Category Archives: Indo-European

How Is Low German Best Classsified?

So, concerning Low German, is it a sub-classification of North Sea Germanic or Low Saxon-Low Franconian? Glottolog and Wikipedia say the former, Ethnologue says the latter.

I would say that it is Low Saxon – Low Franconian. Low Saxon in Germany anyway for all intents and purposes is Low German. This somewhat includes Dutch Low Saxon, but not so much anymore, as it seems to have merged a lot with Low Franconian. Low Franconian is just Dutch. Middle Franconian is more like Ripaurian and Moselle Franconian Middle German to the south and southeast of the Netherlands in the part of Germany near the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Northeastern France near the Lorraine.

I do not even kn ow what North Sea Germanic even is – is that Ingaevonic? That’s almost English – but Low German is nearly English itself – the Angles, Saxons and especially the Jutes spoke something like English, and South Jutnish, probably a separate language from Danish spoken in southeastern Denmark, is supposedly nearly intelligible with Scots!

At one time there was a “North Sea Fisherman’s Language” which was something like Ingaevonic, and they could all understand each other. Either their own speech was close enough to each other or they all adopted this sort of jargon based on their speech and that of the other North Sea fishermen, but at any rate, when they spoke this Sailor’s or Fisherman’s language, they could understand each other and sailors and fishermen could communicate with each other in all of the ports of the North Sea regardless of where they came from.

8 Comments

Filed under Belgium, Denmark, Dutch, English language, Europe, France, German, Germanic, Germany, Indo-European, Indo-Hittite, Language Families, Linguistics, Low German, Moselle Franconian, Netherlands, Regional, Riparian, Scots

Latin American Whites: A Mirror of the Future of America

RL: Keep in mind that some of the most vicious White priders and White supremacists of all say that if you are 75-85% White, you are White? So you disagree with these Latin American Nazis I guess?

Gay State Girl: Isn’t that because South America was a Nazi haven?

The only association with Latin America and Nazism is because of some German immigrant communities in Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay who were Nazi sympathizers. They didn’t treat the local Indians very well, and there were notable attempts at genocide especially in the Bolivian Chaco. However, there is no evidence that Latin American Nazis were Nordicists or that they had anything against non-Nordic Whites.

Your average Latin American White, while surely a White prider, is usually not a Nazi by any stretch of the imagination. This is because White pride in Latin America takes a very different and more subtle form in Latin America than it does here. Yes, Latin Whites are racist, but this is diluted by the fact that most of them are not pure White anyway, as the vast majority have non trivial amounts of Indian or even Black in them.

So “Whiteness” is more of a question of degree than purity. The fact that Latin Whites are not pure themselves tends to leaven their racism. Mestizos are often tolerated or even regarded as White although Peruvian and especially Argentine Whites have always been racist towards what they call mestizos. However, half of Argentine Whites have Indian blood in them themselves.

Latin American White White pride goes all the way down to Mexican Harnizos. I know a Mexican Harnizo who is 60-70% White, and he loves to claim White. He’s basically a Latin American White prider. Although there are some Latin Americans on Stormfront, most Latin American Whites find European White nationalism highly distasteful. Almost no Whites down there talk about splitting off to form their own White country. There is some talk of that in the South of Brazil, but even there, they would just split off the south which is already full of non-Whites as it is. The movement to split off the south of Brazil as its own nation appears doomed and has very little support.

All Latin American White countries like Uruguay, Argentina, Costa Rica and the south of Brazil are rapidly darkening. Costa Rica is full of 1-2 million illegal aliens, mostly from Nicaragua. The government doesn’t care, and they will probably be legalized as is the case with almost all illegal alien waves in Latin America.

Argentina is rapidly filling up with illegals, mostly mestizos from Bolivia, Peru and Paraguay. There are forming an underclass gang-type subculture in the cities, and there are complaints that Argentine girls are running off with the thuggish mestizos. However, the government seems to want to legalize the illegals there also. The problem in Latin America is that the illegal aliens are generally the same race as the natives, so there does not seem to be any logic to not legalizing them. They are just more of “our people.”

Most Latin Americans are not big environmentalists and much of the continent is underpopulated anyway.

White men running off to marry mestizos is a problem in White communities all over Latin America. The racial purists wring their hands, but there seems to be nothing they can do. White Mexican men continue to marry light skinned mestizas, and there doesn’t seem to be any way to stop them.

A similar phenomenon is occurring in Argentina. There does not seem to be anything stopping the darkening process down there either as much as the purists throw up their hands. If you ask a White Argentine what he feels about the mestisization of his country, they will tell you that they don’t like it, but then they will throw up their hands and say, “What can you do?” They act like the situation is hopeless, not to mention inevitable.

A gradual darkening of the White race appears to be an inevitability not only in Latin America where it has been an ongoing process for centuries but also in the US. The mestizization of the US, which is really all that the darkening process or decline of the White majority is, is simply the same mestizization process that has been going on forever in the rest of the Americas.

So what is happening is that at long last North America, the eternal aberration and odd man out, White and English speaking, is beginning to join the rest of the continent to become just another country in the what I would call “the Americas.”

Race in the Americas is typically mestizo or in some cases mulatto and mass mixing has characterized Mesoamerica, Central America and South America from the start.

Language in the region has tended to be Spanish, though there is a large Portuguese component (really just another Iberian Romance language) and some smaller outposts of English and French, often creolized. The English and French speaking regions tend to be mulatto or even Black and most are in the Caribbean.

The US curiously has avoided these dual phenomena of mestizization and Hispanophonization.

In addition to a mestizization process, the US is also becoming a significantly Spanish-speaking land, once again in tandem with the rest of the continent which overwhelmingly speaks an Iberian Romance language.

Canada is a holdout, but possibly the mestizization process and development of the Spanish language is not long for that land either. Canada has a large Indian population, but they have not married in much with the Whites for some odd reason, unlike in Latin America. Settlers to North America tended to bring women with them while Iberian settlers did not, hence the Iberians took native wives, so this may explain the lack of much mestizization there. French is present in Canada as it is in the Caribbean.

Nordicism is generally absent in Latin America probably because most Latin Whites are Meds. There are some Nordicists in the south of Brazil, but they are not very popular.

The bizarre socially transmitted disease (STD) called Nordicism is mostly only found in the US and Northern Europe. There are hints of it in the north of Spain and Italy, but there is little hatred towards Southern Spaniards from the northerners, who often think of themselves as Celts. Italy is another story. Other than that, Nordicism has no support anywhere.

