Category Archives: Wisconsin

How Trump Stole the Election by Rigging Voting Machines

This story will have several parts. First of all, I know more about this than 99% of the people out there who are all screaming “conspiracy theory,” so maybe they should go do some research.

Recounts were done in 3 states.

26,000 fake votes for Trump were found in Pennsylvania.

5,000 fake votes for Trump were found in Wisconsin. They were due to “accidents.”

2,000 fake votes for Trump were found in Michigan.

The media never reported any of this. The media lied and said the recounts changed nothing and only added a few Trump votes. They were completely wrong about the recounts, and all the MSM-CIA Deep State news outlets lied and said the same thing.

Also recounts were never even done anyway!

In the most Democratic-heavy areas of Wisconsin, the votes were “recounted” by simply running them through the same machines that probably miscounted them in the first place! But even when they re-ran them through the machines, Stein people were counting the ballots as they went in, and a lot of times their count did not match the total. The error was always in Trump’s favor. Even with obvious fraud or error in those precincts, election officials still refused to hand-count the votes.

Further, there was obstructionism everywhere in Republican precincts, with many Republican pollworkers engaging in what appeared to be deliberate fraud right in front of pollwatchers.

Further, exit polls showed Hillary 3%+ in Wisconsin. The final vote was Trump by a hair. An exit poll in one state could go off badly like that, but they went off in over a dozen states, and that’s not possible. It’s not possible. Further, there was a strong red-shift in the Republican direction with 19/20 exit polls going off favoring Republicans, and in 13 different states, polls were off by more than the margin of error. In a real election, you might expect to have one exit poll not match out of 50. There’s no way that 19/50 exit polls were wrong and 13/50 were grotesquely wrong, almost all favoring Republicans. It didn’t happen. It could not have happened.

In Michigan, there were 70,000 undervotes in Detroit alone! That makes no sense, as there are usually 20,000 undervotes in the whole state. There is no way that there were 70,000 blank ballots in Detroit. These “blank ballots” were never recounted because the voter sign-in numbers did not match the counted ballot numbers in those precincts. A Michigan law says that when that happens, that is indicative of electoral fraud, and that means the votes cannot be recounted! Yeah. Michigan says when there’s evidence of fraud, you can’t recount the votes! Wut.

In the recounting that was done, Trump’s attorneys attended all the recounts, shouted down all efforts at a proper recount, and challenged all changed votes.

All pre-polls found Hillary winning handily in Michigan, and exit polls also showed her winning. In fact, Michigan media called the election early because she was wining so handily on exit polls.

In Pennsylvania almost no votes were recounted at all, yet somehow they found 26,000 fake votes for Trump anyway! There were no ballots to count because there were no ballots period. Count was by electronic scan machines which are banned almost all of Europe as too easy to manipulate. The only way to check the vote in Pennsylvania was to examine the computers that counted the ballots themselves by computer forensics experts. Judges in the Great Democracy of America ruled that the Pennsylvania recount could not go forward. Because, you know, recounting hurts our democracy! Yep. That was exactly the Republican argument.

We have to ask ourselves, why did the Republicans fall all over themselves to stop the recounts? If there’s no fraud, count the ballots right? A little suspicious maybe?

So there were no real recounts, and they still found 33,000 fake votes for Trump. 33,000 fake votes for Trump, even without even doing any recounts.

The vote in Florida was impossible. Hillary was winning for a long time with up to 65% of the vote in early voting. 65% had already voted by Election Day, and Hillary had 57%, a huge lead. She even won 28% of Republican women! For Trump to have won, a tsunami of Trump voters would have had to swarm the polls on Election Day and almost no Hillary voters would have had to show up. There is no way that that happened, and Hillary had huge turnout all over the state on Election Day. The nation’s top statisticians have stated that Trump’s win in Florida was “statistically impossible.”

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Filed under Conspiracies, Democrats, Florida, Michigan, Midwest, Northeast, Politics, Regional, Republicans, South, US Politics, USA, Wisconsin

Excellent Evidence that the 2016 Election Was Stolen by Donald Trump and the Republicans via Hacking of Voting Machines

We do not have a democracy in the US anymore, if we ever had one in the first place. We now officially have a dictatorship now that we have solid proof that Donald Trump stole the Presidency via hacking of voting machines that are used to count the votes in many states.

Two Senators in Wisconsin and Pennsylvania also stole their seats with those machines.

The machines were used to steal the vote for Trump in Florida, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Michigan and Wisconsin. The Republicans have been stealing elections for a long time with these machines.

Even the Democratic wins were actually far greater than what they ended up with. Clinton won one of his elections by 15-20 points, but the machines whittled it way down to half that size or less. They have also been using those damned machines to steal elections in the mid-year. Many seats were stolen in the 2006 midyear elections. I am wondering how many of those state Legislature and Senate seats and governorships have been stolen? The GOP has been on a roll for some time now, especially since Obama came in with many state Legislatures, Senates and Governorships going Republican. In part this is due to many states simply turning redder, but I suspect that in part it may also have been due to fraud with those machines.

You might also be interested to note that Hillary Clinton stole a number of primaries from Bernie Sanders with those same machines.

And in this fake democracy, we can’t even do recounts of stolen elections! There was no proper recount done in Pennsylvania, Michigan or Wisconsin. And the media lied and said the recounts did not uncover any fraud. Recounts done by the states themselves prior to the official recount found 26,000 fake votes for Trump in Pennsylvania, 5,000 fake votes for Trump in Wisconsin and 2,000 fake votes for Trump in Michigan. In Detroit and the surrounding area alone, there were 80,000 undervotes for President. This is unprecedented. In a typical election, there should be maybe 20,000 undervotes in the whole state.

Most of the stolen votes in Michigan were deemed unrecountable based on an insane Michigan law that says were a fraudulent election is suspected (where voter sign-in numbers do not match ballot numbers) the vote in that precinct is “unrecountable.” So we have evidence of possible fraud, that means we can’t recount the votes! 100% of pre-election polls in Michigan predicted a Hillary win by ~3%. There is no way that all of the pre election polls in Michigan were wrong. It’s just not possible.

In Wisconsin the votes in the Democratic-heavy cities were not even recounted. They were just run through the same machines that probably miscounted them in the first place. Running them through the machines again is not a recount. The only valid recount is by hand.

There was no recount in Pennsylvania because all votes in Pennsylvania are unrecountable! They are counted by optical scan machines and there is no paper trail afterwards. There’s nothing to count!

The Trump win in Florida was statistically impossible. Hillary was running ~65% in the early voting, even capturing 28% of Republican women. In order for Trump to surpass that huge early lead there would have to be such a massive turnout of Trump supporters on election day such that would never happen. And there’s no reason why only Hillary voters and not Trump voters would vote early.

A similar scenario occurred in North Carolina. Hillary was up 65% in early voting again with I believe 50% of the vote counted. The Trump win there,  while statistically possible, is highly unlikely as it would rest upon the notion that a huge number of Hillary voters voted early and then never showed up on Election Day and hardly any Trump voters voted early and the vast majority of them voted on Election Day. It’s absurd.

