Category Archives: Jamaica

The Case for Splitting off Multiple English Dialects as Separate Languages

Here (on Italian dialects – actually many of which are separate languages).

One can make an excellent case that AAVE (Ebonics), Bayou/Cajun English, Deep South English, Appalachian English, New York English, Newfoundland English, and of course Jamaican creole and Scots are separate languages. Even Scottish English and Geordie probably qualify.

A recent study found only 54% intelligibility for Standard English speakers of Geordie. The speakers were L2 English learners in the Czech Republic, but they scored 100% on the “home” test, which was a test of a US television English. Another study found 42% intelligibility of Scots for native speakers of US English. Having heard Hard Scots spoken by the Scottish underclass, I would say my intelligibility of it was ~5-10% at best or possibly even less. It was almost as bad as listening to something like Greek, and one got the feeling listening to it that you were actually listening to some foreign tongue like, say, Greek.

At any rate, 42% and 54% very well qualify both Scots and Geordie as separate languages. Scots is already split, and it sure would be nice to split Geordie, but to say people would get mad is an understatement.

Scots and Jamaican creole are already split off. There is a lie going around the intellectual circles that it is still controversial in Linguistics whether Scots and Jamaican Creole are separate languages. In fact it is not controversial at all.

I have been listening to English my whole life as an American, and I still cannot understand Bayou speech, hard Southern English, Newfoundland English or the hard forms of Appalachian English or New York English. There are some very weird forms of English spoken on the US Atlantic coastal islands that cannot be understood by anyone not from there, or at least not by me. Gulla English in South Carolina is already split as a creole.

Generally the criterion we use is mutual intelligibility. Also if you can’t pick it up pretty quickly, it’s a separate language.

A speaker of hard New York English came to my mother’s school a while back, and no one could understand him. They still could not understand him after three months of listening to him – this is how you know you are dealing with a separate language. He finally learned how to speak California English, and then he was understood.

I have been listening to hard British English my whole life, and I still cannot understand them. I even had a British girlfriend for 1.5 years, and I still could not understand her on the phone. She went to my parents house for dinner, stayed a couple of hours, and my brother said he didn’t understand a word she said.

You can make an excellent case that the harder forms of British English (or Australian English for that matter) are not the same language as US English. The problem is that if you tried to split them off, everyone would go insane (including a lot of very foolish linguists), and there would be a wild uproar.

Generally we use 90% as the split between language and dialect. Less that that, separate language. More than that, dialect. We use this criterion to split languages from dialects everywhere, yet if we tried to do it for English, the resulting firestorm would be so ferocious that it would not be worth it, but it would be perfectly valid scientifically. Even the very well-validated split of Scots has driven the English-speaking world half-nuts.

I actually have a post in my drafts where I split English into ~10-15 different languages, but I have been terrified to post it. My post splitting German into 137 different languages did not go over well with the Net linguists (who are mostly loudmouths, fools, cranks, and idiots), although a major Germanist, a professor at a big university in Europe wrote me when I was only at 90 languages and said, “I think you are right!” Still, if I try to split English, I may ignite one Hell of a damned firestorm, and I’m just too chicken.


Filed under Australia, Balto-Slavic-Germanic, Britain, Canada, Caribbean, Dialectology, English language, German, Germanic, Indo-European, Indo-Hittite, Jamaica, Language Families, Linguistics, North America, Northeast, Regional, Scots, Sociolinguistics, South, South Carolina, USA

Latin America Is a Very Socialist Region: The Caribbean

The Left has run Cuba since 1959. Most of the illegal opposition groups in Cuba are formally socialist (social democratic) The Left is only kept out of power in Haiti because the rightwing army and police have all the guns and the Left is not allowed to run in the fake elections. The Left president Aristide was overthrown in a violent, US sponsored coup. Jamaica elected a socialist in the 1970’s, Manley. His government was undermined by the US, and he was thrown out after a bit.

The Left held power in Grenada but was overthrown by a US invasion. Dominica is formally ruled by a socialist party which is also a member of the Sao Paolo Forum. The opposition is a party with “workers” in its name. Grenada has recently been ruled by a party that is a member of the Progressive Alliance, a split from the Socialist International. Trinidad and Tobago is now run by a formally socialist party. The two principal opposition parties are both formally socialist parties.