Nordicism has permanently alienated all East Europeans and Slavs because of its association with Hitler. There are Nazis in Eastern Europe and Russia, but they are not Nordicists. In some parts of the globe such as Eastern Europe and Russia, Nazi symbols and identification have instead been co-opted as general White pride symbols, and there is often an attempt to distance themselves from the actual Nazi regime. There are Nazi types in Mongolia where it simply represents some Mongolian racial purism in the form of a racist fascist (national socialist) politics.

The case of the Whites of Latin America seems to show that not only is the notion of forming racially pure states of Whites or any other race seemingly hopeless, but further, the general darkening trend of Whites (in the US a mestizization process) appears to be an unstoppable force.

White separatists and White nationalists are a premature anachronism. They are fighting a race against time. Wars against time, as with wars against nature, have a tendency to be lost by men.

81 Comments

Filed under Americas, Amerindians, Argentina, Argentines, Asia, Black-White (Mulattos), Blacks, Brazil, Brazilians, Canada, Caribbean, Central America, English language, Environmentalism, Ethnic Nationalism, Eurasia, Europe, Fascism, French, Hispanics, Illegal, Immigration, Italy, Latin America, Linguistics, Mestizos, Mexicans, Mexico, Mixed Race, National Socialism, Nationalism, Nazism, Nicaragua, Nordicism, North America, Paraguay, Peru, Political Science, Portuguese, Race Relations, Race/Ethnicity, Racism, Regional, Romance, Russia, Social Problems, Sociolinguistics, Sociology, South America, Spain, Spanish, USA, White Nationalism, White Racism, Whites

What Was the Worst Cultural Genocide Ever?

How about the Romanization of the Celtic World?

main-qimg-cd432faacde2bd15157cba3d845d7413

Yes, all of that land was formerly controlled by the Celts. Even Southwest Poland was Celtic. There is an endangered language spoken there called Silesian that has at its very base a Celtic layer which is the oldest layer of this Slavic language. The French language was Celtic Gaulish, the influence of which can still be seen in the odd French phonology. I do not think there is much Celtic left in the Iberian languages, but I could be wrong on that. Surely there is little or no Celtic left in Turkish. One wonders about Celtic traces in Dutch, German and the rest of Slavic.

In our modern era, Celtic languages only (barely) survive in Ireland (Irish), Scotland (Scottish Gaelic), Wales (Welsh), the Isle of Man (Manx) and Cornwall (Cornish) in England, and Brittany (Breton) in France. In Eastern Europe, Celts were supplanted by Germanic, Iranian and Slavic tribes. In France, Iberia and the Balkans, the Celts were assimilated to the Roman Empire.

It is not particularly difficult to convert a native elite to the language of a conqueror, but converting an entire population to a new language in a short period of time is quite a feat. The Romans did this mostly by showing the superiority of the Latin language and convincing the natives to give up their Celtic words.

In fact, the Romanization of Dacia where the original Celtic speaking people were completely converted to Latin which then turned into Romanian is cited by Wikipedia as one of the worst cultural genocides ever.

Of course there are many other examples of cultural genocide, some of them ongoing.

37 Comments

Filed under Antiquity, Balto-Slavic-Germanic, Britain, Celtic, Culture, Dutch, Europe, European, France, French, Geography, German, Germanic, History, Indo-European, Ireland, Italic, Italo-Celtic, Language Families, Linguistics, Maps, Poland, Regional, Roman Empire, Romance, Scotland, Slavic, Sociolinguistics, Turkic, Turkish

A Whole Page Of Hebrew Text

Here.

Look at how many publications Israel has in that are Hebrew-only. Publications of every type and subject matter you could possibly think of! There even appear to be some journals. Look at all of the Hebrew language magazines!

I am not wild about Israel, but it does seem that they have built up a true society in this land, complete with a national land, a national culture and even a national architecture and a national cousine, though the last two were pretty much stolen from the native Arabs.

As a linguist, I am happy that there are so many Hebrew language outlets. I had no idea! The propagandists of “English as the new world language” are a bit disgusting. They had me believing that all Israelis spoke English (not all of them do) and not only that, but that English was spoken and used most of the time in Israel, and Hebrew was little used.

Yes, there is an English language press of the major newspapers, but but there are Hebrew language editions of all of those major papers. And you often get a much more truthful analysis of Israeli subjects if you read the Hebrew press. You will find a lot more Gentile-hatred and Christian-hatred there, along with some extremely self-critical views of Jewry and Israel itself, mostly of Jewry.

Jews really let it all hang out and beat themselves up pretty well when the doors and closed and they’ve been assured that no Gentiles are listening.  Jews are not supposed to engage in Gentile-hatred or talking crap about themselves if the Gentiles are listening. Other Jews will quickly tell them to shut up – “What are you trying to do? Start a pogrom?”

5 Comments

Filed under Afroasiatic, Culture, English language, Hebrew, Israel, Jews, Journalism, Language Families, Linguistics, Middle East, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, Semitic

A Look at the Arabic Dialects

Method and Conclusion. See here.

Results. A ratings system was designed in terms of how difficult it would be for an English-language speaker to learn the language. In the case of English, English was judged according to how hard it would be for a non-English speaker to learn the language. Speaking, reading and writing were all considered.

Ratings: Languages are rated 1-6, easiest to hardest. 1 = easiest, 2 = moderately easy to average, 3 = average to moderately difficult, 4 = very difficult, 5 = extremely difficult, 6 = most difficult of all. Ratings are impressionistic.

Time needed. Time needed for an English language speaker to learn the language “reasonably well”: Level 1 languages = 3 months-1 year. Level 2 languages = 6 months-1 year. Level 3 languages = 1-2 years. Level 4 languages = 2 years. Level 5 languages = 3-4 years, but some may take longer. Level 6 languages = more than 4 years.

This post will look at the Arabic dialects in terms of how difficult it would be for an English speaker to learn it.

Afroasiatic
Semitic
Central
South
Arabic

Arabic dialects,in the first place, are often not even dialects at all. Instead as many as 25-30 of them may be full-blown languages according to Ethnologue, which represents linguistic consensus or last word on whether something is a language or a dialect. Arabic dialects are often somewhat easier to learn than MSA Arabic. At least in Lebanese and Egyptian Arabic, the very difficult q’ sound has been turned into a hamza or glottal stop which is an easier sound to make. Compared to MSA Arabic, the dialectal words tend to be shorter and easier to pronounce.

