from North America but only revealed the results for eight of them. All eight were said to be known animals. A Derek Randles sample from eight feet up in a blueberry bush was said to be a canine. Tell me how a dog gets eight feet up a blueberry bush? Why all of these samples came back as known animals is beyond me. Could Sykes not have examined the hairs via a hair expert to quickly weed out the horses, dogs, opossums and whatnot? I do not understand why this was not done.

Justin Smeja’s sample from the Sierra Kills was tested and came back “black bear.” It has tested “black bear” now repeatedly – this is the fourth time it got this result. The producer challenged Justin and implied that he was making up the whole story, and Justin got angry, defensive and almost started crying. You really had to feel sorry for him.

The episode ended with the producer and Sykes in a philosophical conversation about how the Bigfoot phenomenon is obviously just Americans imagining things, and then went off into an abstract discussion of the human need to believe in monsters or beasts as some sort of  Jungian unconscious archetype common to the human race, possibly going back to our Cave Man days or our time on the African Savannah. Perhaps the recurring bogeyman theme is a leftover trauma from our genocidal wars with the Neandertals.

In other words, put a fork in the Bigfoot myth, it’s done for all time now.

Moving right along…

The final show dealt with Zana, the purported Almas in Abkhazia. She was supposedly captured in the 1870’s by residents of a small village in this remote mountain region. She was very wild at first but was eventually tamed. She never learned language, and it was clear that she was not a Homo Sapiens sapiens in the same sense that we are. The men used to get her drunk and bet each other to have sex with her, and several offspring were produced in this rather sleazy fashion. The offspring also looked very odd and had some characteristics that were simply not human. One of her sons, Kwit, could reportedly pick up a chair with his teeth!

The show gathered together some of Zana’s descendants, most of whom now just look like normal humans. Genetic testing on her bones revealed that Zana was 100% Sub-Saharan African. In other words, she was a Black woman!

Well, what is a Black woman doing running around in the forests of the Caucasus completely wild and living off the land, sleeping the open, lacking in all language and unable to learn language either? How is it that that a Black woman is completely covered in hair from head to toe? Because most Black people look like creatures from the Planet of the Apes, right? How is it that a Black woman is extremely strong, with strength far beyond that of a human? How is that the offspring of a Black woman and a White man (a mulatto) looks extremely primitive and is so strong that he can pick up chairs with his teeth? Most mulattos can do that, right?

On further examination, Sykes did note that Zana’s skull had certain features that were outside the realm of Homo Sapiens sapiens and were suggestive of possibly a more ancient or relict form of Homo. Sykes said that maybe Zana went back not to the Out of Africa people from 70,000 YBP from whom we all derive but actually to an earlier wave of Homo moving out of Africa. In other words, she was possibly a relict hominid. Exactly! What we have been saying all along.

So to wrap it all up, Yetis are really Polar Bears, Bigfoots are all hoaxes, lies or hallucinations, and Almastys are hair covered Black folks who run around wild in the remotest Caucasus.

Three legends killed with one stone, er, one show.

The truth is that most British people simply do not believe in any of this relict hominid stuff. They probably do not have relict hominids in their land, so to them, these creatures simply do not exist. British people who come to my site are far more likely to be Bigfoot skeptics than Americans are. They think we Americans are hillbilly morons for believing in these Bigfoot boogeymen.

You gotta love those pommies!

All in all, this show was an extreme disappointment. Either Sykes himself does not believe that any of these things exist, and that was what he set out to prove, or Sykes was used by the producers to further their skeptical view.

Monster slayers!

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Filed under Abkhazia, Americas, Animals, Apes, Asia, Bears, Bhutan, Bigfoot, Britain, California, Canada, Idaho, Mammals, Near East, North America, Omnivores, Regional, South, South Asia, USA, West, Wild

Bigfoot News December 12, 2012

Rick Dyer has another Bigfoot in a freezer! I know you are all probably LOLing at that one, but this time, it may be a real Bigfoot. I reported earlier that Minnow Films of the UK was filming a documentary on Bigfoot hunters with Dyer on September 6, 2012 when Dyer shot cellphone video lasting 1.2 seconds of a Bigfoot eating meat out of a bait trap in a tree. Dyer was in his tent. In the next tent was a BBC film crew with two cameramen with shoulder-mounted cameras. At the same time, the film crew captured a 3 minute video of the same Bigfoot eating from the bait trap. After Dyer recognized there was a Bigfoot at the bait trap, he ran out of the tent, clad only in his underwear, carrying a rifle.

At that time, Dyer raised up his rifle and shot the Bigfoot in the back of the head. At that point, all Hell broke loose as the crew wrestled the rifle away from Dyer.

Shades of the initial reports of Smeja Sierra Kills shootings where the JE was said to have taken the rifle away from Smeja after he shot the baby Bigfoot, stating, “If you shoot another one of those things, I will shoot you.” Subsequent reports cast doubt on that account. We have also heard other reports of hunters who had Bigfoots in their sights and were prevented from shooting by their fellow hunters.

At any rate, at that time, it was too late, as the shot to back of the head killed the male Bigfoot. The shooting was caught on film by the film crew. The Bigfoot’s measurements were 7’8 tall and 490 pounds, a bit on the small side for a male Bigfoot. Measurements and weighting were done postmortem.

Additional supportive proof, including a photo of what appears to be a dead Bigfoot from the scene, is available and has been examined by investigators. In addition, in the Camper Video, the videographer pans down to the floor of his tent at one point and one can see a rifle on the floor there.

A few days after the shooting, the film crew reportedly threw Dyer out of the movie for some unknown reason.

Minnow Films retained possession of the body, and they farmed out its storage to a third party. It is not known what arrangements were made between Minnow and Dyer regarding possession of the body. Apparently Minnow Films has some proprietary interest in this whole affair. At any rate, the plan is to release the body only after the documentary comes out at the Tribeca Film Festival in mid April of 2013.

Update on Sykes Study replicating Ketchum results. I reported earlier that the Dr. Brian Sykes Bigfoot DNA study out of Oxford had replicated the results from Dr. Melba Ketchum’s Bigfoot DNA out of Texas. A source close to the Ketchum study stated that Sykes agrees with Ketchum that there is a new hominid in North America, but disagrees on its origins.

That report was from comments in an article on Time.com by a woman with the handle “icicle,” a former fashion model and poster on Bigfoot Forums. Based on her postings, she appears to be deep in with the Ketchum team. She knows things about Ketchum and her project that even I was not aware of. If you want to know how she learned of this information, people should contact the poster “icicle” herself.

Later, Dr. Jeff Meldrum put in a call to Sykes to ask for confirmation about this rumor. Sykes stated that he has not even begun testing samples yet. However, in a post on Bigfoot Lunch Club, Rhettman Mullis said that based on preliminary testing, Sykes samples were testing “not human.” I don’t know what that is supposed to mean. It could mean many things I suppose.

Report on juvenile Bigfoot mindspeaking to Justin Smeja may be in error. I reported earlier that during the shootings of the Sierra Kills, Smeja reported that the juvenile Bigfoot mindspoke to him as it died in his arms. However, Smeja says that that is an old rumor taken out of context. The source I got it from said that Smeja has been going around telling people this, but they thought that he may have been saying it as a joke. At any rate, at the moment, there is no good evidence that the juvey Bigfoot mindspoke to Smeja after he shot it.

Confusion about the beginnings of the Ketchum study. Ketchum has reported that her study began with a sample from Josh Gates Yeti expedition. The sample was said to be Yeti hair from Bhutan. The sample gave an unusual result, and that unusual result is what set off the Ketchum DNA study. There has been a lot of confusion about what this report was.

The report was an initial, quick and dirty, DNA test looking at male-female peaks (not sure what that means). Humans have male-female peaks that look something like Male 108, Female 113, just to give an example. The Bigfoots test out close to humans, but a bit differently, say Male 106, Female 115 (rough example). The Yeti sample, when compared later to Bigfoot male-female peaks, looks similar to both the human and Bigfoot samples, but closer to the Bigfoot sample.

Though not confirmatory, this suggests that Yetis exist in the Himalayas and are related to Bigfoots. Further testing is needed to confirm these results. The Yeti sample was all used up by Melba during testing. Its results will not be included in the upcoming journal paper.