If those elections in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania and Michigan were so clean, why did the Republicans go crazy trying to stop the recounts? If the election is fair, a recount is nothing to worry about. In this sick joke of a fake democracy, it appears that no Presidential election can ever be recounted no matter how much evidence of fraud. It’s incredible!

Remember when Trump kept saying that the election was going to be rigged? Trump has a habit of projecting and accusing his opponents of doing exactly what he does. Trump was saying that because the election was going to be rigged, by him! In the last few days before the election, Trump and his campaign chair and Giuliani were all extremely confident that Trump would carry Michigan, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania. Everyone else was shaking their heads because Hillary had been leading in almost all polls in those states for some time.

The day before the election, Paul Manafort, Trump’s man with deep connections to Putin’s Russia, told Trump to go to Michigan, despite being behind in all polls there for a long time. Did Manafort know something we do not know? Were the Russians in on the hacking of the election? I would not put it past them, as Putin stole an election in Ukraine a decade ago by hacking the voting machines. Also Russia was caught hacking into a voter registration database of a company in Florida five weeks before the election. That company ran the voter registration database for North Carolina. No one knows what was done in that hack.

The last time election polls were off by this much as in Dewey vs. Truman and polling was in its infancy back then. There is no way on Earth that all of the pollsters got this election wrong. The average of all of the polls was way off in this election. It simply not statistically possible for that to occur in the US. It can’t happen. So none of the pollsters were off. The pollsters were right like they always are. Hillary did win the election except Trump stole it by fraud. Polls cannot predict the outcome of a fraudulent election.

We also know that two Senate seats were stolen this year, one in Wisconsin and one in Pennsylvania.

it is not only Republicans who are stealing elections. This year for the first time, it appears that the Democrats were stealing elections. Of course it was the corporate Democrats around Hillary and the DNC who are the suspects. Hillary appears to have stolen a number of those primaries from Sanders and reduced his lead in others. It looks like the voting machines were used to do this. I would not put it past Hillary to do this. I think she is almost a sociopath.

The voting machines have been being made from Day One by three large corporations. The heads of these corporations are all far rightwing partisans. As soon as those machines got put in, we started seeing a lot of stolen elections for the first time in a long time in the US. Also the software used to count the ballots is proprietary and no one is allowed to look at it. So the elections of the USA are being counted by machines made by a private corporation with proprietary code that no one can look at! Incredible.

This whole thing looks like a Republican plot from the very beginning. Soon after the 2000 debacle which was actually won by Al Gore because Gore actually did win in Florida, Karl Rove and Jack Abramson, the convicted criminal wrote a bill mandating that all states use voting machines in coming elections. Many states then went over to the machines. After these machines were put in in many places, we started seeing a startling number of fraudulent elections. So it looks like that law by Rove and Abramson was written with the knowledge that the Republicans were going to use the machines to steal elections. Computerized voting machines were not in use in 1988, but there is good evidence that Dukakis actually won that election and that Bush Sr. stole it. The votes were being counted by large tallying machines somewhat like the machines that count time cards.

These computerized voting machines have been declared illegal in most of the EU. As usual, the Europeans are far behind us American primitives. In addition, recounts are held regularly in European elections. I believe in Germany now, all major elections go through an automatic hand recount as a matter of course. Now that’s democracy! While democracy blooms in civilized Europe, dictatorship looms in barbarian America.

The mass media refuses to believe that elections are being stolen via these machines. They just will not buy it. I am unsure why this is. The Democratic Party also will not believe that these elections are being stolen, even though they are being stolen right from their own party. I am not sure why that is.

Until we get rid of these damned voting machines, we will never have a democracy in America.

I would also like to point out that the Republican gerrymandering of districts is outrageous and profoundly undemocratic. They have set it up so that no matter what we do, the House of Representatives will be Republican until 2028. There is simply nothing at all we can do to change that. That’s not democracy. That’s dicatorship. Partisan gerrymandering should be illegal. Gerrymandering if it must be done should be done by panels of nonpartisan judges. Studies have shown that nonpartisan gerrymandering results in districts that are much fairer than the partisan ones we have now.

There is no democracy in this country anyway. I don’t think we have had one day of democracy in this country from the very start. The government was set up to be a government of the rich and the elite, and it’s been that way ever since. The people who run this country do not believe democracy. Wealthy elites the world over always hate democracy. Rule by wealthy elites in most places on Earth is dependent on undemocratic means to stay in power. There are just not enough regular working people who are stupid enough to vote for the parties of the rich.

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Moral Panics: Police Shootings, Race Riots, and Muslim Terrorism

Tulio sums it all up so perfectly. These are just vicious circles that endlessly feed back and loop into each other like a dog chasing its tail. One wonders what the solution is. Provocation, revenge attacks, revenge attacks for the revenge attacks, jumpy cops, belligerent suspects, and worst of all, increasingly frightened and angry people looking for more revenge, paybacks and pre-emptive reactions, it just goes on and on.

Hatfields and McCoys.

Tulio: The Black man shot in Milwaukee was shot by a Black cop. Which makes this race rioting all the more bizarre.

This has all been stirred up by the media. When the media focuses on something and starts a narrative, it can lead to a moral panic. Many Black folks, even ones that have never had any violent encounter with the cops, think they are currently under siege. Even if the statistics show that an innocent Black man being killed by cops is more rare than being struck by lightning. Or that 95% of Blacks die at the hand of other Blacks. It doesn’t matter. The news shows it over and over, and it whips them into a frenzy that feeds of itself.

And then people overreact, and there are race riots and retaliatory cop killings. And then race relations began a downward spiral. Whites turn on the news and see Blacks tearing stuff up, setting buildings on fire and shooting cops, which makes them more racist. Then Blacks see Whites becoming more racist and say, “See that, they hate us! Just like we said all along!” Cops who now have to deal the possibility of being shot on the job may be even more inclined to have hair-trigger responses with Blacks, which then feeds into the notion that cops are out to get Blacks, and then you just have one big clusterfuck spiraling out of control.

While I’m not a racist or a racial separatist, the separatists do make good points. If we didn’t share the same nation, we wouldn’t have to worry about intractable race problems. Or the differences in behaviors and perceptions that cause race problems. Dividing up the country into racial territories is never going to happen, but I see why some people would be in favor of it as a solution to race problems, and it makes completely sense in a lot of ways.

Peace in a multiracial society can be fragile. Everything can be humming along fine, and all it takes is for someone to get shot by a cop, and all Hell lets loose, and you see that this pent-up resentment was there all along under the shallow skin of a “post-racial” nation (yeah right).

Also, Whites are capable of this moral panic as well. In their case, swap cops for Muslim terrorists. Even though the statistical likelihood of being killed by a Muslim terrorist on any given day is probably even less likely than being innocently murdered by a cop, Americans think they are constantly under siege from terrorists and that terrorism is more prevalent than it actually is in reality. We have a presidential candidate that doesn’t even want Muslims stepping foot on US soil, and a large of America that agrees with him. Even though we’re orders of magnitude more likely to be killed by a homegrown mass shooter.

