Category Archives: Northeast Asians

More on the Finest Mixed Race of Them All – The “Hapa”

S. D. writes: Eastern Europeans have some Asian blood in them-Charles Bronson was an example-all the way West to Hungary (Named after Huns from Northern China).

Finns, though blonde, also derive some ancient Asian genes through the Lapps who were apparently present when the Germanic tribes migrated Northwards in antiquity.

The Filipino ruling-class are Eurasians.

My point is this ain’t nothing new under the sun, folks,

The grandchild of a white male and an Asian female that is 1/4 Asian looks no different than an Eastern European.

That is why the continent is called Eurasia.

Japanese are some ancient mixture of Caucasoid Ainu from Russia and ancient migrations from Korean peninsula (In this instance the Asians exterminated the whites).

Manchurian Chinese are Eurasians from the steppes of Soviet Siberia.

What is the big deal?

I love a lot of mixed race people because I think a lot of mixed race people are even more beautiful than those of the pure races that formed them. Further, some races that are not very attractive to me can create very beautiful people by mixing with another race. Even some mixed Aborigine-White women can be quite beautiful. One is a famous Australian model.

East Europeans do not have much Asian blood in them – maybe 3% in Czechs and not a whole lot more in your average Russian. It’s less than 12% at any rate. Finns and Turks are 7% Asian, a bit more.

Go look up some photos of people like the Mansi and the Khanty. Very, very mixed Asian-White to the point where you see people with blue eyes and blond hair next to people who look very Asiatic – very strange looking but somehow beautiful.

Some of the groups around the Altai like the Altai people and the Khakas are also extremely mixed – more or less 50-50 in those cases but really more like 40-45% White and 55-60% Asian. These are the ancestors of most Amerindians.

Tatars and Bashkirs are also extremely mixed, although I believe they are mostly White. Nevertheless some of the women look very Asiatic.

Turkmen are also very mixed – I think they might be 40% Asian.

The Ainu are not Caucasoids either by genes of by skulls. On skulls they are Australoids – basically depigmented Northern Veddoids – and on genes are they are simply Asians. People think they are Caucasoids because Veddoids have look somewhat Caucasoid themselves and a depigmented Veddoid can look (falsely) quite Caucasoid and also because the mix between an Australoid and a Mongoloid or Paleomongoloid can often appear mysteriously quite Caucasoid in phenotype. Check out the Ainu and the Veddoids, some Polynesians, Papuans and even Aborigines, some Southeast Asians such as some Khmers, and especially the Taiwanese aborigines who often look very “Caucasoid.”

Northern Chinese may well have Caucasoid in them from way back, but the genes are no longer present. Mongolians have more White in them – they are 14% Caucasoid.

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Filed under Ainu, Amerindians, Anthropology, Asians, Chinese (Ethnic), Eurasia, Europeans, Finns, Khmer, Mixed Race, Mongolians, Northeast Asians, Oceanians, Papuans, Physical, Polynesians, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, SE Asians, Siberia, Taiwanese Aborigines, Turks, Whites

North Koreans Versus Indians

Yes

Tell me why you hate so much zero empathy or even try to understand the “Indians” but not the north Korean.

You will banned me first or you will explain this contradiction??

You tell me why I should show empathy for monsters, wicked people, and sociopathic, morally depraved freaks? Sorry pal. I am on an empathy diet. I have plenty of empathy for good people. As far as bad people go, they can just burn. I have dealt with enough assholes for twenty lifetimes, and I don’t need to even speak to one more.

Why should I try to “understand” monsters? Everybody does everything for a reason, and it is usually a logical reason in some way. Even criminals are behaving logically in some according to some perverse system of logic, and many of them have frankly been created by awful environments.

It is very easy to “understand” the behavior of most human beings  who act horrible in the typical ways. We all know why people act this way. Good and evil and inborn in all of us, and when your heart dies, the Devil can capture your soul and turn you into his plaything for the rest of his life. It can happen to me, you or anyone because we all have evil inside of us.

We all have to guard against our evil tendencies at all times. Those of us who act good are not that different from those who act bad. I have a great deal of evil inside of me, but I have enough of a pure heart and warm soul left somehow that I am able to suppress my evil behaviors and temptations. Not that I do not feel them. I simply feel them, recognize them as evil intentions and vow to resist them. In this way, you can walk with Jesus and be a real Christian.

Sublimation is nothing new. Churchill could have been Hitler.

Greed, hatred, competitiveness, lack of empathy, treacherousness, backstabbing, murderousness, aggression, violence, rape, wife beating, torture, cruelty, sadism, sexism/racism/classism/casteism, corruption, bribery, covetousness, jealousy, envy, irritability, meanness, fraud, cheating, stealing, lying…all of these things are essential aspects of day to day Indian culture that no one even thinks twice about.