Afroasiatic
Semitic
Central
South
Arabic
Central

To attain anywhere near native speaker competency in Egyptian Arabic, you probably need to live in Egypt for 10 years, but Arabic speakers say that few if any second language learners ever come close to native competency. There is a huge vocabulary, and most words have a wealth of possible meanings.

Egyptian Arabic is rated 4.5, very to extremely difficult.

Afroasiatic
Semitic
Central
South
Arabic
Maghrebi
Moroccan Arabic

Moroccan Arabic is said to be particularly difficult, with much vowel elision in triconsonantal stems. In addition, all dialectal Arabic is plagued by irrational writing systems.

Moroccan Arabic is rated 4.5, very to extremely difficult.

Afroasiatic
Semitic
Central
South
Arabic
Maghrebi
Siculo-Arabic
Maltese

Maltese is a strange language, basically a Maghrebi Arabic language (similar to Moroccan or Tunisian Arabic) that has very heavy influence from non-Arabic tongues. It shares the problem of Gaelic that often words look one way and are pronounced another.

It has the common Semitic problem of difficult plurals. Although many plurals use common plural endings (-i, -iet, -ijiet, -at), others simply form the plural by having their last vowel dropped or adding an s (English borrowing). There’s no pattern, and you simply have to memorize which ones act which way.

Maltese permits the consonant cluster spt, which is surely hard to pronounce.

On the other hand, Maltese has quite a few IE loans from Italian, Sicilian, Spanish, French and increasingly English. If you have knowledge of Romance languages, Maltese is going to be easier than most Arabic dialects.

Maltese is rated 4, very difficult.

2 Comments

Filed under Afroasiatic, Applied, Arabic, Language Families, Language Learning, Linguistics, Maltese, Romance, Semitic

Sprung from Some Common Source

What is this famous quote taken from? The quote is from a famous speech. What is the speech? Who made the speech? When was the speech given (approximately)? Where was it given? What is the significance of this speech? Why is it so famous? What subfield of a popular Humanities field of studies was actually begun with this speech?

You don’t have to get all the answers right, but if you can tell us who made the speech, the approximate date and the significance of the speech that would be good enough.

That is actually all one sentence below. It seems like a run-on, but back in those days, people liked to write long twisting and turning sentences like that. I actually like the writing from this era a lot.

The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure; more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either, yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists: there is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the Gothic and the Celtic, though blended with a very different idiom, had the same origin with the Sanskrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same family, if this were the place for discussing any question concerning the antiquities of Persia.

16 Comments

Filed under Greek, History, India, Indic, Indo-European, Indo-Hittite, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Irano-Armeno-Hellenic, Italic, Language Families, Linguistics, Regional, Sanskrit

A Look at the Incredible Pirahã Language

Method and Conclusion. See here.

Results. A ratings system was designed in terms of how difficult it would be for an English-language speaker to learn the language. In the case of English, English was judged according to how hard it would be for a non-English speaker to learn the language. Speaking, reading and writing were all considered.

Ratings: Languages are rated 1-6, easiest to hardest. 1 = easiest, 2 = moderately easy to average, 3 = average to moderately difficult, 4 = very difficult, 5 = extremely difficult, 6 = most difficult of all. Ratings are impressionistic.

Time needed. Time needed for an English language speaker to learn the language “reasonably well”: Level 1 languages = 3 months-1 year. Level 2 languages = 6 months-1 year. Level 3 languages = 1-2 years. Level 4 languages = 2 years. Level 5 languages = 3-4 years, but some may take longer. Level 6 languages = more than 4 years.

This post will look at the amazing Pirahã language in terms of how difficult it would be for an English speaker to learn it.

Muran

Pirahã is a language isolate spoken in the Brazilian Amazon. Recent writings by Daniel Everett indicate that not only is this one of the hardest languages on Earth to learn, but it is also one of the weirdest languages on Earth. It is monumentally complex in nearly every way imaginable. It is commonly listed on the rogue’s gallery of craziest languages and phonologies.

It has the smallest phonemic inventory of any language with only seven consonants, three vowels and either two or three tones. Everett recently wrote a paper about it after spending many years with them. Previous missionaries who had spent time with the Pirahã generally failed to learn the language because it was too hard to learn. It took Everett a very long time, but he finally learned it well.

Many of Everett’s claims about Pirahã are astounding: whistled speech, no system for counting, very few Portuguese loans (they deliberately refuse to use Portuguese loans) and evidence for both the much-maligned the Sapir-Whorf linguistic relativity hypothesis, and violation some of Noam Chomsky’s purported language universals such as embedding. It also has the t͡ʙ̥ sound – a bilabially trilled postdental affricate which is only found in two other languages, both in the Brazilian Amazon – Oro Win and Wari’.

Initially, Everett never heard the sound, but they got to know him better, they started to make it more often. Everett believes that they were ridiculed by other groups when they made the odd sound.

Pirahã has the simplest kinship system in any language – there is only word for both mother and father, and the Pirahã do not have any words for anyone other than direct biological relatives.

Pirahã may have only two numerals, or it may lack a numeral system altogether.

Pirahã does not distinguish between singular and plural person. This is highly unusual. The language may have borrowed its entire pronoun set from the Tupian languages Nheengatu and Tenarim, groups the Pirahã had formerly been in contact with. This may be one of the only attested case of the borrowing of a complete pronoun set.

There are mandatory evidentiality markers that must be used in Pirahã discourse. Speakers must say how they know something – whether they saw it themselves, it was hearsay or they inferred it circumstantially.

There are various strange moods – the desiderative (desire to perform an action) and two types of frustrative – frustration in starting an action (inchoative/incompletive) and frustration in completing an action (causative/incompletive). There are others: immediate/intentive (you are going to do something now/you intend to do it in the future)

There are many verbal aspects: perfect/imperfect (completed/incomplete) telic/atelic (reaching a goal/not reaching a goal), continuative (continuing), repetitive (iterative), and beginning an action (inchoative).

Each Pirahã verb has 262,144 possible forms, or possibly in the many millions, depending on which analysis you use.

The future tense is divided into future/somewhere and future/elsewhere. The past tense is divided into plain past and immediate past.