Ketchum interviewed on a radio show in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, Erickson rehabilitated for Ketchum Study, suggestion of proof of relict hominids in Russia. In an interesting 30 minute interview, Ketchum praised Adrian Erickson and Wally Hersom for kicking off the study. She is basically laying the success of the study at Hersom, Erickson and herself. That’s nice of her. It looks like Erickson is being brought back into the study and rehabilitated after all.

In addition, Ketchum said that the Igor Burtsev leak was for another paper that she is writing for a Russian journal. That paper apparently deals with Bigfoot type creatures in Russia known as Chuchunaa, Yetis or Almas. Ketchum stated that these hominids definitely exist in Russia, at least in Siberia and the Caucasus. This suggests that she has some sort of confirmatory evidence of their existence in the form of DNA tested biological evidence from Russia.

Linda Sedlak reports that Ketchum study is through peer review and is in line awaiting publication. I know that Linda is pretty tight with the Ketchum folks, so she may be onto something here. Ketchum’s statement, “Weeks not months,” referring to publication of her paper, adds supportive evidence here.

Ape theorists sticking to their guns. I really don’t know why they are doing this, but the huge number of Bigfooters who went along with the ape theory are sticking to their guns that Bigfoots are non-human apes as opposed to hominin or hominid apes. I really don’t know why they are being so sensitive about this, but Bigfooting is all about ego, ego and ego. Egotistical, extroverted folks simply never like to admit that they were wrong.

There really was a debate along these lines, and to some extent it continues. The Ape Crowd says that Bigfoots were apes along the lines of Gigantopithecus. When I first started blogging about Bigfoots about 1 1/2 years ago, I was an Ape Guy. You can still see the remains of this as all of my Bigfoot posts are under Mammals – Apes – Bigfoot. It took me some time to figure out that they are not apes at all but instead they are people like us.

The Ape Theory says that Bigfoot is a non-hominid ape or primate probably descended from Gigantopithecus. This theory has never made sense for so many reasons that are now becoming apparent, but all of the major researchers for some time back have been sidetracked onto this theoretical dead end.

First of all, the only apes that developed bipedalism at all were the hominins, the Homo line, which includes Australopithecines. None of the other lines, the chimps, the gorillas and certainly the orangutans which Giganto was related to, ever developed bipedalism. There’s no evidence that Giganto was a biped; in fact, evidence seems to be that he was a gigantic quadrupedal orangutan.

The Human Theory takes various forms, but generally they said that Bigfoots were in the Homo line and were not non-Homo apes. In its extreme form, this is found in the Forest People and David Paulides versions which seem to say that Bigfoots are simply weird versions of H.s.s. like us. That does not seem to be the case.

The Ape People, instead of admitting they were wrong as I am doing in this post, are obfuscating the whole debate by saying that H.s.s. are apes anyway. In other words, there never was an Ape versus Human debate. But there was, and to say there was not is a dodge and attempt to avoid admitting that they were wrong.

The problem all along has been the anthropomorphism, so to speak, to which we apply all of our Homo ancestors. We see this in reconstructions of our Homo ancestors in which at least most of them tend to look like slightly less metrosexual versions of Homo sapiens sapiens (H.s.s.) or us. There’s really no evidence that this is the case. There is even scant evidence that our Homo ancestors were hairless. Perhaps they were hairy.

There is a man named Vendramini in Italy who has produced a theory of Neandertals are vicious, hairy, ape like brutes who slaughtered humans and ate them. Go look up his videos on Youtube and look at them. Denisovans, Heidelbergensis and Erectus may well have been hairy instead of hairless. Homo floresiensis, if recent accounts of Ebu Gogos are to be believed, were covered in hair.

Indeed, H.s.s. may have been the first of the Homo line to be hairless. Who knows?

That the Bigfoots display a lot of apey characteristics may be easily explained by the fact that our Homo ancestors may well have been much more apey than we think they were. If Bigfoot is Heidelbergensis, perhaps Heidelbergensis were pretty apey fellows. I think we really need to get away from viewing our Homo ancestors are somewhat more rugged and individualistic versions of ourselves and instead see them as the apey types that they may well have been. This may be the solution to the puzzle.

This post will be updated today as more news comes in…

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Filed under Americas, Animals, Anthropology, Apes, Bhutan, Bigfoot, California, Eurasia, Mammals, North America, Physical, Regional, Russia, Science, Siberia, South Asia, USA, West, Wild

Bigfoots are Found in Most of the World

Warning: Long, runs to 52 pages.

Bigfoots or relict hominids range over much of the planet, mostly in heavily forested regions or in very high mountains.

In North America, Bigfoots range from the Mexican border to Alaska, across the Canadian Arctic and even the Canadian Islands, down to Labrador and Prince Edward Island over to Greenland. They are probably most common of all in the Lower Fraser River area of British Colombia, in the Mt. St. Helens area of Washington and in Oregon just across the Washington border along the Colombia River and southwest of Portland .

40,000 Bigfoot sightings have been reported, and tens of thousands of tracks have been found, some extending for miles. Countless track casts have been made. Bigfoot scat from Ohio was examined, and it was determined that it came from a nonhuman digestive tract.

A giant Bigfoot, 12 feet tall, was seen at Pitt Lake in British Colombia in July 1965.

The Eskimos say that there was a large race of hairy relict hominids living in the area when the Eskimos showed up. They were not as smart as men, and they fought amongst themselves all the time. They made primitive bone and stone tools and lived in primitive circular encampments of large stones with whale rib and skin roofs. When seen by Eskimos, they were shy and retiring. Eskimos to this day call them Toonijuk.

The Toonijuk existed into the 20th Century in Greenland but were driven into deep and inaccessible valleys by the Eskimos. They preferred rotten meat and did not know how to dry skins, but instead wore them wet as clothing. They also used skins as bedding. They were reported by Rasmussen as late as 1910.

Scherman records them as late as 1902 on Southampton Island in Canada. Toonijuk lived in underground homes. They had a type of primitive cooking pottery and some primitive weapons. They were excellent hunters who could call game by voice or gesture, and they were extremely strong.

The ruins of a Toonijuk village was found by Scherman on Bylot Island, Canada in 1955. They found sleds, a burial zone with huge rocks over the bodies and large earthen mounds. They also found utensils, bow and arrows, strings, darts and lances, most of them carved of bone. The people were very small, only four feet tall.

The Toonijuk type in Alaska is called Arulataq. They differ in having long, flowing hair as opposed to the short, thick hair of the Toonijuk.

A race of tiny, hairy, 2-3 foot high people is said to live on Hawaii. They were called Menehune. They seem to have been non-human. In 1786, under the reign of King Kaumaulii, 2,000 people lived in Wainiha Valley. Of these, 65 of them Menehune. In 1940, a school superintendent and two classes of kids, 40 in total, saw a Menehune on Waimea. Sightings have continued up until 1989 on Kauai. Existence dubious.

A race of tiny, hairy, gnome-like people is said to exist in North America and Mexico all the way down to Honduras, where they are called the Duende. They are mostly known from Indian folklore, but some Indians insist that they are real. The only evidence is sightings, mostly in the New Mexico-Colorado area, but those seem to have tapered off since the 1930’s. They are said to live underground. Tiny arrowheads have also been found, but it is not known who made them. They are said to be hostile to humans.

A 14 inch skeleton is known from California, but it is not known what it is. There is one recent sighting from New Mexico. It was described as “not human.” A smaller type, the 3-5 ft. Duende, is found in Yucatan, Guatemala and Belize. Footprints were found in Guatemala in 2004. In Belize, they live in jungles in the south of Belize. Existence probable.

In Mexico, this type is called the Aluxob. It lives in Yucutan, where it is mostly seen by Mayans but also by Mexicans and US tourists. The most recent reports are from 2007. They are not hairy. The Maya say that the Aluxob are their ancestors. It is not known whether or not the Aluxob are fully human.

Relict hominids have been reported in Latin America. They are found along the highlands from Chiapas south to the Andes, and from Colombia south to Bolivia and Chile. Some are also found on certain Chilean islands and in the Guyana Massif.