So to whites, there’s a terrorist hiding behind every tree ready to kill you. To Blacks, the nation is full of racist cops that want to shoot you dead over a broken taillight. And it’s not that there aren’t terrorists, or that there aren’t cops with an itchy trigger finger and racial biases. It’s that these scenarios are wildly exaggerated by the media, and 99.9% of the Muslims living in America aren’t bothering anyone. And 99.9% of cops will never shoot an unarmed man that isn’t threatening anyone. But the news will keep harping on the .01% exceptions and brainwash people into thinking it’s the norm by running a narrative. And most people are too dumbed down and gullible to question it.

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Filed under Blacks, Crime, Islam, Journalism, Law enforcement, Midwest, Police Brutality, Race Relations, Race/Ethnicity, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Social Problems, Sociology, Terrorism, USA, Whites, Wisconsin

Ugly Race Riot in Milwaukee

I am just hearing about this right now, but it has been going on for a couple of days now ever since Saturday night, August 13. There was more rioting on Sunday night on August 14 and early this Monday morning on August 15.

This is a very ugly race riot. It reminds me of the Watts Riots and the LA Riots in 1993. The things that remind me of those riots:

  • Ongoing rioting for more than a day. A riot lasting more than a day is always an ugly riot.
  • Multiple buildings looted and seven businesses set ablaze or destroyed.
  • Eight police wounded. That’s a lot.
  • Heavy gunfire through much of the rioting. During the very bad LA riots mentioned above, there was usually a lot of gunfire such that police were often pinned down and unable to respond.
  • People wounded by gunfire. People getting shot is always bad news. A lot of people got shot in the Watts Riots.
  • Attacks on fire trucks and firemen. When they start attacking the fire trucks and firemen, you know it’s a bad riot. There were a lot of attacks on firefighters in both LA riots. The Watts Riots were especially bad in that regard.
  • Attempts to pull White motorists out of their cars so they can assault them. This is how the famous assault on Reginald Denny occurred in the LA riots. This sort of thing was also going on in the Watts riots. When a bad race riot like this breaks out, all Whites really need to stay the Hell away and not go lookie-looing at it.
  • Two police cars set ablaze and several more damaged. When they start setting police cars on fire, it’s always a bad riot.

When things like that start happening, it is more than just a police riot. Now you have an out and out race riot similar to the ones we had so many of back in the 1960’s.

August 13, Night

Several cars, including one police car, set on fire.

BP gas station, O’Reilly auto parts store, beauty supply store and BMO Harris branch bank set on fire. The gas station was looted before it was burned.

Supermarket and liquor store destroyed.

Metro PCS along with other stores looted.

When police arrived, gunshots were heard. Firefighters could not put out gas station fire at first due to gunshots but eventually got the fire under control. Rioters attacked fire trucks with bricks. One fireman injured when hit with a brick. Reporters and photographers attacked. One shoved to the ground and assaulted.

Four police wounded.

17 rioters arrested.

August 14, Night

Crowd threw objects at police.

White man shot and wounded near the rioting, apparently by Black rioters. Possibly targeted due to his race. Police needed armored car to retrieve him.

Rioters attempted to pull White motorists out of their cars in order to assault them them.

Gunfire reported. 30 shots fired during the rioting.

August 15, early AM

Three police cars and one BearCat vehicle damaged.

One vehicle and one dumpster set on fire.

Windows broken on store.

Four police wounded.

14 rioters arrested.

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More Election Predictions

Ed writes:

What you are really saying is that Hillary Clinton will defeat Donald Trump at the polls because she is more popular than Trump is. More people want her to become President. That is all you are saying.

But you did not make the argument until challenged in the comments. You hid it behind all this pseudo-sophisticated Electoral College nonsense.

It’s not pseudo-sophisticated, and it’s not nonsense. The Electoral College is all that matters. Everything else is crap. Trump is the most toxic Presidential candidate in recent memory. Over half of Republicans say either they are uncertain he would be a good President or they say he will be a lousy President. Fully 40% of Republicans say Trump will be a lousy President. 40%!

Hillary will win all of the battleground states, well, at least if the election were held today. She will win Florida, Colorado, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and even North Carolina. Colorado, Virginia, and North Carolina have gotten much more liberal in 20 years. Ohio and Pennsylvania are flat, but they lean ~3-4 points Dem. Florida is flat, but she will win there. A Republican barely won the governor’s race recently despite spending a mountain of money.

Nevada, New Mexico, Wisconsin, Michigan, New Hampshire, have all gotten quite a bit more liberal in the last 20 years.

Not one single battleground state is getting more conservative over the last 20 years. Not one!

Hillary will not turn any red states though. At best, she could win Indiana and Arizona.

This is the longterm trend, and it will not be reversed.

Black turnout will be the same as 2012. Women despise Trump. Trump will win no more than 15-20% of Hispanics and maybe less than that. He has to win 66% of the White vote, and he might not even win 60%. His gains with working class Whites will be wiped out because Whites with some college hate him. Hardly any working class Democrats support him. Yes, working class Whites support him, but those people have been backing Republicans for a long time.

At least as of right now, he can’t win. She has 347 electoral votes. Total blowout. The election is over and it hasn’t even started yet.

Nate Silver puts Trump’s chance at winning at 2%. I would say that is optimistic.

Look at who the bookies are betting for. These people are willing to lay down their money to bet who wins. If Hillary wins, you will get a 33% return on your money. If Trump wins, you will get 150% return. The betters are favoring Hillary by a large margin.

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Swing State Election Forecast

Swing states include states like Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Virginia, North Carolina and Florida.

Nevada and New Mexico are Western states that were former Republican strongholds, but have gone over to Democratic in recent years. Most of this is due to more Hispanics in those states. Hillary will win both states.

Colorado is a bit more red, but it is also getting more Democratic. Colorado was former hard conservative Western state, but it’s changed. This is also due in large part to a growing Hispanic population. This state is very much up in the air, and Trump is leading at the moment. It will be a challenge for Hillary to win here, and Trump may well win Colorado. The percentage of gun nuts in this Wild West state is very high.

Iowa has also been trending Democratic. Reasons are not known. Hillary will probably win, but it may be quite close.

Wisconsin has been trending heavily Democratic for some time now. Hillary will win this state handily. Hillary is not even spending one nickel on ads here now because she knows it is in the bag.

Michigan has also been getting more more Democratic lately, and Hillary will win here easily. Hillary is not buying any ads here either.

Ohio is very much up in the air. This is another state that has been trending Democratic lately. Hillary has been ahead in the polls by 4-5 points though. This state could probably go either way.

Pennsylvania has not voted for a Republican in nearly 30 years. Polls show a close race, but Hillary is not spending one nickel on ads here yet. Hillary’s campaign says their internals show a much better race for Hillary. Apparently Hillary thinks she has it in the bag. Pennsylvania as a whole has been getting more Republican if you go county by county, especially in the east and center of the state. However these rural counties are not heavily populated.

The problem with Pennsylvania for Republicans is Pittsburgh and especially Philadelphia. Most of the state’s population lives in these large urban centers that are heavily minority. Philly in particular has a huge Black population. The Democratic votes in the cities should easily outweigh the rural red counties. Hillary should win Pennsylvania.

New Hampshire was long famous for being a conservative state, but it has been voting Democratic in recent years also. Hillary will easily win this state.