Pirahã has a closed class of only 90 verb roots, an incredibly small number. But these roots can be combined together to form compound verbs, a much larger category. Here is one example of three verbs strung together to form a compound verb:

xig ab op = “take turn go” or “bring back.” This refers to when you take something away, you turn around and you bring it back to where you got it to return it.

There are no abstract color terms in Pirahã. There are only two words for colors, one for “light” and one for “dark.” The only other languages with this restricted of a color sense are in Papua New Guinea. The other color terms are not really color terms, but are more descriptive – “red” is translated as “like blood.”

Pirahã can be whistled, hummed or encoded into music. Consonants and vowels can be omitted altogether and meaning conveyed instead via variations in stress, pitch and rhythm. Mothers teach the language to children by repeating musical patterns.

Pirahã may well be one of the hardest languages on Earth to learn.

Pirahã gets a 6 rating, hardest of all.

2 Comments

Filed under Americas, Applied, Brazil, Language Families, Language Learning, Latin America, Linguistics, Portuguese, Regional, South America

Is Old High German Close to Old Persian?

I am going to republish this older piece that has been called into question. Supposedly this language is totally made up. However, that is almost certainly not true, although I am looking into it at the moment. A Croatian professor even wrote a 27,500 word dictionary of this language. I am enclosing here 97 different references that discuss this language in the hopes that this puts an end to the Gan-Veyan controversy once and for all.

Beatrix writes:

Robert,Is it true that 1,000 yrs ago a German & a Persian spoke basically the same language?

No, it is not  true at all that Old German and Old Persian were the same language 1,000 years ago.

However there are some Croatian dialects such as Archaic Islander Čakavian spoken on the islands off the coast of Croatia that are quite similar to Persian or Iranic. They are actually closer to Kurdish and Zazaki though. They are actually completely separate languages, as the lexical similarity with Croatian is only 4%! There is a theory that the pre-Slavic Croatians may have come originally from Persia, and there may be something to that.

These ancient tongues are the remains of the pre-Slavic languages spoken in this area before the Slavs came. The language that these tongues are closest to is called Liburnian. The Liburnians inhabited that region thousands of years ago. Liburnian is an ancient Indo-European language.

I did a study on one of those old languages, an Archaic Islander Čakavian tongue called Gan-Veyãn. I obtained a short dictionary of Gan-Veyãn and went through half of it from M-Z looking on my guesses as where the roots seemed to have originated. The results were remarkable and are listed in order with the language with the most roots first and the language with fewest roots last.

  • Indic
  • Persian
  • Avestan
  • Hittite
  • Akkadian
  • Basque
  • Tocharian
  • Sumerian
  • Lithuanian
  • Aramaic
  • Hurrian
  • Etruscan
  • Gothic
  • Russian
  • Ukrainian
  • Celtic
  • Kurdish
  • Armenian
  • Latin
  • Arabic
  • Mittani
  • Apian
  • German
  • Geez

I will go down the list now and describe these languages.

Indic means all of the Indo European or IE languages related to Hindi.

Persian is well known.

Avestan is best described as Old Persian.

Hittite is an ancient IE tongue formerly spoken in Turkey.

Akkadian is a language isolate formerly spoken in Iraq by the people of that name who had a kingdom there.

Basque is the well known language isolate and pre-IE language spoken in northeastern Spain. Although it formally has no relatives, I would say it is related to NE Caucasian languages like Chechen. In fact the placename Iberia has deep connections to the land of Georgia.

Tocharian is an ancient IE languages formerly spoken by Caucasian people who lived in what is now Xinjiang in far western China where the Uyghurs now live.

Sumerian is an ancient tongue, a language isolate formerly spoken in the Sumerian Kingdom in Iraq.

Lithuanian is interesting because for some reason it is one of the most archaic living IE languages.

Aramaic of course is the language of Jesus spoken in the Levant, Mesopotamia, Iran and Turkey. It is still spoken by Assyrian Christians in Syria, Iraq, Iran and Turkey to this day.

Hurrian is an ancient IE language like Hittite formerly spoken in Turkey.

Etruscan is an ancient language isolate formerly spoken in Italy.

Gothic is the ancient Germanic language of the Visigoths who lived not only in Germany but also in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary.

Russian and Ukrainian are well known. This ancient language may have roots close to these two Slavic languages because in a way Russian and Ukrainian are ancient Slavic languages being heavily based on Old Church Slavonic, a liturgical language that originated in northeastern Greece with roots close to Old Slavic or even Proto-Slavic.

Kurdish is the well known Iranic language of the Kurds.

Armenian is a living language, but it is rather ancient and archaic as IE languages go.

Latin is well known and these islands were part of the Roman Empire for a while.

Arabic is well known and quite a few languages along the European coast of the Mediterranean Sea have some Arabic in them.

Mittani is a language isolate formerly spoken around northern Iraq and Iran that nevertheless seems to have some relationship with Indo-Iranian languages.

Apian is an ancient IE language formerly spoken in Italy.

German is well known. How German words got into this language is a head scratcher but Croatia itself is quite close to Germany as a former part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire which had German as an official language.

Geez is the ancient language of the Ethiopian and Egyptian Coptic Christians which was thought to be long dead. However a family in Cairo was recently discovered who spoke Geez at home.

References

Anonymous. 1988. Verbânske Štatûti 1388 (Glagoljica + Prijevod). Krčki Zbornik 10: 1-173. Povijesno Društvo Otoka Krka.

Antonio, Ive, 2000. L’ Antico Dialetto di Veglia. Rome: Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.

Barač, L. I Sur. and 10 co-authors. 2003. Y-Chromosomal Heritage of Croatian Population and its Island Isolates. Eur. J. Human. Genet. 11: 535-542.

Bartoli, M.G. 1906. Das Dalmatische, I (Glossare und Texte), Ii (Grammatik und Lexikon). Vienna: Schriften der Balkankomission, 5: 316 + 468; reprinted as Holder, A. 2000. 2nd Ed. Il Dalmatico. Rome: Rome Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana.

Batović, Š. 1982. Kultura Starih Liburna 12: 1-40. Rijeka: Dometi.

Bolonić M. & Žic-Rokov, I. 1977. Otok Krk Kroz Vijekove. Zagreb: Kršćanska Sadašnjost.

Bolonić, M. 1980. Otok Krk, Kolijevka Glagoljice. Zagreb: Kršćanska Sadašnjost.