The Right stayed in power in the Dominican Republic by a dictator named Trujillo killing hundreds of thousands of people. In the 1960’s, they elected a socialist, Juan Bosch, who was quickly overthrown by Johnson with a CIA coup. The new rightwing government came in via the coup and stayed in power for over a decade. They stayed in power by murdering 11,000 people. For the last 20 years, the country has been ruled by the formally socialist party of Bosch. They are aligned with the Far Left Sao Paolo Forum. The opposition party has “revolution” in its name, is formally socialist and is a member of the Socialist International.

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Filed under Americas, Caribbean, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Economics, Fascism, Haiti, Jamaica, Latin America, Latin American Right, Left, Political Science, Politics, Regional, Socialism, Trinidad and Tobago, USA

Anti-Communist Lie: Communism Is Bad Because Some Economic Refugees Flee from It

EPGAH writes:

If Communism is so great, why were and are there so many refugees from it?

Look, Communism isn’t for everybody. A lot of people didn’t like it, so they left. But a lot of people did like it, and they stayed. Recent surveys of East Europeans have found solid majorities in most countries saying life was better under Communism than it is now.

And the West always had larger economies with a higher per capita income.

But when Germany first split, it is little known, but vast numbers of West German socialists, Communists and Leftists left for East Germany. I have a German friend from Hesse who told me that there were many leftwingers in her extended family, and most of them emigrated to East Germany.

Venezuela has been experiencing high immigration from Colombia for some time now. These are the Colombian poor, working class and peasants. They are unanimous that their lives are much better in Venezuela than they were in Colombia.

The eastern half of Cuba is full of refugees from Jamaica and Haiti who left on rafts. These are the poor of Jamaica and Haiti and they are all adamant that life in Cuba is better than life in Haiti or Jamaica.

Yes, many Cubans want to come to the US. But has anyone ever noticed that Cubans always go to the US or Spain and never to the Latin American capitalist countries. If Latin American capitalism is so great, why aren’t Cubans heading there?

The thing is, it’s not only Cubans who want to come to the US as economic refugees. Huge waves of Mexicans and Central American economic refugees have flooded the US in recent years. Does this mean that Mesoamerican capitalism has failed? After all, 82% of Mexicans say they want to come to the US as economic refugees. Why doesn’t that prove that Mexican capitalism is a failed system?


Filed under Capitalism, Caribbean, Central America, Colombia, Cuba, Economics, Europe, Germany, Haiti, Immigration, Jamaica, Latin America, Left, Marxism, Mexico, Regional, Socialism, South America, USA, Venezuela

More Lies about Cuba: The Cuban Dissidents Have Mass Support

Santo Culto writes:

The idea that the dissidents are hated by the people who remained in Cuba, and that you Lindsay, can believe it, shows that many of these ”high Iq’s” seem to have serious problems of perception. Most dissidents have relatives who remained in Cuba. It’s almost like saying that the dissidents were hated in the former East Germany. Are not you ashamed to say such nonsense *

Even though many of Cuban dissidents were hated by (most, many, a lot of) ”Cubans” still would not be proof that Cuba is a good place.

Well, I’ll keep waiting for your answer as the government of Dilma Roussef, the ”presidenta”.

Lindsay, in which social class that fits you **

What you have done for the welfare of beings (human or otherwise) who are in need of help from others ** (if the answer is: ”I am rich” or ”I’m from upper middle class’ )

Speaking of the dissidents in Florida, most Cubans call them “gusanos.” Gusano means worm.  So most Cubans call the Miami exiles dissidents “worms.” They are said to all be working for the CIA to overthrow the system and hand the island back over the US to it can colonize, rape and ruin it again. Most of the big-name dissidents no longer have family in Cuba, and most of the people in Florida with relatives on the island are not hardcore dissidents.

In Cuba, almost everyone complains about the system. But the dissidents in Cuba have almost no support. Cuba had a popular revolution, and most of the people who hated it took off early on. The rest either liked the system or were born and grew up in it, and that’s all they know.

Anyone who studies Cuba at length knows that the dissidents in Cuba have almost no support and the ones in Florida are hated with a passion. Nobody likes them, and nobody wants them. The ones on the island are seen as spies and traitors who work for the US Interest Section, and that is exactly what most of them do.

Sure, a lot of people are not happy with quite a few aspects of the system, and there is quite a bit to complain about. But things have gotten dramatically better in Cuba in the past few years, and there is a lot less to complain about.

