Category Archives: Maps

What Was the Worst Cultural Genocide Ever?

How about the Romanization of the Celtic World?


Yes, all of that land was formerly controlled by the Celts. Even Southwest Poland was Celtic. There is an endangered language spoken there called Silesian that has at its very base a Celtic layer which is the oldest layer of this Slavic language. The French language was Celtic Gaulish, the influence of which can still be seen in the odd French phonology. I do not think there is much Celtic left in the Iberian languages, but I could be wrong on that. Surely there is little or no Celtic left in Turkish. One wonders about Celtic traces in Dutch, German and the rest of Slavic.

In our modern era, Celtic languages only (barely) survive in Ireland (Irish), Scotland (Scottish Gaelic), Wales (Welsh), the Isle of Man (Manx) and Cornwall (Cornish) in England, and Brittany (Breton) in France. In Eastern Europe, Celts were supplanted by Germanic, Iranian and Slavic tribes. In France, Iberia and the Balkans, the Celts were assimilated to the Roman Empire.

It is not particularly difficult to convert a native elite to the language of a conqueror, but converting an entire population to a new language in a short period of time is quite a feat. The Romans did this mostly by showing the superiority of the Latin language and convincing the natives to give up their Celtic words.

In fact, the Romanization of Dacia where the original Celtic speaking people were completely converted to Latin which then turned into Romanian is cited by Wikipedia as one of the worst cultural genocides ever.

Of course there are many other examples of cultural genocide, some of them ongoing.


Filed under Antiquity, Balto-Slavic-Germanic, Britain, Celtic, Culture, Dutch, Europe, European, France, French, Geography, German, Germanic, History, Indo-European, Ireland, Italic, Italo-Celtic, Language Families, Linguistics, Maps, Poland, Regional, Roman Empire, Romance, Scotland, Slavic, Sociolinguistics, Turkic, Turkish

Some Notes on the Ainu

Maricon Power writes:

Robert Lindsay, why do pure Ainu have lighter skinned than Japanese? Are Ainu Northern Australoids (cold adapted Australoids?) or are they pigmented? I’ve seen pigmented Tamils and Veddas that look almost European; even the Australian aborigines would.

Look at this map of glacier cover in Japan at the height of the last glaciation about 20,000 years ago.

It shows the Hokkaido (Ainu land) living in a climate different from every other Asian countries.


Glaciation in Japan at the height of the last Ice Age 20,000 YBP.

The Ainu are indeed cold adapted Australoids, and they are actually Vedda types. A comparison of Veddoids and Ainu will show that they match perfectly.

The map of Ainu land is not correct. 20,000 YBP there were no Ainu in Japan. The ancestors of the Ainu are the Jomon. Jomonese skulls line up perfectly with skulls from Thailand 16,000 YBP. The Jomonese show up in Japan 13,000 YBP. So the Jomon left Thailand sometime between 16,000 and 13,000 YBP and made their way eventually up to Japan. When they first arrived in Japan, the Jomonese ranged over the entire country. They were not in Hokkaido alone.

They only ended up in Hokkaido when the Yayoi came from Korea to Japan 2,300 YBP and slowly conquered their way up the island, defeating and displacing the Ainu along the way. The Ainu were eventually pushed up to Hokkaido where the Japanese no longer pursued them much. Hokkaido is where they were found when modern anthropology discovered them in the modern area, but they have not always been located only there.


Filed under Ainu, Anthropology, Asia, Asians, Geography, Japan, Maps, NE Asia, Northeast Asians, Physical, Race/Ethnicity, Regional, SE Asia, Thailand

Latest Updates on Details of Location, Attacks Type and Victim Count at all Paris Terrorist Attacks

The map below is the best map available at the moment, but it probably has some problems.

Better map showing all seven possible attack locations.

Better map showing all seven of the attack locations.

Much information on the attacks is confusing, conflicting, convoluted or simply not true. The following was the best I was able to sort out of the mess at the moment. We don’t even know for sure how many attack locations there were. Nevertheless, this list is probably one of the best and most complete descriptions of all of the attacks that you can find anywhere on the Net at the moment. Totals: 127 killed, over 200 wounded, many seriously.