And of course they are present in all human societies to some extent. Of course I “understand” why people act bad in every single way that I listed above. Most people figure that stuff out sometime in childhood. It’s not hard to figure out the motives for evil behavior. Further, I work in mental health, so I understand  the motives for evil better than 90% of the population. But so what? Who cares if we “understand” why people act horrible? Big deal! Most everything is “understandable,” even if in some sick or awful way. Why should I let scumbags off the hook just because I have figured out why they are such dicks?

And one more thing. If Indians are characterized by any one thing, it is that there is a sheer and utter lack of empathy that pervades the entire society and attempts to infect everyone born into it. If you try to be a dissident and protest this callous mindset, you will be browbeaten, shunned, rejected and possibly even threatened. I get emails all the time from Indians who condemn their country to Hell but then beg me not to post their name anywhere to anyone. They are absolutely terrified of speaking out in their society. A lot of them told me that it is actually dangerous to speak out against Indian culture. You may get physically assaulted or worse, not to mention the emotional abuse.

Now how about if you tell me why I should show empathy towards people who have no empathy themselves? Forget it. No! If you want me to feel some empathy towards you, you need to retain a human soul and something left of a heart yourself. If you have burned and discarded those essential human parts of yourself, I have nothing to say to you, and I feel I should show you no kindness, remorse, sympathy or mourning. You simply do not deserve to receive those human feelings from me.

The North Korean people I think are very good people. I have seen a lot of reports from people who went there, and they said that the people they met were all fantastic. It is the regime that is terrible. Bad government, good people. The culture itself is not toxic or evil.

In India the culture itself is toxic and evil and promotes sociopathy and wickedness in all Indians from the day you are born. Of course the government is full of some of the worst of all of these people, but your average Indian often is a perfectly horrible human being in the way he lives his life and his values or lack thereof. Normal Indian culture is narcissistic, callous, sadistic, self-serving, selfish, backstabbing, treacherous, utterly dishonest and sociopathic. So you end up with a billion people who lie, cheat and steal as a matter of daily existence. A nation of monsters.

The people themselves are shitty.

In India, the government is shitty, and so are the people who have blackened hearts and burnt out souls.

In North Korea the government is shitty, but the people are generally decent people with something remaining of real hearts and genuine human souls.

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Filed under Asia, Asians, Culture, East Indians, Government, India, Koreans, NE Asia, North Korea, Northeast Asians, Psychology, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, Social Problems, Sociology, South Asia, South Asians

Veddoids In Modern and Ancient Asia: A Predominant Type?

Pepperoncini writes:

I think when you say Australoid, you mean Veddoid, and Vedda people are distinct and different from Dravidians, including Tamils. Tamils have a range of phenotypes. Tamil-speaking groups can range from very dark with low nose bridge and broad noses to dark, normal nose bridge and average nasal index.

Whatever the Tamils may appear to be, when we put Tamil skulls on a graph, they plot with the Senoi, Negritos, Andaman Islanders, Papuans and similar groups.

The Senoi are an Australoid group that are best seen as Veddoids transplanted to Southern China and then to Thailand 5,000 YBP. From 5-15,000 YBP, Veddoid types may have been widespread throughout Asia. The pre-Jomon in Thailand 16,000 YBP have skulls that plot closely with the Jomonese later in Japan at 13,000 YBP. If you compare photos of modern day Ainu people with Veddoids from India, it is clear that the Ainu are a depigmented group of Northern Veddoids.

There are also traces of Veddoid types in the Philippines long ago where reports of oddly Caucasoid-looking people appear in the anthropological record. They may have been part of the group that moved from Thailand to southern Japan between 13-16,000 YBP because the Philippines would be along this route.

So also would be Australia.

And indeed, the first modern Aborigines appear in the form of a group called Murrayans that arrived between 15-20,000 YBP. The best guess is that the Murrayans were the same group of Veddoids that were present in Thailand at this time and the migration may have part of the same Thailand-Japan migration that the pre-Jomonese undertook.

This is probably not the only Veddoid migration to Australia. Between 10-15,000 YBP, a group called the Carpinterians arrived, apparently from Southern India. Consider that all people in India are termed “Australoid” before 8,000 YBP when the Australoid-Caucasoid transition begins possibly with the arrival of the first actual Dravidians, probably Elamites from western Iran. These pre-8,000 YBP Australoids in India then could probably best be called Veddoids.

Australoid types were present long before in India in India and Southeast Asia as skulls from India and Thailand 25,000 YBP are said to resemble Aborigines. Their relationship to the Australoid Veddoid group that shows up at least 16,000 YBP is not known.

The modern Aborigines are a mix between Carpinterians and Murrayans that arrived 13-17,000 YBP in the subcontinent and subsequently interbred.

Before that, some very different and even more archaic people lived in Australia.