Virginia is very much a swing state. This was long a conservative Republican stronghold, the capital of the Confederacy. However, many Northerners have been moving down there in recent years, changing the state. This is very nearly a blue or Democratic state now. It’s incredible. Hillary will most probably win Virginia, but it will be close.

North Carolina is very much up in the air. This state was a conservative red state for a very long time. However, it is now moving towards the Democratic Party, but it is not all the way there yet. This is because many young hipsters have been moving down there for the good jobs to be had in the region, especially in the Research Triangle, where many high tech firms have moved.

It seems hard to believe that the state of Jesse Helms is now moving Democratic. The state is now flip-flopping back and forth between voting for Democrats and voting for Republicans. The state government is still very conservative. This was where the famous transgender bathroom bill was passed recently. This will be a very close race, and it could easily go either way.

Florida is the ultimate swing state and has been flipping back and forth between Democratic and Republican votes for President for the last 20 years. I have no information how the state was voting before then. If anyone knows, please tell me.

Northern Florida is like the US South and is very conservative. The center of the state is very mixed, and the south is also also a very mixed bag.

Many Jews from the Northeast have been moving down to Southern Florida to retire. These people vote Democrat. The state also has a very large Black population, especially in the northern part of the state. South Florida is very Hispanic but these Hispanics are conservative as they are mostly Cubans. Cubans have long voted Republican, but a lot of the younger ones are voting Democrat. There are also large populations of rightwing Venezuelans and Nicaraguans living here who fled leftwing regimes. However, there are also many Haitians here, and they vote Democrat. There are many Puerto Ricans in the center of the state, especially around Orlando. They vote Democratic.

This state will be incredibly close as it has been since at least 2000. The state government is run by Republicans, and there are major voter suppression efforts underway. Florida is completely up in the air and could go either way.

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Why the Wolverines in the Midwest Post Is Important

This is why the Wolverines in the Midwest post is significant. It is probably the most thorough account on the Net of wolverine sightings in the Upper Midwest.

The bottom line is wolverines are not just in Michigan and North Dakota where they have been proven to exist, but they are surely in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, South Dakota, and even unbelievably Nebraska. I also have one sighting in Missouri, incredible as it sounds.

In my opinion, the Great Plains and the Upper Midwest used to be wolverine territory, and they are now reclaiming it. They may well even breed there, as I have sightings of kits alive and dead and two wolverines walking together, one behind the other (probably a mother and father). There are also a number of sightings of females, though I am not sure how they figured that out. I do not agree that the wolverines on the Plains are wanderers. I believe they actually live there somehow. We should get new records from Wisconsin, Minnesota, Michigan, South Dakota, Iowa and maybe even Nebraska in the forseeable future. That North Dakota wolverine was not a fluke.

The significance of this is that both the best available science and all US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS) wolverine documents hypothesize that wolverines never lived in the Midwest or the East, even though we have records from all of these places. The argument is that they were wanderers or possibly never existed at all. How a wolverine wanders from Ontario, Canada to Ohio, Pennsylvania and New Hampshire is beyond me.

In 1918, a biologist spotted two young wolverines in New Hampshire. Those do not seem to be wanderers, and the biologist though they were evidence of breeding. Further, now that we are documenting so many wolverines in the Upper Midwest, the simplest explanation is not that they are all transients and wanderers, but that they actually lived there. 25 wolverines were trapped in Eastern North Dakota alone between 1801-1806. There is no way that you can trap that many wolverines in such a small area unless they are a resident population.

The USFWS, wolverine biologists, and the Wolverine Foundation all state there never was a resident wolverine population in the Midwest or the East.

I do not know the motives of the Wolverine Foundation, but I know that some of these environmental groups actually get angry when they see their favored species expanding out of its known range. Why? Because they are trying to get the thing listed as endangered! If it is expanding its range, maybe it is not rare enough to be listed, get it? They actually want these animals to be rare and they are not happy when they appear to be more common. Sort of the law of unintended consequences.

I wonder what the motivation is for USFWS saying that wolverines never lived in the Midwest or back East. Possibly because that would extend their historic range that much further, so whereas now we maybe say wolverines occupy 15% of their historic range, if you include all that Midwest and back East, maybe they only occupy 3% of their historic range. 3% is worse than 15% and any animal that is only occupying 3% of its historic range seems like it needs to be listed, and USFWS does not want to list them. Is that it?

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Repost: Wolverines in the Upper Midwest

I spent quite a bit of time on this post recently and it got a massive update due to the wolverine that was killed in North Dakota. That post was a huge success and traffic went though the roof for a few days as my post got linked around quite a bit. It even got linked to the MSM in this article from the Capital Journal of Pierre, South Dakota. I have never heard of this illustrious journal before, but I must say that that Midwestern hick journalist sure did a bang-up job. You never really realize how much excellence there is in the world until you actually look around and notice it for once. Cynics are wrong. The competence of our species never fails to amaze me.

The article refers to me as a “wolverine expert, a hat I will be happy to try on if not wear regularly. I wear quite a few hats as it is, and there’s not a whole lot of room left in my polymathic/dilettantish identity wardrobe. It’s getting to where some days I actually get out of bed and wonder who I am today.

Separate posts on this blog deal extensively with wolverines in Oregon, Washington, Idaho (here and here), Wyoming, Colorado and Utah, Nevada and New Mexico. There are also five posts on the wolverine in California.

This post was split off from an earlier post that got too large, California Wolverine Rediscovered After 85 Years. This particular post will deal with the question of wolverines in the Upper Midwest. Until recently, wolverines had been extinct in the Upper Midwest for 85-200 years.

However, one was photographed recently in Michigan. Furthermore, there have been some tantalizing sightings in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota and even a few in Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri in recent years. It is distinctly possible the wolverines may be reclaiming some of their historical territory in the Upper Midwest. If so, this is fascinating indeed.

In 2004, a wolverine was photographed in Ubly, Michigan, 90 miles north of Detroit. They were extirpated from Michigan almost 200 years ago.

DNA testing of this wolverine showed that it was from Alaska. How it got from Alaska to Michigan is anyone’s guess. On March 14, 2010, this wolverine was found dead in Sanilac County, Michigan, south of where it was originally sighted in Ubly.

There have been other sightings in Lower Michigan. In November 1958, a wolverine was seen near Cadillac, Michigan by a boy who was deer hunting. A wolverine was sighted around 1998-2000 in Tawas, Michigan. In August 2009, a wolverine was spotted by motorists twice in short period of time just outside of Alpena, Michigan which is on the shore of Lake Huron in the far north of the Thumb near the Upper Peninsula. In November 2009, four people spotted a wolverine outside of West Brach, Michigan in the north of the Thumb south of Huron National Forest.

These wolverines could have come down from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan because there are wolverine sightings there. Or possibly they could have come from Southern Ontario near Port Huron, though that area is densely populated. There is known to be a population in Ontario, albeit in the northern part.

The sightings on the Upper Peninsula have been in Delta County, Tahquamenon Falls State Park and the Keweenaw Peninsula. I assume that the Upper Peninsula population came from Ontario, possibly across the St. Mary’s River, if it freezes over in wintertime.