However, in the Yucatan, Guatemala and Belize region, the Indians talk about a creature named Sisemite or Ulak, which is a Bigfoot type. It ranges along the highest mountain peaks. The locals describe it as just another animal in the forest. Approximately 5-6 feet tall, it is covered in hair that grows almost to the ground.

In 1898, a Sisemite was killed in Honduras, and another was shot dead in Panama in 1920. As of 1967, they were said to still exist in the Sierra Madre Occidental, Chiapas, Guatemala and Costa Rica. There have been sightings in the past 40 years in Honduras in the Guaranta Mountains north of the lower Rio Coco. Existence probable.

The variety in Ecuador and Colombia on the eastern slopes of the Andes, the Shiru, is small, 4-5 feet tall. There is also a type in this region that is 6 feet tall. In the 1800’s, a Shiru was shot dead in Colombia, and another was shot dead in Ecuador. Existence unknown to extinct.

The Guyanas variety, the Didi, is larger, 5 feet tall. It has red hair, is bulky and makes “hoo” sounds. The Didi is known from Guyana, Suriname and the Brazilian uplands. In 2005, a Didi reportedly abducted two children, a boy and a girl, in Guyana. Local reports indicate that the Didi has claws, which seems impossible for a hominid. At the moment, the Didi seems highly cryptic. Existence unknown to possible.

From the high Andes of Peru, Bolivia and Chile, there is a very large relict hominid, 6-9 feet, tall. They are called the Ucu, Ucumar or Ukumar-zupia. There have been many sightings since 1950, and local people had stories dating far back before that. It is fond of a plant called the Payo, the inside of which is like a cabbage.

A race of little people is sometimes seen in the Amazon. They are called pygmies, dwarves or leprechauns. They are probably just a race of very short Indians, but they may be another species. The evidence for their existence is poor.

The hominids from the Amazon in Brazil, mostly the states of Mato Grosso, Acre and Pará, the Mapinguary or Maricoxi, are said to be huge, up to 15 feet tall. The best reports come from northeast of the Paresis Range in Mato Grosso near the border with Santa Cruz Province in Bolivia. It has red hair, long arms, a sloping forehead and “bottle” footprints. It smells bad and makes roars and booming noises. It is reported to rip the tongues out of cows when it kills them.

In one report by a Western explorer, the Mapinguaries were found in a village. They used horns to make calls, lived in villages with primitive shelters, made bows and arrows, and killed and ate the local Indians.

According to one theory, the Mapinguary is nothing but the supposedly extinct giant ground sloth. It was quite large when it stood upright. However, it went extinct 13,000 years ago. Existence uncertain but possible.

Also in Mato Grosso is a shorter type that kills local Indians for food and slow cooks them over a fire on sticks.

There is yet another type called Morcegos, Cabedullos or Tatus that lives in caves in the ground and is nocturnal. They have a very highly developed sense of smell that almost seems like a sixth sense. The most recent sighting was from Acre in December 1998.

The Salvaje is a giant bipedal ape 3-5 feet tall that lives in Venezuela. Its existence is quite uncertain due to it’s being tied in with the Loy’s Ape, which was nothing more than a hoaxed photo of a spider monkey.

Relict hominids exist in Russia, where they are known as Almas, among other names. Two types, the Almas and the Golub-Yavan, are found mostly in the area from Altai down through the Tian Shan to the Pamir Range, encompassing parts of Mongolia, China, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In the high mountains, they mostly live at 8,000-12,000 feet, sometimes descending to raid crops.

The ones in the Pamirs are called Golub-Yavan. The Golub-Yavan live in the Pamirs and Tian Shan Mountains and in Eastern Kazakhstan, where they are called Ksy-gyik. They may extend to the Kunlun Range in China, the Karokorams in north Pakistan and the Hindu Kush in Afghanistan. They live in caves.

A Golub-Yavan was shot dead in 1925 in Tajikistan and was buried under a pile of rocks. Another was shot dead and buried in 1967. A traveler, Johannes Schiltberger, journeying through the Tian Shan Mountains in the 1402 reported two captive Golub-Yavan.

17-inch Golub-Yavan footprints were seen in the Altalinsky Mountains of Kyrgyzstan in 2001. Golub-Yavans have long been known in this region. They prey on mountain goats and rodents and live in the highest peaks of this country. They have even been known to kill wolves. A possible Golub-Yavan graveyard with huge bones was found in a cave in Tajikistan in the early 1900’s, but locals fled in fear that the Golub-Yavans would come back and attack them.

There may be both short and tall varieties of the Golub-Yavan, as a 4’9 one was recorded from the southern shore of Balkhash Lake in Eastern Kazakhstan in 1963. The most recent sighting in Kazakhstan was in 1981. There are many sightings around the Balkhash Lake region.

Golub-Yavans are also found in Afghanistan in the Badakhshan region where Afghanistan, Tajikistan and India all come together. The last sighting was in 1949.

A Golub-Yavan was sighted in Kashmir in 2003.

The hominid type found in Yakutia is called the Mulen. Many Mulen were killed during the Russian Civil War when people moved into uninhabited areas.

There is another hominid type in Tajikistan called the Gul that may or may not be the same animal as Golub-Yavan.

There are many reports of Almas from Mongolia. The most recent sighting was in 1974.

In 1939, two Almas were shot dead in Mongolia during skirmishes between Soviet and Japanese forces. The bodies disappeared. Russian pediatrician Ivan Ivlov saw a family of Almas in the Mongolian Altai in 1963. He observed them at a distance of one mile through his binoculars. He later asked some of his patients about them and received many detailed reports.

People in Soviet Central Asia say that in the past there was a long war between the humans and the Almas, with the humans winning. The result of the war was that the Almas retreated into the most remote areas. Almas are smaller than Bigfoots. Usual height is about 5-6.5 feet.

Almas are also known from the Caucasus, where we have many reports, including reports of recent breeding with humans in the late 1800’s, photos of 1/4 Almas-human offspring and a skull of a 1/4 Almas-human from Abkhazia. There are 500 sightings in Karbardino-Balkaria alone.

In the Caucasus, they are mostly found in the southern part of Kabardino-Balkaria, mainly in the higher elevations. Before the 1960’s, they were much tamer and had fairly good relations with the local humans. Shepherds living alone in their shacks sometimes took up with Almas females. Children were sometimes produced by these relations. One shepherd tried to leave his Almas, and she become so angry that she killed him.

The Almas of Mongolia and Siberia are also said to breed with humans on occasion. The offspring are often very ugly – more so than the the Almas themselves. But they are often very gifted and talented in many fields, possibly more than most humans.

The people of the region often leave food for the Almas, whom they pity. In the small town of Elbrus high in the mountains, everyone has seen an Almas. People put food out for them every night. Around Elbrus, the Almas have become more common in recent years with the collapse of the grazing economy. Almas have taken to living in some of the abandoned shepherd sheds.

Almas of the Caucasus look more human than most other relict hominids types. Their faces are hairless and appear more human than the North American Bigfoots. Almas are reportedly to be extremely strong.

They are covered in hair, which is often reddish. However, the long, pendulous breasts of the females are hairless. The females sometimes throw their breasts over their shoulders as they run. Almas, especially the females, sometimes steal clothes, which they somehow manage to put on. Some female Almas wear a sort of loincloth over their waist. An Almas was seen in recent years wearing a dress with a large hole in the back. Local human women fear the Almas women, who reportedly try to tempt local human men into sexual relations with them.

There was a long decline in Almas numbers from the 1960’s-early 1990’s, but since 1993, the numbers seem to have stabilized, and there is no longer a decline. Many young Almas have been seen. Almas in the area are stealthy are rarely seen. They live in the many caves of the region. In the past, they appeared on the outskirts of towns. Around World War 2, one Almas lived in a village garden for an entire summer.

Almas are generally not dangerous, but locals are still afraid of them. The local humans in general do not harm the Almas. The Almas are primitive and have no known language, though they can repeat phrases in a parrot-like fashion. There are suggestions that they may be a relict Neandertal type. They are called by some experts “retarded Neandertals.” They seem incapable of advanced human reasoning, but they are great at hiding. They communicate only with loud “boom” noises.

