Category Archives: Anxiety Disorders

Schiz OCD Versus Psychosis: Differences and Interactions

Hassan Herrera: By saying “Anxiety processes can at times escalate all the way to psychosis.” You mean, for example a OCD’er getting through the fear of going psychotic can start experiencing psychotic symptoms coming out of the anxiety process? I catch sight of a post of you setting apart core process and where the symptoms come from. I hope i got myself across.

Never seen a case of Schiz OCD going all the way to psychosis, although I know a woman with schizophrenia and Schiz OCD in which the two sort of go together but not completely. She still has delusions that she does not doubt. She also hides symptoms a lot, which is very hard to figure out, though I can sometimes do it.

I don’t think the Schiz OCD went into the Schizophrenia, but the Schizophrenia dx obviously played into the Schiz OCD. It’s an extremely complex case. Never seen a case of Schiz OCD going all the way to psychosis, although I know a woman with schizophrenia and Schiz OCD in which the two sort of went together but not completely. She still has delusions that she does not doubt. She also hides symptoms a lot, which is very hard to figure out, though I can sometimes do it. I don’t think the Schiz OCD went into the Schizophrenia, but the Schizophrenia dx obviously played into the Schiz OCD. It’s an extremely complex case.

There is a Psychotic OCD but I have never seen a single case of it, and I have seen more OCD’ers than 95% of clinicians will ever see. I have seen cases that I worried were Psychotic OCD, but when you got it all untangled, they still had reality testing intact more or less, at least in terms of overvalued ideas. There is a sub-diagnosis of OCD with Overvalued Ideas.

The OCD symptoms in this case were extremely bizarre, and phenomenologically, they looked a lot like the sort of thing you see in Psychotic OCD. His symptoms appeared so psychotic that when I mentioned them to a retired clinician, she insisted that this person was psychotic and would not accept that they were not. Unfortunately I am not allowed to share the very interesting symptoms on here.

Psychotic OCD has a sort of a “look” to it along with typical delusions that are present in a lot of cases – it is a syndrome, in other words.

A classic case of Psychotic OCD would be a case where the obsessions have escalated into delusions. The people are typically not dangerous, as fear is a freezing agent, and OCD’ers tend to be shy or very shy, passive, introverted, and remarkably nonviolent. A classic case is a man sitting in a chair all day shaking like a leaf and going on about his obsessions, which have now reached delusional intensity. The old view was that Psychotic OCD’ers never got too far gone psychosis-wise, and it was quite easy to pull them out of the psychosis. A typical case might last three weeks.

However, we now have recent cases of Psychotic OCD going on for years that did not respond to treatment. Some responded to ERP oddly enough. Some of these people are so ill that they have become the homeless mentally ill like a lot of schizophrenics, carting their belongings around in a suitcase.

The main thing to note is that Psychotic OCD is rarely seen. However, when OCD is very bad, they can appear psychotic. Hence, OCD’ers are often misdiagnosed with psychosis of one form or another and put on antipsychotic drugs, which generally do not help them. I get clients all the time coming to me with a diagnosis of some form of psychosis. Once I figure out they are not psychotic and are usually instead Schiz OCD’ers with what I call fake delusions and fake hallucinations, I tell them to fire their psychiatrist and go doctor shopping until you find an MD who understands that you have OCD and not psychosis.

A lot of psychiatrists continue to misdiagnose OCD’ers with psychosis. The phenomenology of OCD is not understood well by many clinicians, and the fact that OCD when severe looks like psychosis but is not results in  a lot of misdiagnosis.

I think a Schiz OCD’er would be the last person to go psychotic, as the condition is predicated on continuous worry and doubt that they are going psychotic. If you have spent any time around psychotic people, that’s clearly not what’s going on. In psychosis the person never worries whether they are psychotic, nor are they are aware they are psychotic.

If you are worried about or are aware of being psychotic, then you cannot possibly be psychotic. That’s a rule out for psychosis right there. This is exactly what is going on in Schiz OCD, hence Schiz OCD is never psychotic by definition.

1 Comment

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Health, Medicine, Mental Illness, OCD, Psychology, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy, Psychotic Disorders, Schizophrenia, Social Problems, Sociology, Symptoms

What Percentage of Homosexual People Is Acceptable To You in a Given Population?

Answered on Queera.