Bonifačić, N. R. Undated. Zidine Zvonimirove I Jurandvorski Ulomci. Krčki Zbornik 1: 181-200. Split.

Božanić, J. 1983. Komiška Ribarska Epopeja. Čakavska Rič 11: 83-181. Split.

Božanić, J. 1996. Iskustvo Vremena Komiških Ribara. Čakavska Rič 24: 7-94. Split.

Božanić, J. (ed.). 1995-2004. Čakavska Rič, pp. 22–32. Književni Krug.

Brajković, V. & Mardešić, P. 1972-1989. Pomorska Enciklopedija, Knj. I.-Viii. Zagreb: Leksikografski Zavod.

Brusić, Z. 1989. Kasnoantička Utvrdjenja Na Otocima Krku i Rabu. Izdanja Hrvatskog Arheološkog Društva 13: 111-119. Zagreb.

Dorčić, V. 1961. Bašćanska Mornarica Prije Prvog Svjetskog Rata. Anali Jadranskog Instituta 3.

Dorčić, V. 1970. Prezimena i Nadimci U Baški Na Krku. Krčki Zbornik 1: 475-480. Krk.

Dorčić, V. 1980. Mjesto Gdje Je Nadjena Bašćanska Ploča. Pazin: Istarska Danica.

Dorčić, V. 1995. Nekoliko Podataka O Narodnim Običajima U Baški. Krčki Zbornik 33:2. Krk.

Faber, A. 1987. Osvrt Na Neka Utvrdjenja Otoka Krka Od Prethistorije Do Antike i Srednjeg Vijeka. Prilozi 3-4: 113-140. Zagreb: Institut Za Povijesna Istraživanja.

Fisher, J. 1975. Lexical Affiliations of Vegliote. Fairleigh Dickinson. New Jersey: Rutherford Univ. Press.

Fishman, J. A. 2000. Can Threatened Languages Be Saved? (A 21st Century Perspective). Multilingual Matters, Ltd.

Fučić, B. 1957. Bašćanska Ploča Kao Arheološki Predmet. Vajsov Zbornik 6:8, 247-262. Slovo.

Fučić, B. 1971. Jurandvorski Ulomci. Krčki Zbornik 3: 157-175. Povijesno Društvo Krk.

Geić, D. & Šilović, M. S. 1994. Rječnik Trogirskog Cakavskog Govora. Muzej Grada Trogira.

Greppin, J. 1991. The Survival of Ancient Anatolian and Mesopotamian Vocabulary until the Present. J. Near East Studies 50: 203-207.

Guberina, P. 1962. Da Li Je Veljotska Diftongizacija Romanska? Rad Jazu 327: 41-55.

Hamm J., Hraste M., & Guberina P. 1956. Govor Otoka Suska. Hrvatski Dijalektološki Zbornik 1: 7-214. Zagreb.

Hamm, J. 1957. Cakavizam i Njegova Geneza. Iz Problematike Čakavskih Govora I. Radovi Instituta Jazu 3: 21-38. Zadar.

Hamm, J. 1960. Cakavci i Romani. Radovi Historijskog Instituta Jazu 6:7, 65-80. Zadar.

Hraste, M. 1961. Cakavizam Na Istočnoj Obali Jadranskoga Mora. Firenze.

Japundžić, M. 1995. Tragom Hrvatskog Glagolizma. Zagreb.

Kostial, I. 1913. Čakavska “Duhovna Bramba” Iz Bašćanske Drage. Vjesnik Staroslavenske Akademije U Krku, 68-71. Krk.

Kranjčević, M. 2003. Ričnik Gacke Čakavšćine. Otočac: Čakavski Sabor Pokrajine Gacke.

Kustić, N. 2003. Cakavski Govor Grada Paga S Rječnikom. Zagreb: Društvo Pažana.

Lesica, I. 1989. Jela Otoka Krka. Krčki Zbornik 20: 1-119. Povijesno Društvo Krk.

Lovrić, A. Ž. 1969: Prilog Poznavanju Onomastike Senjskog Arhipelaga. Hidrografski Godišnjak 16: 125-143, 3 tables + 2 maps. Split.

Lovrić, A. Ž. & Mileković, M. H. 1996. Antičke Epske Legende Na Ranohrvatskom Prajeziku Krčkih Gorštaka (Vêyska Zaÿk). Ognjište 7: 166-174. Karlovac.

Lovrić, A.Ž. & Tomašić, F. 1996. Veyske Pučke Pjesme Brdskih Sela Na Otoku Krku. Hrvatski Književni List 30:5, p. 39. Zagreb.

Lovrić, M. & Tomašić, F. 1996. Legende U Veyskom Govoru Brdskih Sela Na Otoku Krku. Posebni Pretisak Iz Čakavske Riči: 90-96. Split: Književni Krug.

Lovrić, A. Ž. & Mileković, M. H. 1997. Ranohrvatski Prijevod Bašćanske Ploče U Veyskoj Cakavšćini. Hrvatski Književni List 31:6, 13-14. Karlovac.

Lovrić, M. 1998: Podrijetlo Liburna i Njihovo Etnokulturno Naslijedje U Hrvata. Ognjište 9: 175-187. Karlovac.

Lovrić, A. Ž. & Lovrić, M. 1998: Astralna Kultura I Bogatstvo Starohrvatskog Zvizdoslovja. Ognjište 9: 224-247 and three maps. Karlovac.

Lovrić M., Malinar H. & Rac, M. 1999: Zagonetka Krčke Korintije (Uri-Kvorÿta), Najveće Neistražene Gradine Na Jadranu. Ognjište 10: 295-306, Karlovac.

Lovrić, A. Ž. & Mileković, H.M. 1999. Ranohrvatski Jezik I Njegovi Pradialekti. Hrvatsko Slovo 194: 12-13 and one map. Zagreb: Društvo Hrvatskih Književnika.

Lovrić, A.Ž. 1999. Krivotvorba Bosančice i Bašćanske Ploče. Hrvatsko Slovo 202, p. 13. Zagreb: Društvo Hrvatskih Književnika.

Lovrić, A. Ž., Rac, M. & Mileković, M.H. 2002. Diversity of Old-Croatian Names for Seaweeds and Maritime Nature in the Adriatic Islands. Natura Croatica 11:4, 455-477. Zagreb: Nat. Hist. Mus.