Yes people complain a lot and a lot of people want changes in the system. At the same time, almost everyone hates the dissident groups on the island who are seen as traitors who want to turn Cuba over to the hated Americans. And  probably the majority of Cubans are absolutely terrified of free market laissez-faire neoliberal capitalism and want nothing to do with it. They would rather keep the current system and make it work better.

The government probably has majority support now, and all Cubans on the island love Fidel Castro, who is seen as a national hero.

Some Cubans who have important jobs such as physicians are not allowed to leave the island because the state spent so much money educating them. You can’t take all that money from the state to get educated and then just take off for the West. At the very least you should be made to pay back th cost of your education.

There has been an “Orderly Departure Program” in Cuba that enables people to leave the island for many years. But you have to wait in line for six months to get out, and the 20,000 visas for going to the US are filled almost immediately.

Almost all Cubans who want to leave want to go to the US. Nowadays they are almost all economic refugees, and few are fleeing persecution. It is interesting that Cubans only want to go to the US, and almost none of them want to go to any of the “capitalist paradises” in Latin America. A lot also want to go to Spain, but once they get to Spain, life is usually not every good for whatever reason, and most of the Cuban exiles in Spain would just as soon go home.

Those morons who get on flimsy boats to go the US are not doing so because they were not allowed to leave. They are doing so because the 20,000 Visas for the US filled up very quickly, and they still want to go to the US anyway. As there is no legal way to go to the US that year, they have to hop on a raft. Our insane policy says that every Cuban who lands on US shores has to be taken in immediately even though they are obviously illegal immigrants. So they know they will get in if they make it to the shore, there are no more legal slots to get into the US, and they don’t want to go to any of the capitalist paradises in Latin America. That’s why you have all of these morons on rafts.

People say that no one wants to go to Cuba. This is not true. I understand that in recent years, many illegal immigrants from Jamaica and Haiti and have landed in eastern Cuba after sailing on rafts. Cuba took them all in even though they were illegals. 100% of the people who fled the capitalist paradises of Haiti and Jamaica for Cuba say that Cuba is a much better place to live.

Furthermore, name one Latin American country other than Argentina and Costa Rica that has a significant illegal immigrant problem. There are none. There are no capitalist paradises in Latin America that are so groovy that floods of immigrants want to go live in them for an improved life. So maybe few want to move to Cuba, but nobody wants to move to any other country in Latin America for a better life either.


Filed under Americas, Capitalism, Caribbean, Cuba, Economics, Education, Europe, Florida, Government, Haiti, Illegal, Immigration, Jamaica, Latin America, Legal, Neoliberalism, Politics, Regional, Socialism, South, Spain, US Politics, USA

Caribbean IQ Scores

S. Lucia                 62
Dominica                 67
St. Vincent & Grenadines 71
Jamaica                  71.5
Barbados                 79
Dominican Republic       82* 
Cuba                     85** 
Bahamas                  93
Bermuda                  100***

*Dominican Republic is 20% White
**The Cuban genome is 50% White
***Bermuda genome is 45% White

Those scores do not make a  whole lot of sense. They are all over the place. The median score is 79. The mode is 71. The average is as same as the median at 79. That is a very low score, but it is not as low as Africa. The 62 and 67 scores are terrible. Only African and Caribbean Blacks seem to score in the 60’s (Papuans, Aborigines and Gypsies do also). If someone can find me a non-Black group or nation anywhere that scores in the 60’s, I want to see that score. If any group is regularly scoring in the 60’s, something is wrong with them.

On the other hand, we also have some quite high scores. Cuba scores only as high as US Blacks, yet Cuba is 50% White on genes. US Blacks are performing better than Cubans. In fact, US Blacks perform better than not only Cubans, but also the Dominican Republic, Barbados, St. Lucia, Dominica, St. Vincent and the Grenadines,  and Jamaica. US Blacks do have a bit more White in them 25%, but not much more. Jamaicans are 9% White. The additional White admixture in US Blacks is not nearly enough to explain their higher scores vis a vis Jamaica, Dominica, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. These scores do not make sense in terms of hard HBD theory.

At the other hand, we have unexpected high scores in the Bahamas and Bermuda. The Bermudan genome is 45% White, but that should not be enough to get the score up to 100. By hard HBD theory, the score should only go up to perhaps 90 at most. Bermuda had four prior tests around 90-93, which seems to make a lot more sense such that hard HBD’ers like Jason Molloy are throwing out the 100 score as anomalous. At any rate, Bermuda is the highest scoring half-Black nation on Earth, scoring the same as the average White score. That right there is a blow to hard HBD theory.