Believe it or not, all of the answers said that if a country’s population was 100% gay, that would be absolutely wonderful! I’m sure having all the population of your country gay would be the greatest thing since sliced bread! What the Hell’s the matter with people? It would be catastrophic for any country to be 100% gay, though we’re probably headed that way in the US at the rate we’re going here.

How could having 100% of the population of your country gay possibly be a good thing!? Color me mystified.

A given population as in for a country? 3%. That’s the percentage in the US, and it’s just fine by me.

Understand that homosexuality is bad for society in the sense that it causes a lot of costly problems for society. Furthermore, taxes paid by gays do not make up for the costs that society incurs from homosexuals.

  • Homosexuals live 20 years less than heterosexuals. This is horribly sad for gay people that they miss out on so many years of wonderful life, but it seems to me that reduced lifespan is costly to society.
  • Gays have higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders. While this causes a lot of suffering to gay people, and this is sad, at the same time, mental illness is costly to society.
  • Gays have much higher rates of drinking, smoking, and drug abuse than straights. The gay male party and play, scene revolving heavily around methamphetamine and club drugs is particularly alarming. Lesbians in particular smoke a lot. The costs of drinking, smoking, and drug abuse to gays themselves are no doubt significant in terms of disease, mortality, and the suffering that can come from excessive substance abuse, nevertheless, this incurs a lot of costs to society.
  • Gay men obviously have a very high STD rate. At 20% infection rate, the HIV rate is especially alarming. Most of these diseases remain confined to the gay community and have not broken out significantly to the straight community, with the exception of the Black community with all the down low men. But the great heterosexual HIV epidemic spreading from gays to straights never occurred mostly because HIV goes from men to women and then it stops, as spokesmen from the New York Department of Public Health said as early as the 1980’s. That’s not completely true, but it is very hard to get HIV from a woman. Hepatitis A, B, and C are or were very common in the gay community, vastly more common than among heterosexuals, most of whom only acquire B and C from IV drug use. Parasitical diseases such as shigella, ameobiasis and giardiasis are also extremely common among gay men, whereas they are quite rare among straights. In recent syphilis epidemics, up to 85% of cases are among gay men. Syphilis is quite uncommon among straights. Gay men have elevated rates of anal cancer, and the rate is rising. The rate is vastly higher than the rate among straights.I would like to point out that it is gay men themselves who suffer most from these diseases, and this suffering, although self-imposed, is often tragic, horrifying and heartbreaking in particularly in the heart-wrenching case of HIV. Lesbians have very low rates of STD’s but higher rates of breast cancer. I doubt if lesbians impose a disease burden on society. The very high gay male STD rate, in particular the HIV rate, obviously imposes considerable costs to society.
  • Tragically, gay men have a suicide rate 3X higher than straight men, even in San Francisco, the most gay-friendly place in the US. The attempted suicide rate is also very high. Gay male teenagers have a tragically very high attempted suicide rate at 8X the normal rate. Suicidal behavior causes unfathomable and heartbreaking suffering on gay men. However, attempted and completed suicides impose considerable cost on society.
  • Domestic violence rates are very high in gay and lesbian couples, especially the latter. A gay man is much more likely to beat his partner than a straight man is. A woman is much less likely to be beaten by a male partner than by a female partner. This causes immense suffering to the partners of gay and lesbian batterers. In addition, domestic violence is costly to society.
  • In gay areas, gay men typically take over all of the public restrooms and turn them into miniature sex clubs. This renders most public restrooms unusable by the rest of us. Most gay men typically vociferously support the use of public restrooms as sex dens for gays. I don’t have much sympathy here. Gay men are simply being very irresponsible with this depraved mindset. Further, this is a cost to society.

It is first of all most important to point out that gay men themselves suffer worst from most from these largely self-imposed conditions, a suffering so profound that it almost moves you to tears. Compassion is essential. Nevertheless, there is a cost to society. Some of these issues may be caused by discrimination (see the high teenage gay male attempted suicide rate), but there is a cost to society no matter what causes it. Some of these problems would lessen with increased acceptance of gays, but others would linger or possibly even worsen.

The question comes up whether gays pay for the costs they bring to society. Many gays seem to have above average intelligence for some reason, especially gay men. Gays seem more artistically talented than straights. More gays than straights seem to get college degrees, in particular gay men.