An Almas corpse was found in 2000 near Elbrus, but the finder buried it, and subsequent trips to look for it were not successful. In 2007, A British researcher organized a trip to the region to search for the Almas. They did not see any, but they came back with scat, hair and bones which they intended to try to sequence for DNA.

Two Almas have been killed in Chechnya during the fighting in recent years, one by government forces and one by rebels. Almas have done well during the fighting and are often said to increase their numbers during wartime for some reason. In 1941, Soviet soldiers captured an Almas in Dagestan. It was covered in hair but was unable to speak, yet they felt it was human. They shot it, fearing it was a German spy. The body vanished.

The people of the Caucasus, similarly to the people of Soviet Central Asia, say that in the past there was a lengthy war between the humans and the Almas, with the humans winning. As a result, the Almas retreated into the most forbidding areas.

The Yetis in the north of Russia are called Gyona Pel.

Those in Siberia are called Chuchuna. In the 1920’s , Tatyana Zakharova and other Evenki villagers saw a 7-foot tall Chuchuna wearing a deerskin eating berries at Khoboyuto Creek. It ran away when it saw the humans. In the northern region of Russia, Yetis are often described as a whitish-grey. The Yetis north of the Arctic Circle are said to be as white as a polar bear.

Russian scientist Maya Bykova saw a Chuchuna in 1987. It was black with a white patch on its arm. These types are called “marked hominids.” They have been known to approach humans, trade with them, and communicate with them nonverbally.

Almas in the Altai region are found in Altai Province, Tuva Province, Khakass Province, and the Kazakh Altai, in and around the Altai and Sayan Mountains. Almas have recently moved out of the Altai and over to the Shoria Mountains in the Kuzbass due to forest fires in the Altai. Sightings in the Shoria Range date from 2010.

Similar to people in the Caucasus and Soviet Central Asia, the people of the Altai tell of a long war in the past pitting the humans against the Almas, with the humans winning. The result was that the Almas withdrew to the most remote regions.

An Almas was captured along the southern border of Altai Province in the 1830’s. It was kept for one day and then freed. In the Kazakh Altai sometime in the late 1800’s, another Almas was captured. Around the same time, a hunter found some Almas children in a cave. The parents returned quickly and attacked the hunter. He fired his gun at them.

Long ago, residents of the Altai used to leave food out for the Almas at night. Tracks would often show that an Almas collected the food. In 1938-39, an Almas was caught in Khakass Province and brought to Abakan, where it was kept in an iron cage as a show. It is not known what happened to it. Tracks were found in the Sayan Range in 1952. In 1962, scat was found on Abakan Mountain at 7,500 feet and was so unusual that it was brought to Moscow for testing.

The Tuvans refer to the Almas as their ancestors, but say that they are dangerous and that they carry humans off.

Yetis are known from the Crimean Peninsula, the lower Volga, the area around Moscow, Kostroma Province, Arkhangelsk Province, Kirov Province, the Komi Republic, Karelia, the Kola Peninsula, Chelyabinsk Province, Tyumen Province(mostly the far north and far south), and the western part of Krasnoyarsk Province to the Yenisei River and over to Yakutia where they are found from the Lena River east to the Indigirka River, mostly in the Verkoyansk and Polousnyy Mountains, especially the former.

In the Komi Republic, they are found from the Pechora River east and north of the 60th Parallel.

A Yeti was captured in Sartov in the lower Volga in 1989, but it escaped. In 1989, a Yeti was seen in Sudislavl, 200 miles northeast of Moscow in Kostroma Province. In Arkhangelsk, the most recent sighting is from 1992. Possible signs of Yetis were found near Petrozavodsk in Karelia in 1993.

Nine cross-country skiers died on Mount Otorten in the Urals in 1959. Mount Otorten is located where the Komi Republic meets with Tyumen, Perm and Sverdlovsk Provinces. Three were apparently killed by being squeezed to death, which caused rib fracture. Two others had broken skulls, and one had her tongue torn out. Another four died of hypothermia. One theory is that they were killed by a Yeti. Another theory says that they were killed by UFO aliens. The mystery remains.

Yetis are also known from the Kola Peninsula, and there are a few reports from Karelia. In 1988, there were many sightings around Lake Lovozero on the Kola Peninsula. The sightings were continuous, such that authorities placed a closure area around the lake. Yetis had been sighted on the peninsula far into the past, so they were well known, but recently they had gotten bolder and were hanging around human habitations. The Yeti was aggressive, attacking cabins to try to get the humans to leave.

Kola Peninsula Yetis are very large – 9-10 feet tall. They are grey to white in color. Sightings continued until 1992. Hair, scat, partially chewed berries, etc. were brought back to Moscow for testing. The hair tested “no known animal.”

In Tyumen Republic, they are found from the Komi border to the border to Krasnoyarsk north of the 60th parallel. They are also found in the south of the republic. They are found in Chelyabinsk province next to southern Tyumen Province. In the Komi Republic, they are found all year except the two coldest months of winter. In Yakutia, they are found only in summer, and they disappear in the winter. Some say they hibernate in holes in the ground here. Siberian Yetis are good sized, 6’5″-7 feet tall.

Over in the Far East, aside from the Altai region, Yetis are also known from the Primorksy region to the east of Vladivistock near China.

The Gulebany is the name for the Almas of Azerbaijan, found in the Talysh Mountains. They have kidnapped humans before. Last sighting was in 1947.

Almas types are reported from the Zagros Mountains in Iran. They are also reported from the mountains of the northeast. The people of Iran, similar to the Russians, tell of a long war in the past pitting the humans against the Almas. The humans won the war, and the Almas retreated to the most remote regions. Almas are surely extant.

The Chinese version is called Yeren or “wild man.” It is 6-9 feet tall and has a heavy coat of red-brown hair. It has human eyes, an apelike face and large ears. It is similar to a Yeti, larger, stronger and less human than an Almas or Nguoi Rung. These Chinese have discussed these Yeren for thousands of years.

Four were shot or otherwise killed between 1940-1967. In 1940, one was killed in Gansu. In 1961, another was killed in Yunnan. Soldiers killed and ate a Yeren in Yunnan in 1962. This one was small, only four feet tall.

In 1976, Chinese scientists examined Yeren hair, and found that it differs from humans. Examinations reveal an exact match for Bigfoot hair from the US. The Yeren are commonly seen in one remaining area of central China that is heavily forested, the Shennongjia region of Hebei Province. There may be 1,000-2,000 of these creatures in this region.

In 1953, a Yeren kidnapped a woman in Shennongjia, had sex with her, and she had a child. The 1/2 Bigfoot was videotaped in 1986 at age 33. He was 6’5″ and had a body that had Bigfoot proportions. He did not speak any language.

They are also found in Shanxi and Sichuan Provinces. The last observance in Shanxi was in 1950. One was captured in Sinkiang Province near Tibet in 1913 but died after a few months of captivity.

They are reportedly totally vegetarian. The most recent sightings were in 2010. Extant.

A relict hominid type creature is said to exist in Japan. It is called the Hibagon. Its existence is uncertain.

In addition, a Hobbit type called the Koropokkuru is reported by the Ainu as being the first inhabitants of Japan. They were only 2-3 feet tall, were covered with hair and smelled bad. They lived in pits in the ground over which they built huts. They fashioned small knives. They generally avoided the Ainu, but there was some sporadic trading under the cover of night.

At one point a war broke out between the Ainu and the dwarves, and the Koropokkuru were exterminated. Archeologists do report finding pit dwellings all over Japan that are not consistent with the Ainu. In 1879, archeologists dug up a site called Ōmori. There they found pottery that was not consistent with Ainu culture. Some Japanese archeologists associate this site with the Koropokkuru.

A relict hominid, the Kapre, is said to exist in the Philippines. They live on Luzon. There are recent sightings. They often live in caves and are good sized. Residents say it is just another animal in the forest and leave food out for it at night, often rice and durian fruits, of which it is very fond. It often gives gifts back in return. Filipinos like these creatures and refuse to harm them. This creature is very tall, 8-9 feet.

There were sightings by Japanese soldiers during the Battle of Leyte in 1944 – a Kapre terrorized them in a cave. One was captured in Ilocos de Norte on Luzon in 1961 and taken on tour with a carnival. There are sightings after 1975 on Luzon. Extant but declining.