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Filed under Aborigines, Ainu, Andaman Islanders, Anthropology, Asia, Asians, Australia, China, India, Iran, Japan, NE Asia, Negritos, Northeast Asians, Papuans, Philippines, Physical, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, SE Asia, SE Asians, South Asia, Thailand

What Is the Source of Behavioral Differences Between Euro and Non-Euro Caucasians?

“If you spend a lot of time around non-European Whites, you will notice that they seem to be part of your “family” like any White person is, and also that they more or less act like Euro Whites too.”

Tell that to the all the German women assaulted in Cologne.

We have lots of Arabs and North Indians around here. They don’t go around assaulting women. They act just like regular White people. Actually they act better than most of the Euro Whites around here.

The North Indians in particular are 25% Northeast Asian, so that my be the source of their better behavior. They do seem pretty calmed down and sedate. Also the North Indians around here are crazy study maniacs. Most of the young people are going to college and they study like crazy all the time in large groups in the coffee shop. They are almost nerds like that.

The Arabs around here do have a bit of Black in them. The ones hereabouts are actually 20% Black. What is fascinating is that having 20% Black in them does not seem to change their behavior in any noticeable way. If anything they act better than the regular Euro Whites around here with no Black in them. You cannot see any traces of Black behavior coming from even 20% Black genes.

I am not sure what that adds up to, but we maybe having a bit of Black in you is not the end of the world. The ancient Egyptians were 13% Black. So it looks like non-Blacks can have up to 20% Black genes and still be highly functional and civilized races. There is no reason to freak out if your race is getting some Black genes bred into it. Obviously at some point it becomes a concern, but at least Caucasians seem to be able to weather 10-20% Black genes quite well.

This also argues against race being biological. But maybe Arab culture is so strong that it negates any negative effects from those Black genes. Or maybe 10-20% Black genes simply isn’t enough to change Whites very much. As with Black percentage in a city, where towns and schools can weather Blacks up to a point, there is probably a tipping point in Caucasians, schools and cities where the Black percentage gets over a certain amount and then a lot of characteristic Black behaviors, not all of them positive, start showing up.

Around here, we have Blacks, Mexicans and full Mexican Indians. Trust me, the local Arabs and North Indians do not act like anything like Amerindians, Mexicans or Blacks. It is so clear just being around them that we are talking about completely different races. I look at those North Indians and Arabs, and they remind me of the White people I grew up with and lived with all my life. They seem like they are part of my race. Granted, sometimes they can act bad due to culture or religion, but I don’t get the feeling that I am a completely different race from them. I do get that feeling from the Mexicans, Amerindians and Blacks.

Also in case you are wondering about Mexicans, there are quite a few Mexicans around here who are quite White. We may as well call them White Mexicans. Guess who they act like? A lot of them act like me! They act like White people! The more White they have in them, the more they act like regular Euros despite coming from Mexican culture. There’s got to be something to biological race. I know there is.

They are still part of my racial family. But you know within a racial family, you can have good actors and bad actors just like in any family.

The non-European Caucasians are more like Euros in behavior than they are like any other race. Their behavior does not resemble any of the other large races. In a gross sense such as the way the typical Asian – White – Black divide breaks down, non-Euro Caucasians will line up with Euros on many variables. They don’t act like Asians. They don’t act like Black people. They don’t act like Aborigines or Papuans or Negritos. They don’t act like Oceanians. They don’t act like Amerindians.

However, they do have some very different cultures as far as religion and general culture are concerned. I don’t think their genes are much different from the genes of Euros. But culture is such a profound factor in human behavior. The behavior of those Arab men in Cologne is due to their culture, not to the fact that their genes are different from European genes.

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Filed under Amerindians, Arabs, Blacks, Culture, Hispanics, Mexicans, Northeast Asians, Race/Ethnicity, Religion, South Asians, Whites

The Australoid Connection Between India and Australia

There were originally Australoids in Australia of course, but no one knows what they looked like. The may have looked like Negritos. The first Whites to Australia had stories about Aborigines waging wars of extermination on very small and very dark people whose description looks a lot like Negritos. The original Aborigines may have looked like either Negritos, Papuans or Melanesians. Papuans have an Australoid line going back a long ways. The Melanesian line goes back 40,000 YBP and is incredibly diverse.

Most modern Aborigines are a mixture of Murrayans who came out of Thailand ~17,000 YBP and went to Australia, the Philippines and eventually to Japan 13,000 YBP. This was a Veddoid type group that eventually became the Ainu in Japan. Yet another group was known as Carpinterians. They came from India 13,000 YBP. Some of the more primitive looking tribals or even possibly Tamils may be related to this group, as they do look something like modern Aborigines.

The modern day Aborigines are a mixture between Carpinterians and Murrayans.

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Filed under Aborigines, Ainu, Anthropology, Asia, Asians, Australia, India, Japan, Melanesians, NE Asia, Negritos, Northeast Asians, Oceanians, Papuans, Philippines, Physical, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, SE Asia, SE Asians, South Asia

Korea: The Nazi Germany of Asia?