Gay men seem to earn higher than average wages and are disproportionately employed in high paying and prestigious professions. I am always hearing about a homosexual, often a gay man, who is contributing something noteworthy and exemplary to our society such that it mentions a media notice. Obviously, gay men contribute more to the tax base per capita than straights. So gays, especially gay men, offer considerable benefits to society, not flowing from their homosexuality but from other aspects of their lives.

I have not discussed lesbians here because I know little about them, but I doubt that they impose serious costs on society other than reduced lifespan.

However the question rises whether gays pay for themselves. Despite their excellent contributions to society and their higher than normal tax contributions, I still do not think that homosexuals pay for themselves.

The question then arises about whether the rest of us should be willing to carry a small burden for our gay brothers.

Personally I feel that at 3%, I am willing to shoulder the costs of homosexuals to society, as the numbers are so small that it is something we can cope with. I would be willing to tolerate up to 6% gay men in society. I think we could deal at that rate.

However, if the rate of male homosexuality went higher than that, all of these problems above would increase in scope with attendant costs.

Honestly, even when you get to 10% gay men in any country, your problems are going to go up a lot. The % of gay men in New York and San Francisco is quite high, and they definitely impose considerable costs on these cities.

Once you start heading up to 15–20% of any country’s population being gay, I think it would be unsustainable for many reasons (see above).

Homosexuality in society seems to be one of those things, like many things in life, that is best in small doses.

10 Comments

Filed under Alcohol, Anxiety Disorders, Civil Rights, Death, Depressants, Discrimination, Gender Studies, Health, Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, Illness, Intoxicants, Man World, Mental Illness, Mood Disorders, Psychology, Psychopathology, Public Health, Sex, Social Problems, Sociology, Speed, Stimulants

What Makes an OCD Thought More Rooted in the Mind and Makes It Even More Difficult to be Removed?

I understand exactly what you are talking about. OCD thoughts or obsessions have some peculiar power to them. Something “sticks” about them. I call them Super-thoughts and believe that they are much more powerful than regular thoughts. They seem to have some odd “pull” to them that seems to almost force you to think about them.

I have had clients who have told me that they feel that they have to think these thoughts. Unfortunately, I felt that way somewhat myself at one point. Keep in mind that OCD’ers often feel that they “have” to do all sorts of things. This is the compulsive nature of the illness, but the broken record nature of the obsessions also looks compulsive or habitual. If OCD is a disease of doubting, as the French say, it is also a disease of repetition.

To determine if something is an obsession or not, the great psychiatrist George Winokur told his med school students, “Look at how hard the patient resists the thought. The harder they resist and fight the thought, the more likely it is to be an obsession.”

I will take it even further. “If you try to stop it, it’s an obsession.” That’s not literally true, but it’s pretty much true.

The thoughts also become your friend in a sense because they are with you most of the time. In counseling, I sometimes tell my clients to think of the thoughts as your best friend. After all, they are always with you, and they will never leave you, right? Just like your best friend.

The thoughts also seem to be “alive” in a sense, and it seems like they do not want to die.

Before I realized I had OCD, I just thought I was going insane in my head. For some reason, this was projected out at the world, and everyone seemed to think there was something wrong with me.

The OCD had set up bizarre rules that I had to live my life by, mostly designed to make my life as miserable as possible. I was terrified to break the rules. Finally I had had it with these stupid and frankly masochistic rules, that I started to stand up and fight them. I remember every time I did that, the OCD would stand up and fight and “try to stay alive.” Finally, I would beat the OCD and the the OCD would back down, cower, and say, “Ok, you win.” But then it would come up with a new rule that was often not quite as bad as the previous rule.

In my opinion, it is almost as if these thoughts are living beings. Living beings do not wish to die, so neither do these thoughts.

This ties in with the bizarre nature of the illness where the sufferer himself thinks the thoughts are stupid or absurd, but they still can’t stop thinking them.

Many times I have heard, “Why in the Hell am I even thinking about this?…This is something I would like to think of as infrequently as possible, or never if I could…Of all the thoughts I could think, this is the worst one of them all…Please give me a new thought to think, OCD!”

So the person feels that the thoughts are preposterous, idiotic, and senseless, nevertheless the thoughts have this bizarre pull or stickiness to them as if they are almost demanding that you think about them.