Relict hominids called Nguoi Rung also live in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, often living in caves. They are about 4’9″-6 feet tall. They have pinkish skin and are covered with hair that is grey, reddish, brown or black. They are generally considered to be a “civilized” or advanced type similar to the Almas. Nguoi Rung do not appear to have much in the way of language. They are strong, but not as strong as a Bigfoot or Yeti.

Many were seen and killed during the Vietnam War, especially near the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Quite a few GI’s reported encounters with “the apes” as they called them. In one case, “the apes” kept raiding the base at night and stealing food. GI’s felt they were dealing with some kind of orangutan. Troops from both sides were killed by the Nguoi Rung during the war.

The war seems to have driven the Nguoi Rung in Vietnam to near extinction, and they are seldom seen anymore. However, footprints were seen and cast in 1982 on Chu Mo Ray Mountain in Vietnam, and from 1983-1998, there were a number of sightings. The sightings are mostly in the region where Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam all come together, especially the Kontum-Sa Thay area of Vietnam.

Not all of these creatures are violent. Sometimes they come at night to human campfires and sit with men, but they say nothing or speak unintelligibly.

They move rapidly across mountains, climb trees easily, shake trees to get bugs to eat and live in caves.

In 1979 in Phnom Sampov, Cambodia, 12 people sighted 15 Nguoi Rung, 5 or 6 adults and the 8 juveniles, with 2 babies on the backs of the females. Many other people saw groups of Nguoi Rung moving through this area, so it looks like the Vietnam War didn’t drive them extinct after all. Phnom Sampov is in the northwest of Cambodia near the Thai border, so it looks like the Nguoi Rung are not limited to northeastern Cambodia.

There was also a recent sighting from the Ratanakiri area, which is a hot spot for Nguoi Rung activity. Ratanakiri is near the area where Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia all come together. Virachey National Park is in this region. Extant.

Around 1900, there were reports of small hominids with thick reddish hair on their bodies in Laos. There have been no further reports. Probably similar to an Orang Pendek type. Possibly extinct.

There is another taller type up to 9 feet tall that is recorded from Indochina and Burma. Several sightings of these were recorded by Allied soldiers fighting the Japanese during World War 2. There have been no sightings since. Possibly extinct.

There is supposedly a hominid called Kung-tu or Mouthman that lives in Burma. These are up to 20 feet tall and have supposedly terrorized Burmans for centuries. Their existence is dubious.

Mawas are known from peninsular Malaysia. We have many exciting recent findings coming out of one part of Malaysia that is still heavily forested. The Orang Asli people, the most ancient humans out of Africa, live there, and they have made most of the sightings. The Orang Asli are very afraid of the Mawas.

These relict hominids are about 6-9 feet tall and are generally vegetarian. Reportedly has only four toes. A captive Mawa was observed in Johor in 1870. I feel that there may be a big or even huge relict hominid discovery coming out of Malaysia soon, maybe even before North America. Extant.

The Batatut is also known from Malaysia, mostly around Saban. This is a small, proto-pygmy type, about 4 feet tall. It is very shy and nocturnal, but can also be highly aggressive – there are stories of them attacking humans and tearing out their livers. A researcher found its broad footprints in 1970 and was terrified. This is possibly the Orang Pendek in Borneo. Existence probable.

The Orang Dalam is a giant from Malaysia, reportedly 10-20 feet tall and covered with hair. The footprints are 18 inches and the stride is 12 feet. There were sightings in 1871, 1953, 1954, 1959, 1966, 1969 and 1971. The 1966 sighting was on a rubber estate near Segamat, 40 miles from Kuala Lumpur. Villagers said the giants were “shy but harmless apes.” 45 years ago, it was already under heavy retreat into the jungles due to human population pressure and loss of feeding grounds. Existence uncertain or possibly extinct.

In 1986, two relict hominids were reported in Southern Thailand in the company of Thai troops. The incident occurred in the village of Phibun in Nakhon Sri Thammarat Province. They were tied up. They were described as hair-covered, ape-like but with human faces. The troops stopped in a village, and everyone in the village saw them.

Bizarrely, the relict hominids were said to drink tea with the soldiers, which makes the story suspect. The relict hominids were taken off to some unknown location. The description of the relict hominids matches well with the description of the Nguoi Rung from Vietnam and Laos.

There is an animal reported from Indonesia called the Orang Pendek. The evidence for its existence is excellent, and it may be related to the recently discovered Homo Florensis on Flores. It is like a small Bigfoot – it is only about 3-4.5 feet tall, has ears that stick out and a belly that protrudes somewhat. but it has very large feet.

It has long honey-yellow to tan colored hair on its head extending down to its buttocks and is hairy. Its arms extend down to its knees. It has a coned head and its face is very humanoid, black colored with some pink markings. The skin on its body is pink. The hair resembles Orangutan hair. It is heavily muscled and very strong. As it walks, the Orang Pendek pulls on vegetation as a mode of locomotion in the same way that Bigfoot engages in tree-pulling.

Locals hunt most of the animals in the forest, but they refuse to hunt the Orang Pendek.

Debbie Martyr, a Western conservationist/journalist, has seen Orang Pendeks three times since 1989. An Indonesian anthropologist, Yanuar Achmed, saw one on the slopes of Mt. Kerenci. In 2001, an Indonesian forest ranger named Aripin saw one on the slopes of this same mountain. As early as 1989, the Orang Pendek was becoming rare in the Mt. Kerenci area due to deforestation. Indications are that existing Orang Pendeks may be an endangered species.

In 2003, a poacher operating north of Gunung Tujuh, the “Lake of Seven Peaks,” and east of Mt. Kerinci caught an Orang Pendek in his deer snare. He poked it with his spear, but it grabbed his spear and snapped it in two like a matchstick. Then it bellowed at him in a deafening roar, and the man passed out. When he woke up, the Orang Pendek had freed itself.

I have a feeling that it may be discovered pretty soon, even sooner than Bigfoot maybe.

Orang Pendek DNA was sequenced in 2003 and is not that of any known animal. It looks like human DNA, but it is outside the human range. Definitely extant.

Homo Floresiensis, or Flores Man, is said by natives to have survived on Flores Island until the late 1800’s. Called Ebu Gogo, they were small, hairy, and friendly, but very shy. Reports indicate that they could breed with humans. They lived in caves. People would leave food out for them at night and they would come to get it. In return, the Hobbits would give the humans gifts.

However, they started stealing human children, hoping to learn from them how to cook food. This enraged the humans, who chased the Ebu Gogo into a cave, piled brush in the front and set it on fire, killing off the Ebu Gogo. A few Ebu Gogo may have survived, but there have been no sightings since the late 1800’s. Probably extinct.

Relict hominids called Baramanu are said to exist in Pakistan in the Chitral region. They are about 5.5-6 feet tall and covered in hair. They are mostly found in the Shishi Kuh Valley of Chitral. Said to resemble prehistoric man. There have been many sightings and footprints in recent years. A body of a Baramanu was supposedly found recently, but followup was not successful. A Spanish researcher, Jordi Magraner, went there to study them for years and gathered many reports. Later, he was murdered, and research has ended. Extant.

The Yeti, of course, is known from Tibet, Nepal, and Bhutan. The Yeti is quite large – about eight feet tall, and it has white, black, russet-red or grey fur and icy blue eyes. They Yeti is larger, stronger and less human than an Almas.

Nepalese reportedly captured a Yeti once, but it refused to eat and died. The body was abandoned. Two Yetis were seen in Tibet in 1986. A Yeti reportedly killed a woman in Nepal in 1998. The most recent sighting in Nepal was in 2003, but good tracks were found in 2008.

Yetis are capable of throwing boulders long distances and with excellent accuracy. They reportedly make tools. Inside of their liars, sharpened wood, bone and stone tools have been found, some fashioned into spears or arrows. The Yeti smells terrible.

Another Yeti is called Meti and does not exceed 5’9 inches. It has a coned head, a stocky apelike body that has human qualities, is covered with reddish-brown hair, and has long arms down to its knees.