Commenter Gus Yates writes:

I lived in South Korea for seven years as an ESL teacher as a Caucasian Australian. The racism I encountered there and witnessed others being subjected to beggared belief. The Korean concept of ‘Volksgemeinshaft‘ is called Minjok Uishik, and it basically translates to ‘pure blooded racial community’. This racist mindset is drilled into every single Korean, and the similarities between South Korea and Nazi Germany are scary.

Granted Caucasians might be treated slightly better than other minorities, but basically all non Koreans are viewed as the enemy whether you look like Brad Pitt or Wesley Snipes. I actually learned to speak Korean, and that was a mistake. I could now understand the racist comments constantly made at my expense. If you’re not Korean and you’re dating or married to a Korean lady, then your experience will be even worse.

Koreans take racial purity very seriously, and political correctness hasn’t caught on yet. I’ve spent time in some 35 countries and lived in five, and I can tell you that there is no country on earth more racist and xenophobic than that hellish peninsula. Generalizing about nationalities is fraught with danger, but in the case of Korea it is warranted. They’re not nice people at all.

I ended up marrying a Chinese lady, spent significant time in China, and the differences between Korea and China couldn’t be more pronounced. The Chinese are warm, tolerant and friendly. In China, I was never abused or physically assaulted just for holding hands with my wife in public. Nor was she called a slut for marrying outside her race.

Even in Australia my wife was called Chunya (slut) just for being with me in public by Korean tourists! The best thing about Korea is after you leave, anywhere else on earth seems so good in comparison. Enough said.

Even seven years after I left, my Korean experience still haunts me. Not a nice place. Life is too short to waste even one minute in that country. There are so many nicer places where you won’t be treated like an animal for being foreign.

Gus’s comments seem to mirror those of commenter Jason Y exactly. Jason experienced almost the same thing as an ESL instructor in South Korea and he relates a near-identical experience.

Furthermore, though they are often bashed and called fascist for it, North Korea has exactly the same mindset in spades, maybe even worse than the South.

This website takes a lot of time, and I do not get paid anything for it. If you think this website is valuable to you, please consider a a contribution to support my work.

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Filed under Asia, Asians, Chinese (Ethnic), Culture, Koreans, NE Asia, North Korea, Northeast Asians, Race/Ethnicity, Racism, Regional, South Korea

Where Did the Jomonese People Come from?

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This East Timorese man looks more Aboriginal, or better yet, Papuan.

 

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A pseudo-Caucasoid or Ryukuyan type in East Timor.

 

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An Ainuid! What is this hairy Ainu man doing in East Timor?

Maricon Power writes:

Robert Lindsay, I do agree on many of your point. The only thing I don’t agree is that Jomons (ancestors of Ainu ) were descendants of the Jomonese Thailand in 16,000 YPB. You’re right that they descended from Southeast Asia but most likely that location is in southern Southeast Asia, maybe Timor.

”According to Hanihara, modern Japanese lineages began with Jomon people who moved into the Japanese archipelago during Paleolithic times from their homeland in southeast Asia.”

Ryukyuan

This map goes along with Maricon Power’s comment above. That pseudo-Caucasoid is, believe it or not a Ryukuyan Ainuid type.

 

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Another pseudo-Caucasoid Ainuid type from East Timor. He’s even wearing a White man’s cowboy hat!

 

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Yet another pseudo-Caucasoid. That man simply looks like a White man, period. Amazing.

Asien Ost Timor Timor-Leste Maubisse Bergregion Minderheiten

An Ainu man in East Timor! Get a load of that getup, including the most amazing feather hast I have ever seen.

Hello, a study was done using many different Asian skulls. When plotted on a graph with all of the other skulls, Jomonese 13,000 was a perfect match for Thailand 16,000 (Proto-Thai). “Proto-Jomonese” types were probably widespread through SE Asia at the time. The types in Easts Timor and in Thailand are probably the same people.

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Everyone who thinks that Australoids are all ugly needs to reconsider that view now. Look at this fellow. He’s an Australoid, sure. And he’s also quite exotic looking. But he’s incredibly handsome, at least to my eyes. Anyone agree?

 

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Another Ainuid-looking fellow. Actually he looks more Aboriginal to me, but Ainu types also look Aboriginal.

 

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There he is! An Ainu in East Timor. Does that garb resemble traditional Ainu clothing? I wonder.

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Filed under Ainu, Anthropology, Asia, Asians, Japan, Japanese, NE Asia, Northeast Asians, Physical, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, SE Asia, Thailand

Some Notes on the Ainu

Maricon Power writes:

Robert Lindsay, why do pure Ainu have lighter skinned than Japanese? Are Ainu Northern Australoids (cold adapted Australoids?) or are they pigmented? I’ve seen pigmented Tamils and Veddas that look almost European; even the Australian aborigines would.