People get so used to their obsessions because they think them all the time that some OCD’ers say, “There is a part of me that wants to stay ill for some reason…I’m afraid to kill the thoughts for some reason…as much as I hate them, the thoughts seem like my friend, and it feels sad to kill them.”

Now why obsessions have this bizarre stickiness, power, or pull to them, I still have no idea. I can’t even come up with a theory. But it’s definitely a part of this very strange illness.

Leave a comment

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Mental Illness, OCD, Psychology, Psychopathology

Does Borderline Personality Disorder Cause Obsessive Behavior?

Answered on Quora.

If by obsessive behavior you mean OCD-type behavior, there is no connection at all other than perhaps the coincidental incidence of both illnesses in some individuals.

However, the presence of BPD in an individual with OCD greatly complicates the OCD and makes much harder to treat than without the BPD.

Leave a comment

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Borderline, Mental Illness, OCD, Personality Disorders, Psychology, Psychopathology

Does Fearing Homosexuality Make Someone Gay?

Answered on Quora.

No. I believe most straight men find the thought of being gay to be frightening if not terrifying. A number of straight men told me that they would rather get shot in the head then have sex with a man. Fear of being gay is fairly normal for straight men. There is even a type of OCD called Gay OCD in which straight people fear that they are gay. 0% of these people are actually gay.

There has been an attempt by PC types to conflate fear of homosexuality with hatred of homosexuals, but they seem to be very different things. Yes, there are a few closeted gay or (usually somewhat bi) men who overcompensate and engage in reaction formation or projective self-hatred by hating gays, but that’s not common.

Most gay haters are not gay at all; in fact, they are quite the opposite. I have known many homophobes in my life. In fact, I know some at this very moment.

Generally it is associated with masculinity. The more masculine the man is, often the more homophobic he is. Most of the strong homophobes I have known were extremely masculine men, I mean some of the most masculine men I have ever known. They were also probably some of the least gay men I have ever known. All were aggressively heterosexual and some had had sex with many women.

I would say that homophobia or hatred of gays is associated with masculinity, particularly hypermasculinity, extreme masculinity or as they call it toxic masculinity more than anything else.

I doubt if most homophobes really fear homosexuality all that much. Instead they just hate gay people for some reason or another. Gay people need to wake up and figure out that the “homophobes are all closet cases” is a big fat lie. There are a lot of people out there who are just assholes and openly hate gay people simply because of what they are.

They really ought to come up with another word. Gayhaters pretty much sums it up.

Leave a comment

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Gender Studies, Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, Man World, Mental Illness, OCD, Psychology, Psychopathology, Sex

Borderlands: Obsession, Delusion and Their Differential Diagnosis

The Borderland between Obsession and Delusion

Anxiety processes can at times escalate all the way to psychosis. I have had some OCD clients who I had a very hard time figuring out if they were psychotic or not. With one, I told a retired therapist of their symptoms, and the therapist immediately said, “Well, they’re psychotic. That’s a delusion.” The things that they believed or almost believed did look like psychotic delusions. However, they did not entirely believe them. OCD with Overvalued Ideas was probably a better diagnosis. There are a few cases of Psychotic OCD. I have never seen one though, although this case was getting close.

When OCD gets very bad, they appear psychotic. However, they generally are not, and in 95% of cases, I can figure out that they are not psychotic. That is because Severe OCD That Looks Psychotic has this particular look, feel, or vibe (gestalt) about it where the cases all give off this particular vibe. It’s like they are all reading off the same script in a sense.

The Problem of Psychotic People Hiding Symptoms

You get a different look, feel, or vibe (gestalt) with an actively psychotic individual, but they can be hard to figure out too because sometimes they lie about their delusions.

I have caught them hiding symptoms from me.

Some people with psychoses learn to hide symptoms because they figure out that every time they say “The FBI is after me,” someone grabs them and hauls them off to the hospital. So they continue to believe the FBI is after them, but they learn to shut up about it.

You look at what the person is doing in reaction to the thoughts. They thought the neighbors were hacking into their computer so they disconnected their computer from the Internet? Delusion. A person who just had the fear or obsession that the neighbors were hacking in would not disconnect the computer, and their description of the fear would be full of all of these strange doubts and uncertainties.