Lukežić, I. 1990. Čakavski Ikavsko-Ekavski Dijalekt. Rijeka: Izdavački Centar.

Lukežić I. & Turk M. 1998. Govori Otoka Krka. Libellus II:2, 1-325. Rijeka.

Magašić, M. I Surad. 1976. Bašćansko Područje, Smjernice Razvoja. Krčki Zbornik 8. Povijesno Društvo Otoka Krka.

Magašić, M. I Sur. 2003. Bašćanske Besede. Općina Baška.

Malecki, M. 1929. Cakawizm Z Uwzglednieniem Zjawisk Podobnych Z Mapa. Krakow: Prace Pau 14.

Malecki, M. 1929. O Podzial Gwar Krku, Z Mapa. Prace Filologiczne 14: 563-581. Krakow. Reprinted in 1963 as Prijevod: O Podjeli Krčkih Govora, S Kartom. Filologija 4: 223-235. Zagreb.

Malinar H. I Sur. 1998. Krčka Korintija (Uri-Kuorÿta), Najveća Neistražena Gradina Na Jadranskim Otocima. Monograph: Old-Iranian Origin of Croats, pp. 473-487 + one map. Tehran: Iranian Cultural Center.

Matoković, B. 2004. Ričnik Velovaroškega Splita. Split-Zagreb: Vlastita Naklada.

Mayer, A. 1957-1959. Die Sprache der Alten Illyrier (I. Wõrterbuch Der Illyrischen Sprachreste, Ii. Etymologie und Grammatik der Illyrischen Sprache). Vienna: Schriften Der Balkankommission 15.

Meyer, K. H. 1929. Untersuchungen Zur Čakavština der Insel Krk. Leipzig: Slavisch-Baltische Quellen und Forschungen 3.

Milevoj, M. 1992. Gonan Po Nase (Rječnik Labinskog Govora). Labin: Matthias Flacius Illyricus.

Milevoj, M. 1994. Vadin Po Nase (Rječnik Labinskog Govora). Labin: Matthias Flacius Illyricus.

Miotto, L. 1991. Vocabolario del Dialetto Veneto-Dalmata, Ed. 2. Trieste: Lint.

Moguš, M. 1966. Današnji Senjski Govor. Senjski Zbornik 2: 5-152. Senj.

Moguš, M. 2002. Senjski Rječnik. Senj: Hazu I Matica Hrvatska.

Mohorovičić, A. (edit.). 1987. Rapski Zbornik. Zagreb: Jazu.

Mohorovičić, A. & Strčić, P. (ed.). 1988. Bašćanska Ploča, I I Ii. Zagreb-Krk-Rijeka: Zbornik Reprinta.

Muljačić, Ž. 1966. Lo Cakavizmo alla Luce della Linguistica Contrastiva. Die Welt der Slaven 11:4, 367-379. Wiesbaden.

Murgić S. I Sur. 1999. Predslavenski Tragovi Antičkih Hrvata U Istri i Na Krku. Zbornik Bujština 99: 6-18. Zadar: Matica Hrvatska Umag.

Murgić S. I Sur. 1999. Poredba Predslavenskih Pradialekata U Hrvatskoj (Ćiribirci i Veyanne). Monograph: Old-Iranian Origin of Croats, pp. 235-252. Tehran: Iranian Cultural Center.

Mužić, I. 1997. Slaveni, Goti I Hrvati Na Teritoriju Rimske Provincije Dalmacije. Zagreb: Dominović 5 Izdanje.

Piasevoli, A. 1993. Rječnik Govora Mjesta Sali Na Dugom Otoku (Oliti Libar Saljski Besid). Zadar: Matica Hrvatska.

Prioli, M. 1603. Visitatio Apostolica Dalmatiae D. Vegliensis Anno 1603. Miscellanea Vii: 100-101. Vatican City: Archivio Vaticano.

Prister, L. 1980. Vela I Mala Luka. Bilten Baška 2:2, p. 17. Rijeka: Tipograf.

Ragužin, A. 1998. Glasovita Župa Baška, I-Ii. Krk.

Roki-Fortunato, A. 1977. Lîbar Vĩškiga Jazìka. Toronto: Libar Publ.

Rošić, Đ. B. 2002. Linguistic Identity of the Dialect of Fiume. Toronto: Doctoral Dissertation.

Seršić, S. 1995. O Narodnim Običajima U Bašćanskoj Dragi. Krčki Zbornik 33: 259-264.

Skok, P. 1950. Slavenstvo i Romanstvo Na Jadranskim Otocima, I-Ii. Zagreb: Posebna Izdanja Jazu.

Sokolić-Kozarić, M. 2003. Rječnik Čakavskog Govora Novog Vinodolskog. Rijeka-Novi Vinodolski.

Stipčević, A. 1974. Iliri (Povijest, Život, Kultura). Zagreb: Školska Knjiga.

Strohal, R. 1913. Dijalekt Grada Vrbnika Na Otoku Krku U Prošlim Vjekovima Usporedjen S Današnjim. Rad Jazu 199: 67-152.

Strčić, P. (ed.) 1993. Narodni Običaji Otoka Krka. Krčki Zbornik 32-33, 1-424. Povijesno Društvo Otoka Krka.

Suić, M. 1956. Granice Liburnije Kroz Stoljeća. Radovi Jazu 2: 273-297. Zadar.

Sulojdžić A. I Sur. 1992. Govori Otoka Krka, Uvod U Antropološka
Istraživanja. Filologija 20-21, 1992-1993. Zagreb.

Šimunović, P. & Olesch, R. 1979-1983. Čakavisch-Deutsches Lexikon, I–Iii. Cologne and Vienna: Bõhlau Verlag.

Šimunović, P. 1986. Istočnojadranska Toponimija. Split: Logos.

Štefanić, V. 1937. Opatija Sv. Lucije U Baški i Drugi Benediktinski Samostani Na Krku. Zagreb: Croatia Sacra 1936: 1-86.

Štefanić, V. 1944. Narodne Pjesme Otoka Krka. Zagreb: Hrvatski Nakladni Zavod.

Štefanić, V. 1960. Glagoljski Rukopisi Otoka Krka. Zagreb: Jazu.

Tentor, M. 1909. Der Čakavische Dialekt der Stadt Cres. Archiv fũr Slawische Philologie 30: 146-205. Berlin.