A forest road in Delta County, Michigan. This road is in Escanaba State Forest. A wolverine was sighted here in an unverified sighting sometime between 1999-2004. During this period, there was about one wolverine sighting a year in Michigan, all from the Upper Peninsula.

The forests here have been changed massively from 100 years ago, when most of the White Pine was logged off. I assume what we have here is Eastern second-growth forest coming back in after the old growth was logged off. This second-growth explosion is fueling an increase in wildlife numbers, especially deer, all over the East Coast.

Tahquamenon Falls in Tahquamenon Falls State Park. This area is located at the far east end of the UP near Ontario. The town of Paradise is nearby, as is Whitefish Bay. If the St. Mary’s River is frozen over, wolverines may well come down from Ontario to the UP. The part of Ontario near Sault Saint Marie is pretty sparsely populated. An unverified sighting of a wolverine was reported here in 2002.

 

There was also an unverified wolverine sighting in the UP on November 21, 2001 at 3 PM, crossing Highway M-64 1 mile south of Silver City in Ontonagon County. In August 2008, a wolverine was spotted in the UP in the garden of the Big Bay Lighthouse on Lake Superior.

In the late 2000’s, there was rash of wolverine sightings around Babbitt, Minnesota, which is near Ely in the far northeastern part of the state near Canada. A tiny lynx population has recently also been confirmed there. The sightings around Babbitt appear to be genuine. Babbitt is surrounded by the Superior National Forest and there are frequent sightings of bears and even wolves in the area, even inside city limits.

In addition, there was one documented sighting in northeastern Minnesota in 1965, but details are lacking. In 1974 there was a report of a wolverine in a hay field in north-central Minnesota, near the North Woods. There was also a sighting on Koochiching County on the Minnesota border with Canada in 1982. That sighting was deemed credible.

In early 2008, there have been reports of dog and horse kills in and around Rollag, Minnesota lately. Certain things about the killings indicate that a wolverine may be doing this. Rollag is far to the north, getting up near the North Woods. It is east of and not far from Fargo, North Dakota.

There is also a report of a wolverine captured on a security camera in 2005-2006 at a Ford dealership in the town of Zumbrota in Southeast Minnesota. This land is very much prairie.

In 1991, a baby wolverine was seen dying by the side of the road on Highway 232 near Lake Nichols close to Cotton, Minnesota. The motorists did not know how rare it was or else they would have kept the carcass. In 1999, a wolverine was spotted by a canoeist in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area in Minnesota on the border of Ontario, Canada.

In November 2004, a wolverine was seen eating a gut pile from a dead deer near Askov, Minnesota. In 2005, a wolverine was spotted in the Tamarack National Wildlife Refuge northeast of Detroit Lakes, Minnesota. In Summer 2006, a fisherman fishing in the Narrows between Big and Little Cut Foot Sioux Lakes in Northern Minnesota saw a wolverine. He was able to watch it for 15 minutes until it caught his scent and left. In Summer 2008, a wolverine was spotted in the forest of Eagles Nest, Minnesota, south of Ely and north of Tower. In Fall 2008, a hunter spotted a wolverine in the Black Brook Swamp east of Camp Ripley, Minnesota.

In 2010, a deer hunter saw a wolverine in Douglas County, Minnesota. Another wolverine was photographed near there five years later. In July 2010, a wolverine was seen by a motorist at night on US 53 ten miles south of International Falls, Minnesota. In Summer 2010, a wolverine was seen outside of Chisholm, Minnesota near Superior State Park.

In July 2011, a wolverine was seen crossing Highway 232 near Lake Nichols close to Cotton, Minnesota.

On January 12, 2012, a wolverine was spotted somewhere in Southern Minnesota. Someone went out to their car late at night, and a wolverine was by the garage. Tracks were found the very next day. On July 12, 2012, two hunters saw a wolverine while driving on the Dick’s Parkway road 13 miles south of Warroad, Minnesota. The GPS location was given as 48 42.131, -95 20.566. On October 20, 2012 at midnight, a wolverine was seen on someone’s driveway in Ham Lake, Minnesota.

At 6 PM on On October 13, 2013, a wolverine was seen in the Superior National Forest crossing Pike Lake Road on the east side of Pike Lake between Lutsen and Grand Marais, Minnesota. This is seven miles from Lake Superior. On June 6, 2014, a wolverine was spotted in Jordan, Minnesota in a corn and alfalfa field. It was running away from a neighbor’s elk ranch. Two men observed it for a full two minutes. The areas consists of open farm country with some random tree lines.

On June 13, 2014 at 2:30 in the afternoon, a wolverine was seen crossing Road 327 in Watowan County, Minnesota. It was seen two miles east and six miles north of Saint James, Minnesota on the Watowan River.

On April 30, 2015, two wolverines were seen running, one behind the other, just east of Rush City, Minnesota in the Saint Croix River Valley. In May 2015, a wolverine was photographed by a trail cam in Douglas County, Minnesota. I have seen the photo and felt that it was interesting but inconclusive. I showed the photo to a wolverine expert, and he also said it could be a wolverine, but it was unclear enough so it was inconclusive.

Old State Route 52 north of Zumbrota, Minnesota. It’s hard to believe that wolverines inhabit such terrain. Wolverines are recolonizing their old habitat on the US prairie. Why?

 

Many have questioned whether wolverines were actually common in prairies or if prairies merely served as population sinks. It is looking more and more like prairies are a natural home for wolverines, strange as it may seem. If these reports are accurate, it means that wolverines are re-colonizing Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and possibly also Iowa, which is fantastic news!

Prairie Island (Sioux) Indian Reservation near Zumbrota, Minnesota. Is it possible that wolverines in the past preyed on the vast buffalo herds of prairie, perhaps especially on dead buffaloes?

 

The occurrence of the wolverine in Wisconsin is very rare but documented.

On an unknown date, a wolverine was spotted on Peshtigo Brook Fire Road where it joins Kitzinger Road near Gillett, Wisconsin.

In May 1978, a wolverine was spotted by a boy and his father while walking along the Oconto River in Oconto County eight miles west of Crooked Lake, Wisconsin. The boy was able to observe it for one minute.

We receive a number of undocumented sightings by email to this site. One man grew up in Land O’ Lakes in Far Northern Wisconsin on the border with Michigan in an area known as the North Woods. This is an area of very thick, wild forest and swamps. There are many wolves, bears and possibly wolverines in this part of Wisconsin.

In 1982, the man saw three wolves in his front yard. In 1990, he and his friends treed 22 different bears in a single day while training bear dogs. They also had a frightening standoff with a wolverine on that day. From about 1983-1995, when he engaged in frequent deer hunting, the man saw one or more wolverines every year.

In September 1990, a wolverine was seen several times over two weeks. The last time the man saw one was in 2006 near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. All sightings took place between 1983-2006 in the North Woods approximately between Rhinelander and Land O’ Lakes, Wisconsin. The bear density in this region is said to be incredible, or at least it was 10 years ago (Bangs 2009).

In the early 1990’s, a wolverine ran in front of a man’s car in Marinette County, Wisconsin.

A wolverine was photographed on top of a woodpile in Green Lake County, Wisconsin in recent years. The disposition of the photo is unknown. There are also recent sightings in the Black River Falls area and to the north in Wisconsin from 2000-2007. A 2003 sighting in Lafayette County in the far south of the state was regarded as credible by the the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. In 2004-2005, a wolverine was spotted in Niagara, Wisconsin in the fall on opening day of deer hunting season.