The Bahamas also has an unexpectedly high score. The Bahamas is 87% Black. How is it that an almost all Black nation scores 93 on an IQ test? That doesn’t seem to make sense either by hard HBD theory.

The Bahamas and Bermuda are both quite wealthy which may explain the higher scores.

To sum up, the Caribbean is an odd place, with two of the highest Black IQ scores on Earth combined with some abysmally low scores down in the 60’s that seem to low to even be possible.

IQ-wise, the Caribbean doesn’t seem to make much sense, but there are a number of instances in this region that are impossible to explain by hard HBD theory.


Filed under Americas, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermudans, Black-White (Mulattos), Blacks, Caribbean, Cuba, Cubans, Dominica, Dominicans, Intelligence, Jamaica, Jamaicans, Latin America, Mixed Race, Psychology, Race Realism, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, USA

Dumb Video About Cuba

What else would you expect from the pro-capitalist BBC?

First lie: about 1/4 of the way into the video, the narrator states that Cuba’s economy is in a “state of collapse.” He then states that Cuba’s economy has been failing for 40 years. That would mean it has been failing since around 1970. Does he mean that it was succeeding for 10 years, and then it started failing? Let us look at a chart:

Excellent chart shows Cuba's economy compared to others in Central America and the Caribbean.

Excellent chart shows Cuba’s economy compared to others in Central America and the Caribbean. Click to enlarge.

Look at the chart above to see how stupid the BBC statement was. Look at the blue line and then find 1970 on the chart. Note that the general trend from 1970 to present has been upwards. In addition, from 1978-1991, Cuba’s economy was beating that of Haiti, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic. Yes, the line from 1960-1970 is relatively flat, but so was that of the other nations during this period. And look at the trend from 1945-1959 under capitalism. Absolutely flat.

Even now, Cuba is beating Haiti, El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua. Only the Dominican Republic is beating Cuba, and Cuba is better in many ways than the D.R.

Look at the trend line of the skyrocketing economy from 1993-present. This is the period in which the BBC states the Cuban economy was “failing” and “in a state of collapse.” Look that way to you?

So the BBC is lying. Cuba’s economy has not been failing for 40 years, at least not compared to its neighbors. If it’s been failing, the economies of all of its neighbors has been failing too. Cuba’s economy is not in a state of collapse. Instead it has been growing by leaps and bounds since 1993, and since 2005, it has surpassed even the great achievement of 1983-1991. Cuba’s economy is doing better than at any time in its history.

Let us compare Cuba’s economy with Jamaica’s:

                  Cuba    Jamaica   Greece  
poverty %         1       14.3
GDP per capita $  9,700   4,100 
unemployment %    1.7     14.5
Debt % of GDP     34.6    131.7     126

As you can see, Jamaica’s debt is even higher than that of Greece! What a catastrophe.

In addition, GDP growth in recent years has been consistently higher in Cuba (with a trend growth rate being at the very least 2% higher in Cuba).

Jamaica has faithfully followed the neoliberal Washington consensus laid down by the US, the IMF and the World Bank. This is what happens when you follow that model: failure.

The documentary goes to great pains to make the case that socialism has failed in Cuba and that now capitalism is replacing it. I think what we are looking at here is what I call “market socialism.” China also has a market socialist economy. I support the market socialist model in both China and Cuba. A small business sector is a very important aspect of any socialist economy, in my opinion.

Cuba is presently limiting the size of these new entrepreneurs. As they make more and more money, taxes start taking a bigger bite. That is painful, but most of the entrepreneurs say it is still worth it. The housing market is not as capitalist as you think. Cubans can still only own one house. This is essential to prevent the massive accumulation of housing stock in the hands of giant real estate tycoons and businesses. The size of the private farms is also limited. Actually, they are not even private farms since the land is leased from the state. The state owns all land in Cuba, and that is the way it should be. Most of the problems of capitalism stem from the private ownership of land, particularly farmland. How much land do you need anyway?

The housing situation in Havana is painful to watch. However, this collapsing housing is in general limited to Havana. I wonder what the solution to this might be. I could imagine entrepreneurs could form small construction companies or construction collectives could form. Neighborhoods could also band together to fix their own housing stock. If you have been on the waiting list for a housing renovation for 16 years, obviously that model is just not working.