The Difficulty of Differentiating between Thoughts and Voices

Psychotic people sometimes refer to thoughts as voices. I had one client who referred to thoughts telling him to do bad things, in this case, to kill animals. He had recently killed five puppies in response to these thoughts ordering him to kill these animals. I suspected these were more than thoughts, so I had him describe them, and he said, “It’s a thought, you know. You hear it like someone standing next to you and talking.” Ok if you hear it outside your body like that, it’s not a thought, it’s a voice.

Some people with schizophrenia hear their thoughts spoken out loud in the environment, and they fear or believe that others can hear their thoughts being broadcast out there. However, if you corner them on it, some will try to deny it by saying that they just have very loud thoughts in their heads, and the thoughts are so loud that they worry or fear that maybe others can hear them. That’s not quite precisely a delusion, and it’s not a hallucination like the thought broadcasting. It’s off into the obsession/delusion borderland.

Schiz OCD – OCD with the Fear of Psychosis Theme

There is a type of OCD where the person fears that they are going psychotic. OCD’ers have made up a term called Schiz OCD for this illness, which is really OCD with the Fear of Psychosis as the theme. Some clinicians have complained to me about these “hokey names” for the different OCD types and accused me of making them up. I didn’t make up any of them.

The sufferers make up these names for the different themes that they have. I feel that the sufferers have a right to own their symptoms and illnesses and call them whatever they want to call them. That’s their right as sufferers.

Who are we to tell them that their name for their symptoms is the wrong name? Do we have a better name? Of course not. “We” are just arrogant clinicians who think we know these illnesses better than the sufferers themselves know them. I realize Schiz OCD is a confusing name, but it’s the name they picked, and we don’t have a better one, so let’s go with it.

They develop all sorts of “psychotic” symptoms, including fake delusions, fake hallucinations, and even perceptual disturbances. Once again the Schiz OCD symptoms have a completely different quality – look, feel, vibe or gestalt – than you get with someone who has actual delusions and real hallucinations. In addition, all of the Schiz OCD symptoms have a very similar quality across many different people – once again, it’s like they are all reading off the same script.

The Problem of Misdiagnosis in Schiz OCD

I have now seen more people like this than I can count, and I’m an expert on this illness. But I still get people with this type of OCD coming to me all the time with diagnoses of various types of psychoses, schizophrenia, psychotic depression, etc. They received these diagnoses from qualified clinicians such as psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. They were misdiagnosed in 95% of cases, so you see even skilled clinicians can’t tell this OCD type from a psychosis in a lot of cases.

8 Comments

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Mental Illness, OCD, Psychology, Psychopathology, Psychotherapy, Psychotic Disorders, Schizophrenia, Symptoms

A Few Words About Schizophrenia and Psychosis in General

I do not know much about schizophrenia. I have met two people who were schizophrenic who discussed their symptoms with me.

The young man was medicated but he was still too ill to work and lived off disability. The woman may also have been medicated and she also lived off disability. This is a typical outcome for this illness, sadly.

Her diagnosis was a true grab bag, and she had been diagnosed with everything in the book, including OCD and frequently Borderline Personality Disorder. I was not sure what her complete picture was, but in adolescence and early adulthood, she underwent what looked like a classic schizophrenic prodrome process. There’s nothing else that looks like that. Afterwards a lot of psychotic symptoms developed including visual hallucinations. Also she did not believe she was ill, which is typical of these folks.

I could not really see the Borderline PD. The problem with these schizophrenics is that the schizophrenic process is so complete and totalizing that it essentially swamps over all sorts of other or lesser symptoms.

 

 

The man also had an OCD process going on, and he denied his symptoms were caused by mental illness. He was also trying to hide symptoms from me, which they do sometimes after the illness goes on for a while. It’s not that they believe the symptoms are crazy – they think it is actually true that the man in the TV said, “It’s going to rain today” and that really is a secret message to them telling them to go to the store and buy a pack of cigarettes. Incidentally that is a common type of psychotic symptom and they are called delusions of reference and they are common in schizophrenia. I have someone close to me who had Bipolar 1 Disorder with prominent psychotic (schizophrenic-like) features who had symptoms exactly like that.