Look at this map of glacier cover in Japan at the height of the last glaciation about 20,000 years ago.

It shows the Hokkaido (Ainu land) living in a climate different from every other Asian countries.

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Glaciation in Japan at the height of the last Ice Age 20,000 YBP.

The Ainu are indeed cold adapted Australoids, and they are actually Vedda types. A comparison of Veddoids and Ainu will show that they match perfectly.

The map of Ainu land is not correct. 20,000 YBP there were no Ainu in Japan. The ancestors of the Ainu are the Jomon. Jomonese skulls line up perfectly with skulls from Thailand 16,000 YBP. The Jomonese show up in Japan 13,000 YBP. So the Jomon left Thailand sometime between 16,000 and 13,000 YBP and made their way eventually up to Japan. When they first arrived in Japan, the Jomonese ranged over the entire country. They were not in Hokkaido alone.

They only ended up in Hokkaido when the Yayoi came from Korea to Japan 2,300 YBP and slowly conquered their way up the island, defeating and displacing the Ainu along the way. The Ainu were eventually pushed up to Hokkaido where the Japanese no longer pursued them much. Hokkaido is where they were found when modern anthropology discovered them in the modern area, but they have not always been located only there.

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Filed under Ainu, Anthropology, Asia, Asians, Geography, Japan, Maps, NE Asia, Northeast Asians, Physical, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, SE Asia, Thailand

How Do We Define a Race of Humans?

aircommodore writes:

Robert, you’ve probably done this already but can you please provide a definition for “race”?

Based on this post here, The Major and Minor Races of Man, where I divided humans up into four macro races, 11 major races and 115 minor races based on genetic distance. The questioner wants to know what my methodology is for determining what a race is and what it is not.

Here was my method and I must admit that my methodology was completely impressionistic in that I would just look at how far certain group[s were from each other to determine where they were racially. I didn’t have any strict figures that I was using (more sort of general ones) but I used the same basic distance for all groups.

At some certain X genetic distance, you a race. At some certain less than X distance, you have groups in the same race.

For instance, I created a South China Sea Race due to data showing that Filipinos, the Ami aborigines of Taiwan and the Guangdong or Hong Kong Han all formed a nice tight genetic race because they were so similar to each other. On the other hand, there is no Guangdong Han Race, Ami Race nor Filipino Race as they are all part of a larger group or actual race. I am not sure what you might call them – perhaps those three could be called ethnic groups.

On the other hand, the Puyuma Taiwan aborigines were far enough apart to even be in a separate race from the Ami.

The biggest races of all – the huge groups with the most genetic distance from each other, form Macro-Races such as Caucasians, Africans, Asians and Oceanians. Included within those groups are eleven Major Races the names of which elude me now as I forget what I called them. For instance, I believe I split Asians into Southeast Asians, Northeast Asians, and Amerindians because those three groups are so far apart that you really need to split them.

Within each Major Race, I split each one up in to a number of Minor Races. Within say Northeast Asians, I had the Japanese-Korean Race consisting of the Japanese, the Koreans and the Ainu because they are so close to each other genetically and they form a nice neat little cluster that is away from all other groups.

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Filed under Ainu, Amerindians, Anthropology, Asians, Blacks, Chinese (Ethnic), Europeans, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, Northeast Asians, Oceanians, Physical, Race/Ethnicity, SE Asians, Taiwanese Aborigines

The Races of China and Japan

Pretty cool old anthropology article on the Chinese and Japanese races. It’s wrong in some ways, but it still has a lot that should be of value. Obviously such an article could not appear in any anthropology journal today, which is pitiful. Blame PC for that.

The Races of China and Japan

by Harry Paxton Howard

The China Weekly Review, Vol. 60 (12 March 1932), pp. 48–50

The Chinese and Japanese are two separate and distinct peoples, as separate and distinct as is the southern Italian from the Norwegian taken in the mass. There is no scientific basis for the assertion that they are of the same race, and indeed anyone at all familiar with the two peoples is readily able to distinguish between the general type. There is the lesser height of the Japanese (due mainly to shorter legs), the more rugged features, the sharper, longer, and narrower eyes (usually black as compared with the typical Chinese brown), the more brownish skin-color, the much greater frequency of beard.

On the other hand, there are certain sub-types which both peoples possess and which make it possible for thousands of Japanese in this country to pass as Chinese, while there are many pure Chinese who may be mistaken for Japanese. The reason for this is that each people is a mixture of different elements. Some of the elements are common to both peoples. Some elements one people possesses but not the other.

Chinese Racial Origins

Many anthropologists have devoted themselves to analyzing and distinguishing the racial elements in the two countries. Buxton, Li Chi, Shirokogoroff and some others have given special study to the Chinese people, and all distinguish different types among the population, as do also Haddon, Morant and others.