One of the related types is called the Nyalmo. This is a giant type, an incredible 15 feet tall. It leaves long, four toed tracks. The first documented sighting occurred in 1937. A group of them were standing in a circle and chanting while one beat a hollow tree trunk. Existence dubious.

There is a smaller type, the Miniti, 4.5 feet tall, that was seen by biologist A. A. Tishkov on the China-Tibet border. The Miniti also lives in Nepal at 14,500-16,500 feet elevation. The Miniti is probably the same as the Tehlma.

A smaller one, the 4.5 foot tall Tehlma, is a proto-Pygmy type that lives in the steamy mountain valleys of Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Tibet. It has thick, reddish hair, hunched shoulders and a coned head that slopes backwards sharply. Its feces have been examined, and they contained an unknown primate parasite. Since parasites are typically species-specific, this implies that the Tehlma is a new species. The last known sighting was in 1958. The Tehlma exists.

Another type called the Dzuti may be a rare bear species, or perhaps it exists. It is said to be on average 8’2. This is the same as the Kung-lu of Burma. Lives in Tibet.

In 2008, an excellent cast of Yeti footprints was found by Joshua Gates in Nepal and appears to be genuine. The prints were found in the Khumbu region on the banks of the Manju River at 9,300 feet. They differ in some respects from Bigfoot footprints.

Yeti DNA was finally sequenced in 2009. The results came back in the range of large primates such as man, chimpanzees and gorillas, but the DNA sequence was unknown. In other words, it was a large unknown primate.

Pieces of the Pangboche Hand, a purported Yeti hand skeleton found at a monastery in Nepal, were tested by DNA analysis. The results came back near-human, but not human. Earlier they were examined by a London primatologist who determined that the bones resembled those of Neandertal. The Yeti certainly exists.

A truly gigantic Bigfoot lived in Kerala State, India, 30,000 years ago. It was 17 feet tall and weighed 900 pounds. Footprints 22-27 inches long have been found in a cave by anthropologists.

A large form of the Yeti, 7.5-9 feet tall, the Mande Burung, possibly a lowland form of the Yeti, is known from the Garo Hills of Meghalaya State in India. The footprints are 12-15 inches long. There have been many sightings recently, including one in 2008. Hairs of this creature were analyzed in 2008 and came back as not matching any of the known animals in the region. Possibly exists.

A tiny race of hominids used to live in Sri Lanka. These were called Nittaewo, and in the modern era, they lived in the nearly inaccessible Leanama Mountains. They are apparently now extinct. They had a chattering, bird-like language and were very small – 3 to 4 feet tall. They had reddish hair all over their bodies. Some think they were an Orang Pendek type. The local Veddas hated the Nittaewo and at one point, forced them into a cave, piled brush in the cave and set it on fire, wiping out the Nittaewo. This event occurred in the late 1700’s.

Hairy, quadrupedal hominids are reported from Malaita in Melanesia. They are small, hairy and walk on four limbs. Existence dubious.

A type of pygmoid is reported from the New Hebrides Islands of Melanesia. May be a new race of pygmy types or possibly a new species. Existence dubious.

A Bigfoot type, large and hairy, is reported from the Solomon Islands. It lives in the mountains of Guadalcanal and Laudari. Existence dubious.

A race of cone-headed pygmies is known from Fiji. Ancestral humans had a saggital crest similar to Bigfoot’s. There was sighting by 6 people on July 19, 1975. They saw eight pygmies, 2 feet tall and covered with hair, run into the brush. Existence uncertain.

A tiny, 2-foot tall “insular dwarf” skeleton is known from Palau in the Pacific. It is dated at 1000-3000 YBP. This goes along with many stories of tiny people who lived in Pacific islands.

The Yowie is known from Australia. It is very large – about 6-8 feet tall. It has a human like face and long canines and is covered with long brown hair. Yowie hair has recently been gathered and is a direct match for Bigfoot hair from North America. Yowies certainly exist.

In addition, a hairy dwarf type called the Junjdy is said to live in the north Queensland mountains. Existence unknown.

There is another giant type called the Jimbra, reported from Kalgoorlie in West Australia. They are smelly, 7-14 feet tall, and have gorilla-like faces. The males have clearly visible genitals. They have been reported since the days of the first White settlers. Existence uncertain.

In the Nullarbor Plains of South Australia, a giant called the Tjanjara has been seen. In August 1972, Steve Moncreif, a fossil hunter, was exploring in Yarle Lakes on the edge of the Great Victorian Desert. A 10 foot tall creature with a club in its hand saw him and chased him through the ravine. Tjanjaras had been seen in the area two years prior. In 1989, a 13 foot tall Tjanjara wielding a club was seen near Etadunna by two carloads of bush trekkers. Existence uncertain to possible.

A relict hominid is said to exist in New Zealand. It is called the Moehau. They are said to use stone knives, clubs and hand axes. Moehaus killed some Whites in the Coramandel Mountains in the late 1800’s. Before that, Maoris said that Moehaus and other relict types often killed Maoris and ate them. There are recent sightings, which are counterintuitive as there are no native placental mammals on the island.

In 1970, there was a sighting of a hairy Moehau in the Milford Wilderness which screamed and threw rocks at campers. It was 6.5 feet tall.

Around the same time, in Fjordland, at Haast Pass and on Mt. Helen, bushwackers found large Moehau footprints. There have been many sightings of a large Moehau in the Haast Pass area. In 1971, a ranger found tracks in the Nelson Lakes National Park. In 1972, Trevor Silcox saw a 6.5 foot Moehau while hunting in the Coramandels.

Mountaineers have made many sighting of huge footprints and even a few sightings of 6.5-9 foot Moehaus on Kaikura Mountain, which rises to over 8,000 feet. In January 1983, a hunter found a long trail of huge Moehau footprints in the Heaphy River region of Northwest Nelson State Forest Park.

In 1991, campers in the Cameron Islands in the southwest of New Zealand found huge, 17.5 inch Moehau footprints in the dense forest. In 2001, there were reports of huge Moehaus in the Urewera Ranges near Waikaremoana south of Gisborne. Moehaus may well exist.

There are said to be some relict hominids still living in Africa, especially in West, East and South Africa. In East Africa, they are known from Mozambique, Tanzania and Kenya.

In West Africa, there are reports from the Ivory Coast in the 1940’s. It is called the Séhité. No sightings since. It may be extinct.

One from East Africa is small, only 4-5 feet tall and has rust colored skin. It is called the Agogwe, but it has many different names. The natives refused to hunt them. The most recent sighting was in the 1940’s.

It is thought that these and other proto-pygmies in Africa are surviving australopithecines. This is because Agogwes have been seen in the company of baboons. No monkey would go near baboons for fear of being eaten, and no baboon would tolerate a man, as they run from humans. The lack of sightings over the past 70 years implies that the Agogwe may be extinct.

A similar type is known from Zimbabwe. It is called the Kakundakári. It has not been seen since around 1960. Animal collector Charles Cordier found the last tracks around 1960. He also noted that a Kakundari had gotten caught in one of his traps but had somehow managed to extract itself. Possibly extinct due to lack of recent sightings.

There is a race of very short proto-Pygmies which live in Madagascar. They are called the Kimo or the Kalanoro. It’s not known whether these are actual Pygmies or whether they are a new species. The evidence for their existence is poor.

Various human-sized hominids are reported from all over the African continent.They have long reddish or brownish hair on their bodies and are described as humanoid.

One dwarf type called the Dodu is three feet tall and has three fingers and three toes. It lives in the Cameroon-Congo border region. One was seen in January 2001. Existence probable.

There is said to be a type of giant hominid in Africa, something like a Bigfoot. They can range up to 14 feet tall. They live in Zaire, Cameroon, Kenya and Sudan. The type in Zaire is called the Kikongo or the Muhalu, and is 7.5-8 feet tall. There are reports from the early 1960’s. Existence uncertain to dubious or possibly extinct.

There were many stories that some Neandertals survived in Europe until about 1,000 years ago, when they finally all died off. They lived in high mountains and forests in caves and avoided people. I now believe that these “giant” stories, thought to be remaining Neandertals, were actually relict hominids.