The hamburger joint the fellow fashioned out of his home is a great idea, but I am not sure if he should be allowed to franchise it out. There needs to be limits placed on how rich a man can become and how many businesses he may own.

The part about the ballet was very touching. This is why I am a socialist. The finest ballet company in the whole land, the national ballet company, hosts performances that are so cheap (30 cents) that they are available to just about any Cuban! Wow. Here in the USA, ballet and other arts is generally affordable only by people who have money. Most of the people I know surely do not have the money to go to the ballet.

Note the segment about the ballet dancer. She is one of 500 students at the national ballet school in Havana. Obviously, competition was very tight to get in. The school is 100% free, while in the US, it might costs $20-30,000 a year. That means that only rich people could afford to learn to be ballet dancers, no matter how talented they are. That is just wrong. Education ought to be offered based on talent and aptitude, not how much money you have.

That ballet performance and the ballet school. Now that’s why I am a socialist.


Filed under Americas, Capitalism, Caribbean, Cuba, Economics, Education, Jamaica, Latin America, Neoliberalism, Regional, Socialism

Is Wurzel English a Separate Language?

Warren Port writes about Somerset English. See the link for a baffling sample of this strange form of English.

Admittedly it is a very bad English, and he is exaggerating for effect but I understand most of it except for the odd word. When I was twelve we moved from London to a tiny village called Cattcott ten miles from the Mendips where this recording is from. In the eighties there were some people who spoke that way, probably more diluted now.

I am a linguist. We don’t really call anything “bad English.” All dialects are as good as any other. I just figure if you can’t understand it, it’s a foreign language. I would like to split English into some separate languages because some of them pretty much are.

Really Wurzel is just as much of a valid way to speak English as any others. This man speaks Wurzel, and he is able to communicate just fine with other folks who also speak it, so it is a valid lect. The only problem is that rest of us English speakers speak another English language that is very far removed from this English language, so we can’t understand him. Someone ought to write this language down. It’s cool because it seems like it has a lot of new words that I don’t have in the English language that I speak.

At a minimum, as separate languages, I would probably split off:

Scots. There appears to be more more than one language inside Scots. Scots itself is already split off as a separate language. There appear to be 4 separate languages inside of Scots.

Doric Scots. Doric is spoken in the northeast of Scotland in Aberdeen, Banff and Buchan, Moray and the Nairn. It has difficult intelligibility with the rest of Scots.

Lallans Scots. This form of Scots is spoken in the south and central part of Scotland. This is the most common form of spoken Scots. Difficult intelligibility with the other lects.

Ulster Scots. This is the form of the Scots language spoken in North Ireland, mostly by Protestants. It has many dialects and has difficult intelligibility with the rest of Scots.

Insular Scots. Includes the Shetlandic and Orcadian dialects. Spoken on some Scottish islands and is reportedly even hard for other Scots speakers to understand. Of all of the Scots lects, this one is the farthest from the others.

Scottish English. We can probably split this off as well because it is probable that there are Scottish English speakers who can’t understand pure Scots very well. While some British English speakers can understand this lect well, others have problems with it. In particular, the dialect of Glascow is said to be hard to understand for many Londoners.

Hibernian English. English spoken in Ireland. There seem to be some forms of Irish English such as the hard lect spoken by the spokespeople for the IRA and its political wing like Gerry Adams, that are very hard for Americans to understand. Some English people also have a hard time with Ulster English.

Geordie and related lects from the far north of England up around Scotland. These lects are spoken around Newcastle in the far north of England on the east coast. Even the rest of the English often have a hard time with Geordie, and when people talk about multiple languages inside English, Geordie is often the first one they bring up.

Scouse. Really hard Scouse is barely even intelligible outside of Liverpool, not even in the suburbs. There is a report of an American who lived in Liverpool for a long period of time, and after 8 years, she still could not understand the very hard Scouse spoken by young working class Liverpool women. While some speakers of British English can understand Scouse, this is mostly due to bilingual learning. Other speakers of British English have a hard time with Scouse.

Potteries. Spoken almost exclusively in and around the city of Stoke on Trent in northern West Midlands. The hard form is not readily understood outside the city itself. The dialect is dying out.

Welsh English. The hard forms of Welsh English are not readily understood outside the region. There are at least 4 separate languages inside Welsh English.