Tentor, M. 1913. Najstariji Hrvatski Glagoljski Brevijar. Vjesnik Staroslavenske Akademije 1913:2, p.33. Krk.

Tentor, M. 1950. Leksička Slaganja Creskoga Narječja i Slovenskoga Jezika Protiv Vukova Jezika. Razprave Sazu 1: 69-72. Ljubljana.

Tolk, H. V. I Sur. and nine co-authors. 2000. Mt-DNA Haplogroups in the Populations of Croatian Adriatic Islands. Coll. Anthropol. 24: 267-279.

Tomašić, F. 1997. Srednjovjeke Pučke Pjesme U Ranohrvatskom Govoru Gan-Veyãn Iz Otoka Krka. Ognjište 8: 217-227. Karlovac.

Tomičić, Ž. 1989. Arheološka Svjedočanstva O Ranobizantskom Vojnom Graditeljstvu Na Sjevernojadranskim Otocima. Prilozi Odjela Za Arheologiju 5-6: 29–53. Zagreb: Institut Za Povijesna Istraživanja Sveučilišta U Zagrebu.

Turčić, B. 2002. Sedmoškojani, Prvi Čokavski Rječnik. Rijeka: Adamić.

Ursini, F. 1987. Il Lessico Veneto-Dalmata del Novecento (Sedimentzioni Culturali sulle Coste Orientali Dell’adriatico). Venice: Atti e Memorie del Società Dalmata Xv.

Vajs, J. 1908. Hlaholske Kodexy Ve Vrbniku Na Ostrove Krku. Praha: Časopis Musea Kralovstvi Českeho Lxxxvi.

Vančik, B. 1997. Svi Puti Vode K Čakavštini. Ognjište 8: 204-216. Karlovac.

Velčić, N. 2003. Besedar Bejske Tramuntane. Beli-Rijeka: Čakavski Sabor-Adamić.

Vidović, R. (ed.). 1971-1994. Čakavska Rič Br. 1–21, Split: Matica Hrvatska.

Vidović, R. 1977-1993. Pomorska Terminologija i Pomorske Tradicije (Rječnik I–Iii.). Čakavska Rič 7:2, 99-156; 10: 145-180; 21:1, 23-41. Split: Matica Hrvatska.

Vidović, R. 1984. Pomorski Rječnik. Split: Logos.

Vinja, V. 2000-2004. Jadranske Etimologije I-Iii. Zagreb: Hazu i Školska Knjiga.

Yošamýa, Mitjêl I Sur. 1998. Podrijetlo Liburna i Njihovo Etnokulturno Naslijedje U Hrvata. Ognjište 9: 175-187. Karlovac.

Yošamýa, Mitjêl. 1999. Veyski Prazemljopis Svijeta i Jadrana (Iskon I Nestanak Starohrvatskog Mjestopisa). Ognjište 10, 185-196. Karlovac.

Yošamýa, Mitjêl I Sur. 1999. Predslavenske Legende Indoiranskog
Podrijetla Na Starohrvatskim Pradialektima. Monograph: Old-Iranian Origin of Croats, pp. 353-366. Tehran: Iranian Cultural Center.

Yošamýa, Z. 2001. Zavjera Šutnje O Kvarnerskoj Jazovki (U Jami Kričavno Na Krku Pobijeni Otočani i Ličani). Politički Zatvorenik 112/113: 20-21. Zagreb (Srpanj-Kolovoz).

Yošamýa, Z. & Mileković, M. H. 2001. Podrijetlo, Značenje I Sudbina Starodalmatskog Jezika. Bujština: 247-255. Matica Hrvatska Umag.

Yošamýa, Mitjêl. 2004. Bascânski Besidãr. Zagreb: Itg.

Yošamýa, Mitjêl I Sur. 2005. Gan-Veyãn, 27,500 Besêd Rječnici Istočnog Kvarnera (Gan-Veyãn and Cakavism of Baška). Zagreb: Torra Editûra Itg.

Žic, I. 2001. Vrbnik Na Otoku Krku, Narodni Život i Običaji. Rijeka: Adamić.

12 Comments

Filed under Afroasiatic, Arabic, Armenian, Balto-Slavic, Balto-Slavic-Germanic, Basque, German, Germanic, Indic, Indo-European, Indo-Hittite, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Irano-Armenian, Indo-Irano-Armeno-Hellenic, Isolates, Italo-Celtic-Tocharian, Language Families, Linguistics, Russian, Semitic, Slavic, Tocharian

Arabic, French and English Versions of ISIS’ Claim of Responsibility for the Paris Terror Attacks

The initial statement was released in French and Arabic:

Here is the Arabic version first:

Original Arabic version.

Original Arabic version.

The following is the French version:

French version.

French version.

It’s not perfect, but this is the best English translation I could come up with.

In the name of Allah the merciful, the very merciful Allah:

Allah the transcendent has said: And they thought their fortresses would truly shelter them against Allah, but Allah came to them from where they didn’t expect and put terror in their hearts. He demolished their houses by their own hands as well as those of the believers. Learn this lesson, ye who is blessed with foresight. Surat fifty nine second verse

In a holy attack made possible through Allah, a group of believers and soldiers of the Caliphate, from the Caliphate – blessed with power and triumph be it through Allah – targeted the capital of abominations and perversion, the one which bears the banner of the cross in Europe: Paris.

A group which tore asunder its earthly ties chased the foe, searching for death on the path of Allah for the sake of His faith, His prophets and His allies, and the willing humiliation His enemies. They have been true to Allah, and true we consider them. Allah has conquered by their hand, and instigated fears in the hearts of the Crusaders in their own land.

Eight brothers wearing explosive belts and bearing assault rifles attacked precisely chosen determined places in the heart of the French capital.

The targets were the Stade de France during a match between opposing Crusader countries, France and Germany, which was attended by the fool of France, François Hollande; the Bataclan, where hundreds of heathens were gathered for a most perverse party; and many in the 10th, 11th and 12th arondissements simultaneously. Paris has trembled under their feet, and the streets tightened in their wakes. The death toll is at least two hundred Crusaders with many more wounded, glory and praise be to Allah.

Allah made it easy for our brothers by allowing them martyrdom, so their explosive belts went off on the heathens when the ammunition ran out. May Allah accept them among the martyrs and allow us to join them.