The most complete study to date is that made by Dr. Stevenson of the P.U.M.C. at Peiping, in his ‘Collected Anthropometric Data on the Chinese,’ showing at least two distinct types, though Stevenson is too cautious a scientist to state any definite conclusions as yet. And as regards racial origins in the North, the data given in Black’s study of skulls from prehistoric sites in Kansu and Honan suggest answers to some long-debated problems when considered in connection with some physical types already distinguished by different anthropologists.

First of all there is a Chinese type which is also found among the Manchus and by students is regarded as the fundamental ‘Manchu’ type. It is of short or medium stature, with broad head, low orbits (apparently associate with a long and narrow eye-slit), narrow nose often aquiline, frequently fair and ruddy skin. This type exists in Manchuria and in North China today, and is found further south as well.

Secondly, there is a type which, if placed side by side with the foregoing, will show marked differences. It is taller, with longer skull, wider forehead, higher orbits (‘rounder’ and more open eye), broader nose. It is frequent in North China, but is found to be predominant and characteristic among the Kham Tibetans of the territory adjoining Kansu.

The Primitive Mixture

The study of prehistoric skulls referred to above indicates the existence of these very types in the China of four thousand years ago. The earliest skulls, from Neolithic cities in Kansu and Honan, present ‘several suggestive similarities to Kham Tibetans’ though differing from more recent North China skulls in being longer, ‘with somewhat wide foreheads and longer skull bases, and slightly broader palates and lower orbits.’

The aspects in which these Neolithic skulls differ from the Kham Tibetans, however, are very significant. In addition to the Tibetan type, they include a type with broader head, narrow nose, and lower orbits. Such features are characteristic of the Manchu type referred to above, which fact leaves little doubt that the Neolithic people were a mixture of these Kham Tibetan and ‘Manchu’ types.

Judging from their later distribution, it is probable that the ‘Manchu’ type was more characteristic of the Honan communities, the Kham Tibetan type of those in Kansu, but the study referred to above, unfortunately, does not distinguish between the two localities, grouping them all together as ‘Yang Shao’ (Neolithic).

The Turkish Element

Others of these prehistoric communities, evidently later in date and showing the use of bronze in addition to stone, show the addition of another type which, combined with the previous ones, makes up a mixture hardly distinguishable from the Northern Chinese of more recent times. As previously stated, the primitive mixture differed from the more recent by its narrower skull, broader foreheads, and lower orbits. The new type evidently possessed a broader skull, with relatively narrower forehead and higher orbits.

These features are characteristic of the Turki, with their broad skull, long oval face, and generally non-Mongolian eyes. From the study mentioned…it would appear that the lower orbits are generally an Oriental characteristic. They are apparently associated with the longer, narrower eye. No other race in this part of the world seems to possess just these characteristics, and we know that the early home of the Turkish peoples was somewhere in the interior of Asia. It is an interesting confirmation of the theory held by many historical students (e.g., Hirth), on different grounds, that the Turkish element is present and is of some significance in China.

[It should be understood that the word Turki here refers not to the tribe, but to the racial stock. This stock is predominant among the Turkish peoples, though now apparently mixed with other elements.]

This element, indeed, would explain the presence of the occasional ‘hairy’ type among the Chinese. Most Chinese, like Mongolian peoples as a whole, have little hair either on face on body. The Turki, however, possess a plentiful beard, and a fair supply of hair on the body as well, in distinct contrast to the Mongolian peoples. We find some Chinese possess beards and growth of hair on the body, and the Turkish element would account for this. Hairiness, indeed, is a distinguishing feature of Chinese Moslems, who quite clearly have a strong non-Mongolian element in them.

Four Types

This Turkish element seems to have come in together with bronze in the legendary period just preceding more definite history. The early Hsiung-nu (on the plains to the north of the Yellow River in ancient China) appear to have been Turkish, and Hirth believes that the Chou Dynasty was of Turkish origin. It was apparently in the second millennium B.C. that this element became mixed with the Kham Tibetans and Manchu types referred to above, producing a mixture similar to that of North China today.

There is, however, a fourth type, of the presence of which Chinese history leaves no doubt whatsoever – the Mongol. This type, distinguished from the mass of Chinese by the lowness of the Mongol head and breadth of the face and head, as well as the little flat nose and low stature, has apparently existed for long in the Chinese mixture. Its coming into China was during the historic period, with one invasion after another by Mongol peoples (as well as by others) during the past two thousand years.

There may be distinguished, therefore, four racial types of some importance in North China,— the Manchu, the Kham Tibetan, the Turki, and the Mongol. These four elements, with their combinations, seem to account for every type of any frequency in North China and are found further south as well.