Relict hominids were probably killed off or died off in Europe recently. We have a good report from Germany in 1650 but few to none since. We now have two good relict hominid videos shot in the Tatras Mountains in Poland, the highest mountains of Poland, with peaks ranging up to 7,500 feet. It appears that relict hominids are slowly moving back into Europe. The relict hominids from Poland look a lot like North American Bigfoots. A relict hominid was spotted in Kosovo in 2005.

Snömannen are the relict hominids of Scandinavia. They are found in the polar regions of Sweden, Finland and Norway. The description is similar to the one for Bigfoots. Sightings are few, but they are as recent as 1985. A research team doing geological work on Spitzbergen Island, Norwegian land far to the north of Norway between the 75th and 80th parallel, at the same latitude as northern Greenland and Ellesmere Island in Canada, encountered a hairy hominid. It resembled the Alaskan Arulataq. Existence uncertain.

The Ventimiglian Giant is a large, hairy hominid over 6.5 feet tall. It is known from a flurry of sightings in the Ventimiglia region of northern Italy around 1996 and 1997. In one case, three were seen in the forest, and in another case, a short, thick neck was noted. Its existence is uncertain.

The Vedi is a hairy hominid type from Croatia, especially the area near the Hungarian border. There have been no sightings since 1950 or so. Many cases involved females sneaking up on male farmhands sleeping in stables. The females would cozy up to the males. This is similar to female Almas’ behavior in the Caucasus.

Dwarves are known from Ireland, Scotland and mainland Europe. This includes leprechauns, trolls and dwarves. These are hairy hominids only 2 feet tall. There is a long tradition of stories about them in Europe. It is unknown if they exist; they may be just mythology.

Wudewasas were a European relict hominids that lived in Europe, mostly in Finland, until the 1400’s. They carried large clubs with them.

The Fear Liath Mor or Greyman is said to haunt the peak of Ben McDhui in Scotland. Large, grey and scary-looking. It probably does not exist and is just a myth.

The Running Man is said to exist in Scotland. There have been recent sightings, and there is a long tradition of stories. This is sort of a Bigfoot type. It likes to run instead of walk and is said to run alongside cars to look in the windows. Its existence is dubious.

The Basajaun is a hairy relict hominid, standing 5-6 feet tall, that lives in the Basque Country of Spain. It is hostile and hangs around homes for food. There have been recent sightings, including one in which a group of paleontologists was attacked by one. Existence probable.

Relict hominids do not appear to exist in most of Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Korea, Bangladesh, Taiwan, Micronesia, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay and the Caribbean.

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Interview With a Bhutanese Maoist Leader

This is a reprint from another blog, an interview with a leader of the Bhutanese Maoists who are beginning an armed insurgency against the Bhutanese state.

A little background: Actually, in some ways, this is a racial conflict. About 100 years ago, many Nepalese moved into Southern Bhutan as immigrants. Apparently this immigration was completely legal, as in they were not illegal immigrants.

The majority of the people in Bhutan were more Mongoloid Asian types, Buddhists who phenotypically resemble Tibetans and speak a Tibeto-Burman language. The Nepalese were Hindus speaking Nepali, an Indo-European language.

Phenotypically, Nepalese are very unusual. They are on the border between Caucasians and Asians. Some more resemble Caucasians and some more resemble Asians. Most of the ones who moved into Southern Bhutan were more Caucasian types.

Anyway, at some point, they become 60% of the population of Bhutan! But the state continued to be ruled by the ethnic Bhutanese Tibetan-type Buddhists.

A few decades ago, for some unknown reason, the monarchy simply ethnically cleansed most of the Nepalese out of the country and so ended up with a more mono-ethnic and monocultural state. Furthermore, the Nepalese were forbidden from returning.

They have been festering in refugee camps ever since, and have been growing more and more radical. Soon a Maoist party was born and it developed a huge following in the camps. Very huge! In the past few years, they have began an armed struggle inside Bhutan, but there have only been a few incidents. Apparently they are laying the groundwork for people’s war, which they claim they have not yet began.

Sushil claims that the Bhutanese state is feudal or semi-feudal, and I think he is probably correct. The entire region remains feudal to semi-feudal – India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and even Afghanistan. The feudalism tends to cut across ethnic and religious boundaries and seems to be a regionalism. Recall that Tibetan was actually feudal until the Maoists took over in 1949 and overthrew the feudal monarchy.

In this region, the feudal monarchs usually use religion, as such folks always do and have always done, to enforce feudalism. The Hindu monarchs in Nepal claimed tied closely into their Hindu Gods. More or less the same with the Dalai Lamas in Tibet, similar to the divinely appointed religous-political monarchs that ruled in Europe for so long.

I figure if you throw a bunch of humans on an island, after a while, the strongest will kill and or subject the weaker ones. Some total prick will rise up, call himself ruler – king – whatever, somehow gather up 90% of the wealth for him and his asshole buddies, found a fucking religion in which somehow he has an umbilical cord to God, and then use the Man-God game to enforce elite rule over his impoverished subjects.

That’s the way humans operate.

This group has connections to Maoists in Nepal who now form a huge portion of the government (40%). They also have connections to Maoists in India who are increasingly tearing up the countryside. I do not think that this insurgency will be settling down anytime soon, but unless they make deep connections to the ethnic Tibeto-Burman types who are now the majority in the country, it’s never going to win.

An Interview with Comrade Sushil of the Communist Party of Bhutan (Marxist-Leninist- Maoist), the party which is waging armed struggle against the Monarchy in Bhutan. Talks about tactics, strategy and aims of the party.

———— ——— ——— ——— –

Saturday, May 23, 2009

The following Interview was conducted at some point in the previous few weeks. It occurred somewhere in the area of the Indian-Bhutan border.

Lal Salam Blog: Thank you very much for meeting with me. So are you from Bhutan?

Comrade Sushil: Yes, from Bhutan.

Lal Salam Blog: From the Bhutanese refugee camps?

Comrade Sushil: Uhh, actually people think that all our party are from the refugees, but i am from Bhutan. I have spent allot of time in India, working, but then also in Bhutan and then in Nepal working for the party as well.

Lal Salam Blog: So you are a cadre of the Communist Party Bhutan (Marxist Leninist Maoists)?

Comrade Sushil: Yes i am a member of the Communist Party of Bhutan (Marxist Leninist Maoist). I have been a member since 2003 and i have worked actively as a whole timer since the same year. I joined the party from within Bhutan.

Lal Salam Blog: What is the history of the Party?

Comrade Sushil: The CPB(MLM) was established on the 7th of November 2001, and the announcement of the Party was on the 22nd of April 2003. From this time the party has been working with the exploited people in Bhutan. The people are all exploited by the regime, so our party has been working with all the people, mainly in rural areas, but in urban areas also. Mostly we work with the people in the villages.

Lal Salam Blog: So what are the problems in Bhutan? What sort of oppressions are forced on the people of Bhutan?

Comrade Sushil: The biggest problem is the feudal Monarchy. Because of this monarchy the problems are created. Peoples standard of living has been kept backwards because of the Monarchy. In a third world country like Bhutan, this is because of feudalism. This feudalism is the main problem of Bhutan. This is why the Communist Party, our glorious party, is working to overthrow the regime, and to overthrow feudalism.

Lal Salam Blog: So the goal of the Party for now is to throw out feudalism from Bhutan?

Comrade Sushil: Definitely. The main aim of our party is to overthrow feudalism and to establish the peoples rule in Bhutan.

Lal Salam Blog: So you would like to establish a People’s State in Bhutan? Is that what you would have replace the King?

Comrade Sushil: We should not understand like this. We should replace the king with a Proletarian Dictatorship. Our aim, our hope, no our dream is to establish a New Democratic Socialism. Only after that can we achieve our ultimate goal, which is to achieve communism. It is not only our goal to throw out the king and overthrow feudalism in Bhutan, but to establish a peaceful society that can achieve socialism and communism.

Lal Salam Blog: Last year your party started a Peoples War in Bhutan…

Comrade Sushil: No. We have not initiated a protracted peoples war in Bhutan. Since our parties establishment we have however had many rural peoples class struggles and these struggles have used different means. In different ways we have launched many struggles and programs, and we have the aim of reaching a level where we can launch a Protracted Peoples War.