France and those who tread its path must know that they remain the main targets of the Islamic State and that they will continue to smell the stench of death for having led the Crusade, insulted our Prophet (PBUH), and boasted about fighting Islam in France and striking the Muslims in the land of the Caliphate with their planes which were of no help in the reeking streets of Paris. This attack is only the beginning of the storm and a warning to those who heed the lesson to be learned.

Allah is the greatest. And power be to Allah and to his messenger as well as believers. But the hypocrites may never know. Surat 63 verse 8.

11 Comments

Filed under Arabic, Europe, France, French, Islam, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Terrorism, Translations

Judith Mirville on English Spelling Reform

Judith Mirville,commenter, weighs in on English spelling reform. I really love this person’s wild prose.

It would be far easier to force Americans into Anglish, that is to say, English as it would have looked liked had William the Conqueror’s invasion of England never taken place. Or better still had The Normans themselves feared more for words of French, Latin and Greeks origin to give ideas of Greek democracy, Roman law and French sensuality to their subjects, than for their own Anglo-Saxon parlance to produce Robin Hoods. And seen in Anglo-Saxon a language having remained closer to their own forebears’ that the French-like one they had been forced to adopt in Normandy proper for political reasons.

I am now surrounded by people who are so intent on seeing Greece stifled with more economic sanctions, and are so resentful against that country for having given the world the idea of democracy (whatever the efforts I deploy to prove that their accusation to that effect is downright false: no other city than ancient classical Athens did more to vindicate the notions of Heaven-willed human inequality and human powerlessness as well as to make the quest of sheer contempt towards the downtrodden the noblest aim in life of all), that they have asked me, as an amateur linguist, to devise Greekless versions of English, French and other Western languages.

The World elites seem dead intent on suppressing the very notion of humanism not only as a form of benevolence towards fellow humans but also in the older Renaissance sense of the word meaning open-mindedness through knowledge of classical languages and cultures.

To that effect they have tried several times to disfigure etymological orthography in many languages, but the Anglo-Saxon egregor could never be convinced to accept what other European languages submitted to under the pretext of making school learning easier. So the thing to do with English is to bring it back to a purely Barbarian one so to speak, where scientific, political and other specialized terms would derive only from Germanic or Scandinavian roots through Nordic and Indic, not Greek-inspired metaphors, with the exception of a few monosyllables easy to seam into the fabric, such as joke, graph, rate…

The only rather proximate language I know of to be nearly devoid of Renaissance-inspired terms compounds is Arabic, safe for a few dozens no more of Greek words such as philosophy, democracy, geography that are half-heartedly accepted as temporary linguistic manpower so to speak, more to be humiliated as pariah words denoting concepts that will remain always alien and to be considered as foreign propaganda concepts than to render real communication service, it is the language now closest to the anti-humanistic ideal fostered by the world elites, a language where the higher level of cultural reference always refers to dogma, scripture, and military strategy at the service of predation, never to history or to former cultures of open-mindedness and research, a language where any notion of historical or political consciousness sounds like pollution by foreign intruders.

Hebrew hasn’t made such a meritorious effort and is half-Western, half-Oriental to the point it is now called an Euromitic language rather than a Semitic one (I rather say an emetic one, for modern Hebrew is downright ugly, vulgar, unwieldy, and unfit for information rendering, it is doomed to become rapidly a modern low-grade Westernized Arabic dialect like Casablanca Moroccan bound to flow into Globish).

The changes I would bring or bring back to English would be the following:

First of all, to make back English into a full-fledged Germanic language the passive form with “to be” should get replaced with “to get” as the most correct form, as is more or less the popular tendency.

German has the marvelous auxiliary verb “werden”, unfortunately the English cognate “worth” (“wirth”, “werth”) is worn out phonetically, but hadn’t it been for the late Latin style awkward French model with be (for it being ambiguous between perfect and present meaning and therefore less used in conversation for clarity’s sake) it would have been the medio-passive form of get, to git, I gat, which should be reestablished as the most regular form (many ghetto people already use git plus participle to form passives and do form it more frequently that active forms).

All Latin words such as allusion should be rebuilt for that instance as onplay, and Greek ones such as misogyny should be clearly understood as for that instance bitch-hunting, but forgotten medieval-sounding words should also be introduced to bring to the new language a more lurid and barbaric aspect as is the case with video games.

Social class distinctions as there are in Japanese should be implemented, by more regular and stringent rules than nowadays in class-conscious Britain four or five levels of status should be defined for each concept.

The ghetto and lower middle class people should be left out more or less with their vulgar parlance provided it be purged from forbidden elements, but the higher classes applying for qualified jobs should be given or imposed the luxury version of the language with a syntax imitated more or less from Icelandic minus the declensions, so as to smack of a perpetual Dungeons and Dragons game.

The highest version of it together with many terms should be forbidden of use by the lower ranks. Women should also be given a different version of the language, as well as different rules for pronunciation and this can be marketed through feminism before it be too late for these girls when they realize they have closed themselves back into gunaikeions smacking of Old Constantinople.

Of course I am speaking like some psychopathic nerd who would have been given the job to redesign English like is done with a computer programming language threatened with obsolescence and also, as a frustrated non-Anglo, with the afterthought of curbing the world-wide imperialistic prevalence of that language through ridiculous and gratuitous ideological impediments, with the most probable practical effect of breaking it for good into one thousand impoverished broken dialects no longer capable of intercommunication and yielding to a more civilized civilization language to come, I just want to give the American Republicans the neuroleptic dosage of obscurantism they need no longer to be able to use Monsanto’s products, I want them to become exactly like Haitian sorcerers in the middle run in the name of Jewish and Aryan racism not for real.

It must be noted as you showed it yourself that High German as has been imposed as Germany’s common language is a very artificial and quite recent and very ideological creation, with among others the objective to get the language rid of as many foreign coinages as possible, as if it were to become the new classical language owing nothing to any foreign one.

This objective has misfired as since the defeat of 1945 German is being flooded with English importations and with Greek and Latin terms again that come through English.

It is time for English itself to embark upon that kind of task, and the German experience that could have been successfully completed had the Nazis won over is the proof that it can work with a sufficiently fanatical regime acting at the behest of corporations dead intent on bringing back obscurantism and cut everybody, especially the new bailiff class, from the literary works of the free-thinking past.

Leave a comment

Filed under Afroasiatic, Arabic, English language, European, German, Germanic, Hebrew, History, Language Families, Linguistics, Semitic, Sociolinguistics