It should be noted however, that three of the types, judging from their present-day representatives, possess certain essential characters of the Mongolian group – hair straight, black, and scanty on face and body; eyes usually relatively long and narrow, generally brown in color, and commonly with the characteristic Mongolian eye-fold; skin color varying from yellowish-white to yellow-brown, though there are fair and ruddy complexions also.

The Turki are closer to the Caucasian owing to their abundant hair on face and body, frequently if not typically wavy; eyes generally full and round (though often – apparently through admixture – with Mongolian fold); skin color from pinkish-white to brown.

The South

The above-named elements are characteristic of North China, but they extend into the South as well. Here, however, they come into contact with other types rarely found among natives of the North. First of all there is an element with wavy or even curly hair, open and round non-Mongolian eye, short stature but relatively long legs, long and narrow head, and broad nose. These characters, which set this type distinctly apart from the Mongolian races, belong to many southern aborigines as well as Chinese, distinguishing a race which Buxton and Haddon link up with the Indonesians or Nesiots.

There is still another element present in the South, a quite different race but now generally mixed with other types – the Negrito. This type is characterized by its woolly hair, very short stature, very dark skin and broad nose, and full or thick lips. Li Chi and other anthropologists have pointed out indications of such a type.

It appears indeed, that the occasionally curly-haired Chinese in the south is usually a cross between this woolly-haired type and either the wavy-haired Indonesian or straight-haired Mongolian element. And other Negroid characters such as prognathism, black skin, pigmentation of the eye, the full or even thick lips also occur. Negrito peoples still exist scattered over a considerable area in southeastern Asia and the adjoining islands, and probably at one time occupied a much greater part of southeastern Asia than at present.

Stevenson believes there is still another type present in the South which he terms Polynesian, rather similar to the Indonesian but with finer and more prominent features.

The Chinese Mixture

There are therefore several races or sub-races among the Chinese people. There is indeed little agreement among anthropologists as to what constitutes a race, some defining 19 or 20, others 40-60, among the peoples of the earth.

There is wide agreement among competent anthropologists, however, as to certain broad divisions of the human species, and Boas…recognizes two main divisions, the Caucasian-Mongolian and the Afro-Australian.

In the first division the Mongolians have straight black hair, flat or broad face, Mongolian eye-fold, frequently yellowish (though often fair, ruddy, or brown) skin color. The Caucasian hair is often wavy or curly and of lighter color, and the Mongolian eye-fold and yellowish skin color are ordinarily absent. The most fundamental distinction between the two however is the relative hairiness of the Caucasian and the hairlessness (on face and body) of the Mongolian.

The Blacks of the second division differ from both members of the first division by their woolly or frizzly hair, their black skin (with a degree of pigmentation which even affects the eye), their frequently thick and everted lips, and by actual bodily proportions, the Negro leg being differently formed from that of ‘White’ or ‘Yellow’ man. The most marked point of distinction between Negro and Australian is the relative hairiness of the latter and the fact that this hair is not woolly but curly or frizzly.

Of these four main physical divisions of mankind we find the Mongolian most common in China. The extent of the Caucasian element depends upon how the Indonesian and Turkish types are classified. Some group the Indonesians with Caucasians because of their wavy or curly hair and open, round, non-Mongolian eye. Elliott Smith groups them together with the Mediterranean peoples as the Brown Race. The Turki are also a people regarding whose classification there is a difference of opinion, their straight black hair making it possible to group them with the Mongolians, while its abundance and their lack of other specifically Mongolian characters marks them as Caucasian.

Besides the Mongolian and Caucasian elements in China, there is only the Negrito, which is slight. We find, therefore, six recognized types in China, three being Mongolian – the Mongol, Manchu, and Kham Tibetan (though Morant thinks the last-named type is not Mongolian at all – two being classifiable as ‘Caucasian – the Turki and the Indonesians – and one being Negrito. There are some other rather infrequent physical types not yet clearly defined and classified.

Japanese Racial Origins

The racial analysis of the Japanese is in some ways easier than that of the Chinese owing to their being concentrated in a very much smaller area and owing to their being a more recent mixture of which the various elements are still fairly distinct in many cases. Three thousand years ago the ‘North China’ type seems to have already been formed, with its Manchu, Tibetan, and Turkish elements, but nothing whatever is known of the Japanese at that period. In the next thousand years the Chinese penetrated into the south and mixed with the Indonesian and other non-Mongolian elements there, but still nothing is known of the Japanese.

There are indications however that while this continual push to the southward was taking place on the mainland, there were movements in a northerly direction off and along the coast. Just when this movement of a southern maritime people reached Kyushu, the big southern island of Japan, we do not know, but it was probably not much before the Christian era. The present distribution of physical types in Japan, however, and their outside associations permit us to outline roughly the development which took place there just as we have done for China.