In 2010, a roadkilled wolverine was found by the side of the road in Green Lake County, Wisconsin. In November 2010, a father and son saw a wolverine while sitting in a deer stand north of Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin.

In March 2011, a wolverine was seen crossing Highway 53 between New Auburn and Bloomer, Wisconsin. On July 29, 2011, a wolverine was seen crossing the highway on US 20 east of Sac City, Wisconsin. On November 25, 2011, a deer hunter saw a wolverine run by his blind south of Gillette, Wisconsin. In Fall 2011, a wolverine was seen twice in a one week period by two hunters in Northern Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, one mile south of Brown County. Over the next year, a wolverine, suspected to be the same one as before, was seen in area.

On November 6, 2012, a wolverine was spotted by a man and his girlfriend hunting deer on their farm in Buffalo County, Wisconsin. They observed it for half a minute. A wolverine had been seen in the area 20 years before in the early 1990’s.

In July 2013, a wolverine killed a woman’s two cats at a home at in Wisconsin at Highway 53 and I-94 Highway 9 miles form Eau Claire and 6 miles form Osseo. A few days later, a neighbor came within three feet of a wolverine. Three weeks before, a nearby tavern owner said he had seen a wolverine on a county road. Around the time the woman’s cats vanished, neighbors in the vicinity started seeing their pets disappearing. Before the cats were killed, it had been eating the woman’s cat food for some time. On August 28, 2013, a man saw a wolverine running away from a trash bin at a gas station in Elk Mound, Wisconsin.

On June 13, 2014, a wolverine was seen in a field only two miles north of Independence, Wisconsin.

There have been a few unverified sightings of wolverines in North Dakota recently. In 1988, two wolverines were seen along the Little Missouri River in the Badlands of far western North Dakota by a very experienced fur trapper. In 2004, there was an unverified sighting of a wolverine near Minot. The observer watched it for a good five minutes. On June 23, 2013, a wolverine was seen in the Turtle Mountains in Far Northern North Dakota on the Manitoba border. In February 2015, mailmen spotted a wolverine on their route near Rugby, North Dakota. That is 50 miles east of Minot and 60 miles south of the Manitoba border with Canada.

There have also been wolverine sightings in South Dakota in the past 60 years. There was a verifiable wolverine sighting in the south-central portion of the state in 1961 (Aubry et al 1967). From 1998-2016, an 18 year period, three wolverines were seen in Lake County, South Dakota. One was an adult and two were juveniles. The adult was severely mauled by people’s dogs. On July 12, 2012, someone saw a wolverine near Nisland, South Dakota on the Belle Fourche River in Western South Dakota 25 miles from the Wyoming border. Their neighbor had seen a wolverine shortly before the sighting. People 10 miles northwest of Nisland said that they had seen a wolverine earlier.

A female wolverine was shot dead by a farmer on May 21, 1960 in a cornfield in central Iowa (Haugen 1961). No one quite knew how she ended up in central Iowa. She was infected with Trichinella spiralis, a parasite. (Zimmerman et al 1962). However, one report said that this wolverine had been transported into the state in 1960. There were reports around 1995-2000 of a “black animal” going from north to south through eastern Iowa killing dogs. It may have been a wolverine.

Five different people spotted a wolverine in Southwestern Iowa in 2008. A wolverine was seen in Mid June 2010 near Canton, Iowa near the Maquoketa Caves. In 2011, a bowhunter spotted a wolverine in Southeastern Iowa. In July 2011, three people spotted a wolverine walking across County Road V68 1/4 to 1/2 mile north of Highway 3 in Fayette County, Iowa. It was headed in the direction of the Wapsipinicon River. This is 10 miles north of Fairbank, Iowa.

On July 31, 2011, a wolverine cub was seen on the deck of a house in the hills north of Sioux City, Iowa. In mid-July 2102, a wolverine was photographed in Fonanelle in Adair Country in Southwestern Iowa; however, it is not known what happened to the photograph.

Incredibly enough, there have been a number of wolverine sightings in Nebraska in recent years.

It makes sense because wolverines are native to Nebraska, at least in the more mountainous parts to the north. In the Hall of Nebraska Wildlife in the University of Nebraska Natural History Museum, there is a mounted specimen of a wolverine that was shot on Scott’s Bluff, Nebraska in the 1880’s. That area is in Far Western Nebraska on the North Platte River only 20 miles from the Wyoming border. This part of Nebraska borders on Southeastern Wyoming, which is known to have wolverine populations.

In particular, wolverines have been repeatedly sighted in and around Antelope and Knox Counties in Far Northeastern Nebraska near the Missouri River and the South Dakota border.

This area is near Louis and Clark Lake and the Santee Sioux Indian Reservation. In this area, there have been many sightings along the Verdigre and Niobrara Rivers. For instance, in Summer 1998, a number of people spotted a wolverine near Verdigre, Nebraska. One was seen chasing a deer out of a draw in the middle of a hay meadow.

Photo of the area of NE Nebraska around the Niobrara, Verdigre and Elkhorn Rivers where there have been numerous wolverine sightings. That is probably the Verdigre River in the foreground.

Photo of the area of NE Nebraska around the Niobrara, Verdigre and Elkhorn Rivers where there have been numerous wolverine sightings. That is probably the Verdigre River in the foreground.

In April 2012, a fire and range ecologist spotted a wolverine running away after a cedar burn operation in a steep area near Scotia on the North Loup River. This is about in the dead center of Nebraska.

On October 29, 2014, a wet wolverine that seemed to have been swimming somewhere was seen in a pasture in Central Nebraska near Doniphan between Hastings and Grand Island. This is quite close to the Platte River where it may have been swimming. The area is between Lincoln and Platte, Nebraska.

There has also been one sighting north of Gordon in northwestern Nebraska on the headwaters of Wounded Knee Creek near the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. This area is east of the town of Whiteclay, Nebraska, now the scene of a famous fight over selling booze to Pine Ridge Indians.

A view of the terrain around Whiteclay, Nebraska. A wolverine was sighted on the South Dakota border about 17 miles east of here.

A view of the terrain around Whiteclay, Nebraska. A wolverine was sighted on the South Dakota border about 17 miles east of here.

Incredibly enough, there have even been wolverine sightings in Missouri. On October 28, 2011, a man spotted a wolverine emerging from a cornfield and crossing State Highway E just south of Highway 13. This is hilly farm country. This area is in Western Nebraska not far from the Missouri River and is close to the place where the borders of Nebraska, Iowa and Missouri all meet. There are a number of good sightings in both Nebraska and Iowa, so it is possible, though bizarre, that wolverines may exist in Western Missouri.

The first Grey Wolf in 94 years was seen recently in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. It was a lone male. The UP, Minnesota and Wisconsin all have healthy populations. The Black Bear and wolf populations in Minnesota have shown dramatic increases in recent years, and there is now a healthy population of over 25 lynx in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area for the first time in 30 years.