South Welsh English.Welsh English is not a single language but actually appears to be four separate languages. The varieties of South Welsh English spoken in Cardiff and West Glamorgan (Swansea, Neath and Port Talbot) cannot be understood outside the region. It is not known if West Glamorgan English and Cardiff English can understand each other well. North Welsh English, South Welsh English and West Welsh English are as far apart as Newcastle, Cornwall and Birmingham; therefore, all three of them are separate languages.

North Welsh English. This language is spoken in areas such as Anglesy and Llanberis. It often has a soft lilt to it that people find pleasant and soothing. Probably poor intelligibility with West and South Welsh English.

West Welsh English. This is spoken in places such as Aberystwyth and Cardiganshire. Those two dialects are said to be particularly pleasant sounding. Probably poor intelligibility with North and South Welsh English.

Monmouth English. This form of Welsh English reportedly cannot be understood outside of Monmouth itself. Monmouth is a city on the eastern edge of Wales towards the south.

Wurzel. In particular the hard Wurzel form of West Country English spoken in Somerset at least until very recently is not well understood outside of Somerset. In addition, many younger residents of Somerset do not understand it completely. It sounds similar to Irish and has a lot of new words for things. Hard Wurzel is dying out, and its speakers are mostly elderly. The language of Bristol may be possibly be included here.

Weald Sussex English. A variety of Sussex English spoken in the Weald region of Sussex was traditionally very hard for outsiders to understand. It is dying out now, but it still has a few speakers.

Newfoundland English. There are reportedly some hard forms of Newfie English spoken by older fishermen on the coast of the island that are very hard for other North Americans to understand.

Appalachian English. Some forms of Appalachian English from the deep hollows of West Virginia are hard for other Americans to understand.

Mulungeon English. Some of the English lects spoken by Mulungeon groups in central Virginia in the Blue Ridge Mountains, particularly the lect spoken by the Monacan Indians living near Lynchburg, are very hard for other Americans to understand. They seem to have an archaic character and use a lot of new words for things that I could not identify when I heard it. This may be a type of English often said to be archaic from centuries ago that is still spoken in the mountains. The degree to which this is intelligible with the rest of Appalachian English is uncertain.

Tangier English. Spoken on an island off the coast of Virginia by fishermen, this is a relatively pure West Country English lect from 1680 or so that has survived more or less intact. When they speak among themselves, they are hard for other Americans to understand. The degree to which this can be understood by West Country English speakers in England is not known. Unknown intelligibility with Harkers Island English.

Harkers Island English. Spoken on Harkers Island off the coast of North Carolina on the Outer Banks. Has a similar origin to Tangier English. It is hard for outsiders to understand. The degree of intelligibility between Tangier English and Harkers Island English is not known.

New York English. There is a hard form of New York English, not much spoken anymore, that cannot be well understood at least here on the West Coast. Tends to be spoken by working class Whites especially in the Bronx. In general, this lect is dying out. In my region of California, we recently had a man who moved here from the Bronx, a young working class White man. Even after 2-3 months here, people still had a hard time understanding him. He did not seem to be able to modify his speech so he could be understood better, which usually means someone is speaking another language, not a dialect. Finally he learned California English dialect well enough so that he could make himself understood.

Nonatum English or Lake Talk. Spoken only in Nonatum, Massachusetts, one of 13 villages of the city of Newton, mostly by Italian-Americans. Many residents came from a certain village in the Lazio region of Italy. It appears to be a mixture of Italian and Romani, the language of the Gypsies. Not intelligible to those outside the village.

Yooper. Spoken mostly in the Michigan Upper Peninsula, this lect is also spoken in the northern parts of the Lower Peninsula and in parts of northeast Wisconsin. Heavily influenced by Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Flemish and French, this lect is hard for outsiders to understand largely due to the influence of these other European languages.

African American Vernacular English or Ebonics. This lect is spoken by many Black people in the US, often lower class people in ghettos or in the country. The hard forms of it cannot be understood at all by other Americans. I once had two Black women in my car for an hour or so. They were speaking AAVE. Over that hour, I do not believe that I understood a single word they said. They may as well have been speaking Greek. Forms spoken in the ghettos of Memphis and in the Mississippi Delta by rural Blacks may be particularly hard to understand.