The early natives of the Japanese islands were the short, fair-skinned, hairy, non-Mongolian people known as the Ainu, now found, in fairly pure form in their communities only in Hokkaido, the most northerly of the three big islands but probably occupying practically the whole of the main island (Hondo) two thousand years ago. This people, whose affinities are Caucasian and who indeed show much resemblance to certain Russian types, were steadily driven north by the invasion from the south, continuing for century after century.

Negritos and Malays

In Kyushu there may have been another element – Negrito – prior to the maritime invasion. The wide territory over which the Negritos are scattered and the probability that they formerly occupied a much greater area than at present has already been referred to. At the present time, as regards Japan, this type seems more common in Kyushu than elsewhere, though it is scattered through the islands, and clearly recognizable Negroid or specifically Negrito types can be noted, though generally mixed with other elements.

In speaking of the Japanese types, our task is simplified by the fact that most of the racial types have already been defined for China. When we speak of the Malays therefore we can state the general type by simply noting that anthropologists tend to regard this type as a mixture of the Indonesian peoples with a Mongolian element from the north. The Mongolian element is shown more specifically in the eyes; the Indonesian in the short stature and occasionally wavy hair. The Malays themselves therefore are an ancient mixture – how old we do not know, though perhaps more recent than the early North China mixture.

This brown Malay element is probably the most important type in Japan, but for fully two thousand years it has been mixed with the Negrito, and also with types from the Asiatic mainland via Korea. These mainland types are of interest here.

Manchus and Ainus

The earliest known center of civilization in Japan was at a point opposite Korea where certain types evidently came across from the mainland. Among these types there was the ‘Manchu’ type which has already been defined, and probably the ‘North China’ type which had already been formed from the mixture of different elements previously referred to. There are Malay and other elements in Korea also.

Of these elements, the Manchu-Korean appears to have left the widest traces in Japan. Though there was some Chinese migration both in prehistoric and historic times, this was not sufficient in quantity or contained too little of the tall Kham Tibetan type, to affect the short Malay physique to any extent. The ‘Chinese type’ however is distinctly present in Japan, though its proportion to the whole is apparently not great.

Far more important than the Chinese element was that of the White aborigines, the savage Ainu.

As the Japanese people (mainly Malay but mixed with Negrito, some Manchu-Korean, and a slighter Chinese element) advanced northward in their steady conquest of the islands, they exterminated, enslaved, or absorbed those of the natives who did not give war before them. They certainly absorbed a very large number of them, as is shown today by the frequency of individuals with Ainu characteristics among the Japanese.

Most recognizable is the Ainu hairiness. Some have estimated that the Japanese people of today are more than one-third Ainu, though this figure is probably too high.

The Japanese Mixture

When we consider the four main physical divisions of mankind already referred to we find the Japanese are a quite different mixture from the Chinese.

While the Malay element is apparently of most importance, this must itself be divided into Mongolian and Indonesian. Another Mongolian element is seen in the Manchu-Korean type and in the occasional ‘Chinese’ type (which includes however other elements). The Mongolian element is therefore the most important quantitatively speaking, though this includes much more of the Manchu type than is the case with the Chinese, as shown by the long, narrow eyes characteristic of the Japanese.

The extent of the Caucasian element depends partly on how the Indonesians are classified, but there is little doubt of the essentially Caucasian characters of the hairy Ainu. The importance of the Negrito element is considerable, much greater than in China.

We find, therefore, six recognizable types in Japan, three being Mongolian – the Manchu type, and the Mongolian elements in the Malays and Chinese – two being classifiable as ‘Caucasians’ – the Ainu and the Indonesians – and one being Negrito.

Through the different methods of combination in the Japanese and Chinese peoples, therefore, we can see some of the reasons for the physical differences between the two. There is little sign among the Japanese of the Kham Tibetan and Turkish types which add height to the Chinese (particularly the northern Chinese) as well as making for a rounder and more open eye. There is no sign among the Chinese of the Ainu type which gives the more frequent hairiness and more rugged features to the Japanese. And so we have two separate people, generally easily distinguishable but containing many individuals of similar types.

Other Differences

Probably more important than race, however, are other differences. For four thousand years and more, the Chinese people have been agricultural villagers, tillers of the soil, conquered by pastoral nomads from time to time but absorbing their conquerors.

But for most of this period, the Japanese were a maritime people, raiding their way north and in the islands of Japan conquering and absorbing a White native population even more savage than themselves. China’s age of military feudalism came to an end two thousand years ago, and though there have been relapses, the essential principles of private ownership and a peasantry free from feudal shackles have remained.

But at that time Japan had not yet emerged from the darkness of savagery, and when many centuries later the light of Chinese civilization shed its rays over the islands, it illuminated a primitive military feudalism which continued to exist down to two short generations ago. The inhabitants of the islands cultivate the soil, but the peasantry remained serfs under feudal masters until a little over half a century ago, and military feudalism remained the law of the land.

It is differences in psychology resulting from these things which are probably more vital and fundamental than the physical differences between the two peoples…

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