In other great news along similar lines, an Eastern Grey Wolf, the first in 160 years, was detected in Massachusetts. It killed over a dozen lambs before the farmer shot it to death. The killing was probably justified, but it is unfortunate that the first wolf in the state in over 150 years got shot to death. There will probably be more wolves coming to the state after this one, though.

Click the wolverines label at the end of the post to see other posts on wolverines in the US, including many sighting reports and photos.

References

Aubry, K. B., McKelvey, K. S., and Copeland, J. P. 2007. Distribution and Broadscale Habitat Relations of the Wolverine in the Contiguous United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 71(7): 148-158.

Bangs, Ray. 2009. Personal communication.

Haugen, A. O. 1961. Wolverine in Iowa. Journal of Mammalogy 42: 546-547.

Zimmermann, W. J., Biester, H. E., Schwarte, L. H., and Hubbard, E. D. 1962. Trichinella spiralis in Iowa Wildlife during the Years 1953 to 1961. The Journal of Parasitology, 48:3:1, pp. 429-432.

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Filed under Animals, Canada, Canids, Carnivores, Iowa, Mammals, Michigan, Midwest, Minnesota, Mustelids, North America, North Dakota, Regional, South Dakota, USA, West, Wild, Wildlife, Wisconsin, Wolverines, Wolves, Wyoming

Wolverine Killed in North Dakota!

Be sure to check out my extensive series on wolverines in the US. It is split into different areas, and it includes sightings and other evidence for the region along with photos of the area. The sightings are listed according to date and location. Many of the photos are of areas where sightings occurred. Separate posts on this blog deal extensively with wolverines in Oregon, Washington, Idaho (here and here), Wyoming, Colorado and Utah, Nevada and New Mexico. There are also five posts on the subject of wolverines in California.

The first wolverine recorded in North Dakota in nearly 150 years was killed in North Dakota this week in stunning news that comes on the heels of other reports in recent decades of rare wild animals being seen where they have not been seen in decades or scores of years or in one case, centuries. In the case of North Dakota, this is the first verified wolverine recorded in the state ever and the first record of a wolverine since 1870, 146 years ago. This should be national news possibly along the lines of the recent stories about the first wolverine in Michigan in ~200 years or the first wolverine in California in nearly 90 years.

A wolverine was shot and killed in Western North Dakota on Sunday, April 24, 2016. The wolverine was killed on the Wisness Ranch south of  Alexander, North Dakota. Alexander, a town of only 223 people, is located in far western North Dakota on the border with Montana. The animal was killed by ranch hand and Alexander resident Jared Hatter when it was harassing calves in the calving pasture. Hatter went out to check on the cows when he saw that cows had surrounded an animal in the calving pasture. A wolverine is absolutely capable of killing a calf, and the full-grown ones can actually take down a adult cow. Hatter reported it on his Facebook page and included photos of the animal.

Ranch workers contacted the North Dakota Game and Fish Department. A biologist from the department examined the animal and determined that it was indeed a wolverine. The department kept the wolverine and took it back to Game and Fish Headquarters, where it remains. This Facebook post is the initial post made by Hatter on his Facebook page.

The North Dakota Game and Fish Department verified the wolverine story. Dale Repnow, spokesman for the Wildlife Division of North Dakota Game and Fish (NDGF) confirmed that the story is true. “Yes, that story is correct. I can confirm that. And I believe we have the animal in our possession now. This is all very exciting news for us,” said Repnow. In addition to Repnow, the story was also confirmed Stephanie Tucker, wildlife biologist for the Furbearer Division of NDGF and Rebecca Barrett, head of The Wolverine Foundation.

This report was the first major report of the incident and the photos associated with it published in the mainstream online media. I was ahead of the mainstream media by four days, as I ran this on April 28, and the media did not pick it up until four days later on April 2.

There have been a number of unverified sightings of wolverines in North Dakota in the past two decades. They are listed in my report, Wolverines in the Upper Midwest, available here. This is the most detailed report on wolverines in this region on the Internet. Be sure to check it out if you are interested in the subject. It has lots of great photos of the areas in which wolverines were spotted and the general terrain of the region.

It also links a number of other reports I wrote on other parts of the US. I broke the Western and Central US into several zones of one or more states and then discussed the status and recent sightings of wolverines in that area. I also included a lot of photos of the locales where the sightings took place.

The last wolverine recorded in the state was from 1870 when a wolverine was poisoned by a hunter named Henry Bennett at the mouth of Cherry Creek near the Killdeer Mountains. Curiously, that location very close to where the current specimen was taken. There were 36 known records of wolverines taken in North Dakota, but none of them were verified. 35 of these are from a single locale, a fort at the mouth of the Pembina River in the northeastern part of the state. These records are all from the journal of a single fur trapper from Montreal, Alexander Henry the Younger.

Henry’s journals date from 1801-1806 when he worked as a fur trapper for the Montreal-based North West Company. During this period, Northeastern North Dakota had not yet been settled by Whites, so his records would seem to be a good record of the wildlife presence and density in this region pre-contact. At this time, the land was the territory of Dakotas, but Chippewas and Crees were also in the area.

He lived for most of the time at a fort at the mouth of the Pembina River. In those five years, Henry reported that 35 wolverines were trapped in eastern North Dakota alone.

The USFWS regards these records as possibly spurious since they nearly all came from a single person, and it is uncertain whether these records were of wolverines actually taken in North Dakota or whether these were animals taken elsewhere and transported to the fort. However, a closer look at Henry’s journal shows that he was reporting exact locales where his trappers were taking wolverines. He listed a variety of locales, all in eastern North Dakota. The theory that some or all of these wolverines were trapped outside of North Dakota and brought to the fort seems incorrect.

The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) says according to the known habitat associations of the wolverine in the US, North Dakota never housed a population of established wolverines during historical times.

However, this conclusion may be erroneous, and wolverine biologists think it is incorrect.

The USFWS also says that the entire area of the US Northeast, Great Lakes and Great Plains never had an established population of wolverines. However, biologists reported that two juvenile wolverines were taken in the Diamond Lakes area of New Hampshire in a single year, 1918. The biologists felt that the taking of two young in a single year meant that a breeding population of wolverines may have been present at that time. The current theory that the Northeast never had an established population of wolverines is probably incorrect.

Dr. Keith Aubry, one of the nation’s top wolverine scientists, said that if those 35 specimens were all taken from eastern North Dakota in a five year period alone, then that implies that there was a resident population of wolverines in Eastern North Dakota at that time.

The question here centers around the question of what one means by established population. To wildlife biologists, established population means breeding population, and the USFWS argues that the Upper Great Plains does not have suitable habitat for breeding wolverines due to the lack of deep snow cover into the late spring.

The FWS also argue that wolverines cannot live in this region because summer temperatures are too high.

However, a wolverine recently lived for 5-10 years around the area of Ubly, Michigan where summer temperatures rise to 82 degrees, close to the 85 degrees found in Alexander. But the Ubly story is complicated by other factors. That animal had been live-trapped by someone in Alaska, brought to Michigan somehow and released near Ubly. A man who had set up the camera-traps that were photographing the animal was also feeding it regularly, so this is not pure case of a naturally dispersing wild animal surviving on its own, and this animal may not have been able to survive there on its own.