South African English. While some Americans can understand this hard dialect well, though with difficulty, others cannot understand it. It is not known how well speakers of other Englishes such as British and Australian English can understand this lect.

Jamaican Creole English. Jamaican English Creole is already split off as a separate language. At any rate, in its hard form, it is nearly unintelligible to Americans.

Gullah English Creole is a creole spoken on the Gullah Islands off the coast of South Carolina. Already split off into a separate language. Not intelligible to American English speakers.

Nigerian Pidgin English. The harder forms of this may be rather hard to Americans to understand, but this needs further investigation. The hard forms are definitely quite divergent and seem odd to many Americans. Already split off as a separate language.

Australian English. Some forms of Australian English can be hard to understand for people outside the continent. I found that a form spoken in rural Tasmania was particularly hard to understand. I even have a hard time understanding Helen Caldicott, the famous physician. Other forms spoken more in the rural areas of the main island can also be rather hard to understand. Nevertheless, I can understand “TV Australian” well. However, speakers of British English are able to understand Australian English well, so it is not a language but rather a dialect of British English.

New Zealand English. This is similar but different from Australian English. While most New Zealand English is readily understandable to Americans, some of it can be a bit hard to hear. In the video below, the announcer speaks in TV New Zealand English, which I actually found a bit hard to understand, but I could make out most of it. The comedians spoke in a strong rural New Zealand accent. I could make out a lot of it, but not all of it for sure. However, British English speakers can understand all of the dialogue in this video. New Zealand English is not a language but is instead a dialect of British English.

Indian English. Some of the Indian English spoken by speakers in India can be quite hard to Americans to understand. What we need to know is whether this is a first or second language for them. If they were brought up speaking this Indian English, then it is a separate language. If it is simply English spoken as a second language by a native speaker of Hindi or another Indian language then it is not a separate language. Requires further investigation.

In conclusion, it seems that there are at least 25 separate languages and 3 creoles/pidgins inside of macro-English. 1 other case is uncertain.


Filed under Africa, Americas, Australia, Balto-Slavic-Germanic, Britain, Canada, Dialectology, English language, Europe, Germanic, India, Indo-European, Indo-Hittite, Jamaica, Language Families, Linguistics, Nigeria, North America, Regional, Scots, Sociolinguistics, South Africa, South Asia, USA

Myth: No One Ever Immigrated to a Communist Country

MP writes:

You are right at least on one point: no communist country ever experienced immigration problems. Not because they did not want immigration, but because nobody, on his own mind, would have wanted to immigrate to a communist country.

Beside this, if the US keep on letting Mexicans colonizing its territory, the US will become a second Mexico, since a country is worth what the majority of its residents are worth. An other option for the US would be to become a communist country, which would prevent anyone for immigrating to the the US.

Not true. After the division of Germany, many German Leftists in the West migrated to the new East Germany. This was VERY common. Also, I have heard that Cuba has many recent immigrants from Jamaica and Haiti, and they like it very much and say it is better than their own country. Although Venezuela is not a Communist country, it has recently had a large number of poor and working class Colombians moving to it. They say they like it there a lot better than in Colombia. China is currently run by the Communist country, and it gets quite a few immigrants. Currently quite a few Americans are thinking of moving to Cuba if and when they retire. A number of American Leftists have already moved to Cuba and live there currently. Philip Agee is a prominent one. An old friend of mine from 1980 was from the Azerbaijani SSR in the Soviet Union. He told me that Azeri Soviets and Iranians used to go back and forth across each other’s borders all the time.

Most Communist countries were paranoid and they didn’t want a lot of immigration. They thought there might be spies mixed in.

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Filed under Americas, Azerbaijan, Caribbean, Colombia, Cuba, Haiti, Immigration, Jamaica, Latin America, Left, Marxism, Near East, Regional, South America, USSR, Venezuela

Walter E. Williams: Idiot, Tool, Black Conservative

The latest Walter E. Williams article.

A truly insane article by a typical Black conservative nut. This kook points out the logical fact that is known to anyone: What do the Top 10 US cities with the highest crime rates have in common? Guess what? They are chock full of Black people! Duh.

One would draw certain logical conclusions from these obvious facts, but a Black conservative is too much of partisan monkey liar to ever do that. As bad as Black liberals can be (and they can be pretty bad), Black conservatives are by far the worst that the Black race has to offer.