The thing is that even chronic psychotics are not stupid and are driven by the pleasure principle to avoid pain. Eventually these people often figure out that when they say certain things like that the CIA is after them, people tend to get alarmed, call the police and they get hospitalized. Being more rational than you would think, they learn to keep some of these symptoms to themselves if only to stay out of the hospital.

He had a lot more insight than a typical schizophrenic which may be due to the OCD, which would introduce a chronic doubting nature into the psychosis, which would be good for any psychosis, as they are based on hard belief. There are new theories about an illness called Schizo-obsessive Disorder which looked a lot like what this man had. Paranoia, Shneiderian symptoms, and a better prognosis are among the features. To give you an example of the Shneiderian features, for instance, this man heard his own thoughts spoken out loud in the exact same way as if you were to speak your thoughts out loud – how creepy! He was afraid to ride the buses as he feared that the others on the bus could hear his thoughts as he thought them as they sounded as loud and clear as if there were someone talking right next to you.

2 Comments

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Borderline, Mental Illness, Mood Disorders, OCD, Personality Disorders, Psychology, Psychopathology, Psychotic Disorders, Schizophrenia

Differential Diagnosis in Psychiatry – Separating “Symptomatic” Processes from “Core” Processes

In an anxiety disorder, the main thing you see or the “meat” of the illness is the anxiety – I call it an “anxiety process.” In this sense, even some anxiety disorders that have gone psychotic, say Psychotic OCD or Body Dysmorphic Disorder, are still basically anxiety disorders at their core and not psychotic disorders.

The primary disturbance or process if you will is anxiety and the psychosis is just growing out of that process.

What we are doing here is looking for the core essence of the problem – the Gestalt if you will. We are ignoring symptomatic features on the outside and looking underneath them to see what the core or basic process is underneath.

In the same sense, mood disorders that have gone psychotic or even resemble schizophrenia are better seen as mood processes. In Bipolar Disorder, the primary disturbance is one of mood. The psychotic features, if any, are only present during the mood disturbance – the depression or mania. The psychotic features are flowing out of the mood issue and not the other way around as in the case of some schizophrenic persons who get depressed due to the depressing nature of their illness.

If you clear up the mood process and the psychosis is still there, it tends to go over to Schizoaffective Disorder. This is a controversial category, but it is valid. No one quite knows what it is, but I believe the best explanation is that this is simply Schizophrenia and a mood disorder – Major Depression or Bipolar Disorder – occurring in the same person. Persons with Schizoaffective Disorder tend to be heavily loaded genetically for both mood disorders and schizophrenia, whereas someone with a core mood disorder will tend to have mood disorders in their family history and someone with schizophrenia will tend to have relatives with schizophrenia.

2 Comments

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Depression, Mental Illness, Mood Disorders, OCD, Psychology, Psychopathology, Psychotic Disorders, Schizophrenia

Chronic Mental Illness and Personality

Axis 2 disorders (personality disorders) are hard to diagnose in schizophrenia because of the swamping nature of schizophrenia and because schizophrenia itself has a devastating effect on personality.

Even mood disorders often cause serious personality changes. When they hit in adolescence, maturity is often frozen at whatever the age the illness hit. This is why you see people with chronic mental illness in their mid-50’s who still act like teenagers. They act that way because the chronic illness hit in adolescence and their maturation process for all intents and purposes froze in place.

You really need to treat the mood disorder and then see if there is anything left on Axis 2.

I don’t believe in diagnosing personality disorders that are caused by an Axis 1 symptomatic process (anxiety or mood disorder) because this violates the basic theory of Axis 2 – that these are illnesses at the very core or essence of the person, at the soul itself if you will – that usually have roots deep in childhood and adolescence and are always apparent by adolescence or early adulthood. Pathological personality change in later life violates the principles of Axis 2, but maybe we need a new DSM category for that, as it does occur sometimes.

Leave a comment

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Mental Illness, Mood Disorders, Personality Disorders, Psychology, Psychopathology, Psychotic Disorders, Schizophrenia

Is Overthinking about Personal Interactions in a Social Setting Part of Dependent Personality Disorder?

This is typical and often pathognomonic of Social Anxiety Disorder. It can also be seen in some people with Avoidant Personality Disorder. But with Social Anxiety Disorder, this symptom is always present.

Leave a comment

Filed under Anxiety Disorders, Dependent, Mental Illness, Personality Disorders, Psychology, Psychopathology