Based on this data, the Summer Temperature Theory about wolverines may be wrong. Aubry acknowledged that wolverines can live in areas where the summer temperatures get up to 80-85 degrees, but they do not live well or thrive in these places.

Based on the number of reports coming in of wolverines not only from North Dakota but also from elsewhere in the Upper Midwest and the long historical record of sightings in this area from the 19th Century, the Great Plains was definitely wolverine habitat pre-contact and even for a period of time after contact before they were possibly extirpated by the fur trade or even more likely by a warming climate, which is the theory that Aubry favors. The reason that the prairie may not be habitat now is because of the assumption that lacks the deep snow persisting into late spring required for breeding wolverines.

Although the prairie seems to be an odd place to have wolverines, when you think about the great herds of buffalo that used to roam here, perhaps it is not so strange after all. Aubry agreed that the Great Plains would have been perfect habitat for wolverines due to the huge herds of buffalo that would have provided a ready source of large amounts of carrion that would be perfect for a scavenger like a wolverine.

He also said that it was much colder in the US in 1800 than it is today because that was during the tail end of a several centuries-long Little Ice Age where temperatures dropped all over North America. Since then, the continent has been slowly warming up, a process that has much accelerated in recent days, and what may have been cold enough for wolverines in 1800 is much less suitable habitat now that it is much warmer. Aubry said it may well have been cold enough in North Dakota in 1800 to sustain the snow conditions necessary for wolverine breeding.

He also noted that Canadian scientists say there has been a retraction of the wolverine’s range in Ontario over the past century or so. Whereas once wolverines occurred throughout the province from north to south, they have retreated north and are now found only in the northern half of Ontario. Aubry felt that the retraction of the wolverine’s range from the Northeast, the Great Lakes and the Great Plains was probably more due to warming climate than to overtrapping and poisoning.

“The wolverine may have been one of the first victims of global warming,” Aubry said.

Among nearby states, wolverines were last recorded in Indiana in 1852, in Wisconsin in 1870, and in Minnesota in 1965.

Wolverines are resident in the western mountains of Montana and are also known to be present in the Great Plains part of the state in the west. About two months ago on March 8, a motorist snapped a photo of wolverine one mile north of Hingham, Montana running across a field in north-central Montana.

JYoeXUM

Zoomed in shot of a what definitely appears to be a wolverine running in a field one more north of Havre, Montana. The photo was shot two months ago. This may well have been the same wolverine that was killed just over the North Dakota border last week now.

It seemed to be running from the Sweetgrass Hills towards the Bear Paw Mountains. Based on location, it could have come from the Sweetgrass Hills northwest of Havre on the border of Montana and Alberta. The Sweetgrass Hills are known to have a resident population of wolverines. Two of the nation’s top wolverine experts stated that this wolverine may have been the same one that was recorded in Montana earlier because when seen in Montana, it was headed towards North Dakota. There has been only one other sighting in this Hill Country area when a wolverine was spotted near Kremlin in the 1970’s. Kremlin is 23 miles west of Havre along the Milk River.

Photos of the wolverine are below.

wolverine

Side view of the wolverine killed just recently in North Dakota. Note the huge padded paws and the massive claws.

wolverine 2

Another side view with an emphasis on the head and front of the animal. Note the black and white dual colored hair color, the shape of the small ears, the elongated snout, the big fangs, and of course the huge padded paws. The pads and claws on the feet of a badger look something like this, but on the wolverine, these characteristics may be more accentuated.

wolverine1

Yet another photo of the wolverine, this time with an emphasis on the paws and the claws.

index

Jared Hatter of Alexander, North Dakota holds up the wolverine he shot near there on April 24, 2016. Hatter did not respond to requests to be interviewed for this story.

References

Aubry, K. B., K. S. McKelvey, and J. P. Copeland. 2007. Geographic Distribution and Broadscale Habitat Relations of the Wolverine in the Contiguous United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 2147-2158.

Aubry, Keith. April 28, 2016. Research Wildlife Biologist. Ecological Process and Function Division, Research and Development Department, Pacific Northwest Research Station, United States Forest Service. Olympia, Washington. Personal communication.

Bailey, V. 1926. A Biological Survey of North Dakota. North American Fauna 49:1–226.

Copeland, J. P. and Whitman, J. S. 2003. “Wolverine,” pp. 672-682, in Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Economics. G. A. Feldhamer, B. C. Thompson, and J. A. Chapman, eds. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Henry, Alexander. 1988. The Journal of Alexander Henry the Younger 1799-1814. Toronto: The Champlain Society, University of Toronto Press.

Jackson, C. F. August 22, 1922. Notes on New Hampshire Mammals. Journal of Mammalogy 3:1, p. 13.

Whitaker, John O. and Hamilton, William John. 1998. Mammals of the Eastern United States, p. 551. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

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Filed under Animals, Canada, Carnivores, History, Mammals, Michigan, Midwest, Minnesota, Mustelids, North America, North Dakota, Northeast, Quebec, Regional, USA, Wild, Wildlife, Wisconsin, Wolverines

Wolverine Photographed in Minnesota?

Possible wolverine photographed in Minnesota?

Possible wolverine photographed in Minnesota?

I recently received a missive telling me that someone had captured a possible wolverine on a trailcam in Minnesota. I had him send me the photo and he said it to me right away along with a story about how it came about:

Attached is the photo of a wolverine on my 40 acres of hunting land in Douglas County, Minnesota. This would be about 10 miles South East of Miltona, MN and 7 miles Northeast of Carlos, MN. I had three photos…Nose, tail and this one. I deleted the other two before I realized what this might be.

This creature turned my camera downward pointing at the ground after this photo. The camera was mounted about 3 1/2 feet up on a portable camera mount that is staked into the ground. It has a RAM style ball and socket mount and he was able to turn it down at the socket.

Based on your post from Tom Akenson and a friend that saw one in his back yard in 2004, there appear to have been at least three sightings in the area over the last ten years. This is farm and lake country on the south end of the North Woods. There are some large public hunting lands and river and creek valleys nearby that are somewhat desolate and could hold unseen creatures.

The animal is in the lower right corner of the photo.

He sent this to me because I had written a series of articles on wolverines in the US. There have been a number of sightings in the Upper Midwest in recent years, but only one confirmed wolverine and that one was in the thumb of Michigan. It was photographed more than once and it recently died. Its carcass was found after it died. That wolverine was the first wolverine in Michigan in almost 200 years and the first in the Upper Midwest in a very long time also.

Wolverines formerly ranged all through the Upper Midwest, but they were eliminated from there as they were eliminated from most of the Lower 48 states. Only a few now survive in Washington, Idaho, Montana and Wyoming. One was recently photographed in Colorado. Another was recently photographed in California, the first wolverine known in the state since the early 1920’s. That wolverine still resides here. He runs about north of Lake Tahoe on the Tahoe National Forest. He is currently in search of a mate, but he is unlikely to have found one as he may be the only wolverine in California.

Wolverines have been sighted in recent years in Oregon, Utah, New Mexico, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, Michigan, and Wisconsin. The Oregon sightings were by wildlife biologists.

This photo is not very clear, but if it can be proven that this is a wolverine, it will be the first confirmed wolverine in Minnesota in many years.

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