Last year we did initiate some armed struggles, which is only a factor of the rural class struggle. Much of the media proclaimed this as the beginning of the Peoples War, but we are not at that phase. We are trying to reach the level of Peoples War, but we have not yet reached it, and are preparing for it. We do not know how long this will take, it will depend on many factors.

Lal Salam Blog: So there will be more attacks, more bombs and more armed actions in the future?

Comrade Sushil: Certainly. We are preparing for this. There will be more armed struggle. Without the armed struggle, we cannot change the situation in our country. We cannot change the state power. We will one day take the state power, but for now we are in preparation, making networks with the peasants and in the cities, training, preparing for the struggle.

Lal Salam Blog: Do you think Peoples War can be successful? Bhutan is already a very brutal state. As many as a sixth of the population lives in exile and the state has beaten, attacked, arrested and even raped and murdered those it perceives to be political activists?

Comrade Sushil: Our parties thought is that only by waging the armed struggle and the Peoples War can we win the liberation of our exploited people. I believe so. Thousands of people have been evicted from Bhutan, we are very aware of this. Why were they evicted? They were evicted after political activism and movements. They were evicted because the people in the southern belt had a high political consciousness.

This is totally not a refugee problem, this is a political problem. It is a problem of a brutal monarchy and a restrictive feudal system. Without destroying these institutions we cannot solve these problems. Our party is launching this armed struggle to liberate the exploited people and we know that one day we will be successful. This is a long term plan, it will take many preparations, and without this and without correct politics we cannot be successful.

We have this ideology, the Marxist-Leninist- Maoist and this is a political weapon. With this weapon we believe that one day we will be successful.

Lal Salam Blog: So have you learnt much from the experiences of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and their experiences in Nepal? Are there close or special links between your parties?

Comrade Sushil: We do not have special or direct links with this party. But, and also like communists all around the world, in Peru, India or the Philippians we have ideological links. These places all have communist parties leading revolution through the armed struggle, and with all of them we have ideological links and an ideological relationship.

That means we support them ideologically and they support us ideologically. We have a relationship with the CP Nepal(Maoist) , but also with the CP India (Maoist) who are also waging an armed struggle. We don’t receive any physical support, or anything like that, but we should understand that we are all communists, and we are all internationalists, and we receive and give moral support.

Lal Salam Blog: What does your party think about Prachanda Path and the Nepali Maoists synthesis? It has been controversial to some international communists.

Comrade Sushil: About this Prachanda Path. It is something we should study. And also it is not only a thing to be studied, it has shown it has the ability to guide workers actions. I don’t want to comment more because the ideological things i have had not sufficiently studied, and till now our party has not discussed at length Prachanda Path.

Lal Salam Blog: The Maoists in Nepal have given up their Peoples War and taken a new tactic in pursuing the Constituent Assembly elections. Is this a correct tactic in your parties opinion?

Comrade Sushil: In regards to the UCPN(M) we do not think that they have given up their goals. We think they are pursuing another way, another tactic to establish a peoples state. We don’t think they have established the proletarian dictatorship. So we, our party, does not think that they have achieve state power.

We too will go for a Constituent Assembly at first, and only after that can we step or jump or leap forward to a New Democratic revolution. In the context of the Maoists we don’t think they have state power, and are still struggling for it. It is a fact that the future shows you which path you must take, you can only pick your path depending on the concrete situation you face.

We will also move for a constituent assembly elections and a new state, but without establishing the proletarian people at the center of this new state then it cannot reach higher and improve the lives of the people. We think that the Maoists of Nepal face similar situations to us, and have similar actions, so we will continue to watch closely.

Lal Salam Blog: So a Constituent Assembly is a tactic that you are interested in for change in Bhutan?

Comrade Sushil: Actually it is the tactics and strategy of communist parties in the third world. Third world countries are semi-colonial and semi-feudal. So without a New Democratic Socialism stage we cannot reach socialism. So we are in this revolution, it is a peasant revolution we can say.

So to reach our aims, to some extent we should aim for a Constituent Assembly, and this is our main slogan and the main aim of the present situation in our revolution. That is not our only slogan, and out only goal, and it isn’t the only thing that we campaign around with the peasants and people of Bhutan. And we don’t want or aspire to another bourgeois constitution, but we need a constitution that is in favor of the oppressed and poor people of Bhutan.

Lal Salam Blog: Last year the government of Bhutan held elections, in a very restricted and controlled way, but the western media still presented this as a opening up and of “democracy”. If there was to be a more open electoral system, would the CPB(MLM) pursue peaceful politics through elections?

Comrade Sushil: WE think there is only one path to real democracy in Bhutan. We don’t believe in the current “democracy” this is well known. And we don’t think that this system can lead to real democracy. The international community has its formula and they see votes and call it democracy- but there is no such thing in Bhutan and it is not possible to impose a real democracy from the outside into Bhutan.

Any “democracy” that the regime brings into practice itself will be done in such a way so that real power continues to be restricted and kept in the hands of the old order, and not in the hands of the mass of exploited people, so that this “democracy” could not be used against the regime. Even if the regime cast out the king, it would not fundamentally change it.

Our party will not make compromises with that order. We wont co-operate with their agenda, we have another agenda that is contradiction to theirs. We are going to establish the rule of all the people while they just want to exploit them. There is this contradiction between the people and the regime.

Our party struggles because of that. If they were to try and set up a “democracy” for then when we should not be a part of it. When i say this it does not mean that we are militarists. The people want peace, and don’t want to live in terror but this regime suppresses and exploits the people, they already live in terror. It is not a hobby to carry out armed struggle, it is our only option the liberation of our people.

Lal Salam Blog: Bhutan is such a tiny country, and it has very close relations, with India in particular. If you care to reach peoples war, do you think India would interfere to defend its interests?

Comrade Sushil: On this the whole party is very much conscious. But in the present situation India is not so dangerous to Bhutan. China is quite dangerous. 11,500 square kilometers of Bhutan’s lands have been occupied and taken by China. So we are surrounded by two very large and powerful countries, who are always looking to interfere into Bhutan.

They have two ways of interfering. Political intervention and direct intervention. There are Indian Army camps established in Bhutan. There are several big barracks. We have known this but we don’t think they will intervene directly. Maybe at some point in the future. There will be political intervention, and we can try to counter this with our allies by rousing grassroots support for our cause in India.

We are already doing this. If they try to intervene militarily it will be a heavy cost for them, a bloody and long civil war. Also the regime and the fuedalists don’t want this. They want to defend their borders, protect his kingdom. We also want to establish the sovereignty of Bhutan, so we will always fight foreign influence, from India as well as China.

Lal Salam Blog: I understand that your party has allot of support amongst the refugees in Nepal.

Comrade Sushil: We are not just a party for the refugees. We have support where ever our people are.

Lal Salam Blog: So in India, Nepal and Bhutan?

Comrade Sushil: Yes.

Lal Salam Blog: And your party does work amongst all the communities of Bhutan and across the whole country, not just in the southern Belt that is largely Nepali speaking?

Comrade Sushil: The southern belt is not only Nepali speaking, but there are people from many communities there as well. Myself i haven’t been to the north as yet, our party does work there, but i have been working in the south and also in the east. In allot of people, and in the media there is allot of confusion. The CPB(MLM) is not just a party in the refugee camps, and not just Nepali speaking. We have cadres of many ethnic backgrounds, and our party works all over Bhutan.

Lal Salam Blog: For the refugees in Nepal is it true your party favors repatriation in Bhutan rather then resettlement in third countries?

Comrade Sushil: It is not that our party policy is just to return people to Bhutan. It is not a solution. Liberating the people of Bhutan is the only real and long term solution to this problem. We are not for resettlement, and we are not for repatriation in Bhutan without changing anything else. Moving people around like they are animals is not a solution.

That is our position. There needs to be a political solution to this, and only then can the refugees get their rights. Some people have said our party was created to agitate for the repatriation of refugees, this is not the case. Our party was established within Bhutan and amongst the people. We are in favour of all the oppressed people.

Only understanding the problem of the refugees as a problem of the political structure of Bhutan that we can find a solution. Our party was not established for the refugees, but for all the Bhutanese.

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