According the Williams, the logical conclusion that we draw here is twofold:

1. These cities are full of Black folks.
2. They are all run by Democrats, for the most part liberal Democrats.

Conclusion: Liberal Democratic administrations cause unbelievable amounts of crime!

I kid you not. Black conservatives really are that stupid. As if Black people would act any better under a hard rightwing administration, not that they would ever elect one.

We have an actual experiment to see if this is true: the South. All Southern states are run by radical rightwing Republicans. Before that, they were run by radical rightwing Democrats. All of those states have been run by Black-hating racist White people for ever and ever. And how do Black people act down South? Perfectly horrible. They act as bad as Black people do anywhere. Why would Black folks suddenly act better if a rightwing Republican racist White massa was in charge, cracking the whip on those niggas? You think is going to stop making them act up? Come on.

The truth is that those cities are full of crime for the precise reason that they are full of Black people. Once you get a city full of Black people, you tend to get a city with lots and lots of crime. Those Black people created all that crime, and they will create about as much crime whether they are under a liberal Democratic administration as when they are under a Republican white racist massa administration.

Williams is truly crazy: a Libertarian Black. Black Libertarians are even more insane than Black conservatives. About 3% of Blacks are Black conservatives. We know this because ~3% of Black voted for Mitt Romney in the last election. However, if you looked at the US news media, you would think that 50% or more of Blacks are conservatives. Black conservatives may be as rare as four leaf clovers, but the “liberal” media loves them, and loves to over-represent them as demonstrative of the politics of US Blacks. If you are a US Black conservative, you are almost guaranteed of getting your own radio or TV show or your own newspaper column.

Does anyone on Earth think that Libertarianism will do anything for US Blacks?

Libertarianism is what exists in the 3rd world. In the 3rd World, the state is almost nonexistent, spends almost no money on the people on social programs, and what money it does have goes solely for police and military to enforce class rule over the lower classes and the workers. If the lower classes and workers get too out of hand, you just call out the cops and army and slaughter them.

Other than that, the government exists solely as an arm of the richest sectors of society and serves to protect their interests. The rich and business classes get to do everything and anything they want to. The state is starved for funds because the businesses and the wealthy pay no taxes, and the elites don’t believe in government spending anyway due to “the threat of a good example.” If the state spends money on pro-people programs, that is socialism, and we oppose socialism. Also the people might come to like this socialism and might want to have a more socialist country. This would interfere with the moneyed interests of the nation’s elites, so we can’t have that.

Libertarianism is what Blacks have in Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica and a few other places. Probably Haiti is the best example because it is the most Libertarian society ever attempted in a Black country. You can see how well that is working out!

Over in Africa, we can look at Kenya, Nigeria or Zaire as examples of nearly Libertarian Black countries in which elites steal 100% of the money in society leaving the masses with nothing but starvation and disease. As you can see, that is working out just fine!

Most other Black nations are socialist to some degree or another, so it hard to find a Black example of a radical rightwing country, but the above examples are pretty good.

Libertarianism won’t do anything good for Black people. All it will do is turn Black neighborhoods and cities like Detroit and Oakland into Haiti or Nigeria. If you think that is an improvement on the present state of affairs, you are wrong.


Filed under Africa, Americas, Blacks, Conservatism, Crime, Democrats, Dominican Republic, Economics, Government, Haiti, Jamaica, Journalism, Kenya, Liberalism, Libertarianism, Nigeria, Political Science, Politics, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, Republicans, Social Problems, Socialism, Sociology, South, US Politics, USA, White Racism, Zaire

Strangeness on the Beach in Jamaica

Video here.

I don’t understand this video. Is she enjoying it, or is she getting mad? Are those guys having fun, or is this a form or hostility? The link I clicked to take me to this video said, “White woman humiliated on beach in Jamaica.” There is supposedly a name for this sort “dancing,” and it’s normal to dance like this in hip-hop dance halls in the UK, where the dancers are probably mostly Jamaicans.

This is called “daggering” or “muh-dicking,” and is popular in dance-hall culture in Jamaica. However, people are trying to replicate the extreme sexual moves of daggering in the bedroom and there have been many cases of damaged penises over the past year. Some of the injuries have been permanent. Yes, you can break your dick, and it’s not funny at all. Injury usually happens during sex, and you need to get to an emergency room right away. Woman on top is the usual position.


Filed under Americas, Caribbean, Culture, Jamaica, Latin America, Music, Pop Culture, Regional, Sex, Weirdness