  1. Four attackers attacked Bataclan Theater near the Charlie Hebdo offices with gunfire and bombs shouting, “This is for Syria!”, many hostages taken and killed, band and 100 others escaped, 87 killed including four police officers and all four attackers.
  2. Two gunmen with AK-47’s and grenades attacked a restaurant and a cafe/bar – Le Petit Cambodge, a Cambodian restaurant and Le Carrillon, a cafe/bar – at the Rue Bichot and Rue Alibert intersection, 11 killed and 20 wounded.
  3. Two suicide bombers blew themselves up outside a MacDonald’s Restaurant across the street from the Stade de France Stadium and at two entrances of the stadium, Saint Denis. In addition, there was a bombing not involving a suicide attacker. Five killed, Five wounded.
  4. Drive-by shooting outside Le Belle Epipue, a Japanese restaurant at Rue de Charonne and Rue Faidherbe, 18 killed.
  5. Two gunmen with automatic weapons attacked the patio outside La Cosa Nostra pizza restaurant at Rue de la Fontaine, Five killed.
  6. Suicide bomber blew himself up on Boulevard Voltaire near the Bataclan Theater, one killed (the bomber).
  7. Calais, France (Possible revenge attack) – Refugee asylum seekers camp set on fire. Possibly a revenge attack by anti-Islam French nationalists.
  8. Rumors of attacks at the Les Halles Shopping Center and the Pompidou Center are unfounded.


Filed under Europe, France, Maps, Regional, Terrorism

Answers to the Languages of Spain Post

Map of the languages of Spain.

Map of the languages of Spain.

There are nine languages in the map above.

You folks were not able to answer all nine of them correctly, so I will give you the answers.

Pink – Catalan

Light green – Aranese or Occitan (no one got this one)

Purple – Aragonese (no one got this one)

Aquamarine – Basque

Red – Castillian

Green – Asturian-Leonese

Yellow – Galician

Dark green – Extremaduran (no one got this one)

Brown – Fala (no one got this one)

Aranese is the Aranese dialect of Occitan which is either a separate language or a dialect of Occitan depending on how you look at it. Fala is actually a dialect of Galician but it is considered a language for sociopolitical reasons. There is another part of the dark green Extremaduran language which is typically not recognized. This is Cantabrian, spoken to the east of the green Asturian-Leonese area and to the west of the aquamarine  Basque area.

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The Languages of Spain

Map of the languages of Spain.

Map of the languages of Spain by region where they are spoken.

Name the eight major languages of Spain portrayed in the map above.

Colors are:

  1. Bright red
  2. Pink
  3. Light green
  4. Purple
  5. Aquamarine
  6. Green
  7. Dark green
  8. Brown
  9. Yellow


Filed under Europe, Geography, Linguistics, Maps, Regional, Spain

Map Question

Mystery map.

Mystery map.

What is this a map of?


Filed under Geography, Maps

The Minsk 2 Agreement



The second Minsk agreement has been signed. There is much wailing and bitching and no one is satisfied. The Novorussians all think it is a huge sellout, and all the Ukies and their supporters think the same thing. Indeed, wild fistfights broke out in the Ukrainian Rada after it was signed. The Nazi Azov Battalion has already rejected the agreement on the grounds that they reject giving up any Ukrainian territory, and they think the agreement gives up Ukrainian land. The Americans think it is a sop to Putin and that Putin won in the agreement. The ceasefire is due to start on Sunday, but no one knows if it will go into effect at all.

Almost everything you are reading about this agreement in the Western “free press” is nonsense, crap, lies and propaganda, so don’t expect to learn anything intelligent there. All that will happen when you partake of the Western media is your cerebrum will get a soaking.

Map shows the Debaltsevo cauldron, now completely blocked. Up to 8,500 Ukrainian forces are trapped inside that pocket.

Click to enlarge. Map shows the Debaltsevo cauldron, now completely blocked. Up to 8,500 Ukrainian forces are trapped inside that pocket.

As you can see, the Debaltsevo pocket has been sealed. The Ukies have made multiple attempts to break through the cauldron, but all have failed.

Relevant towns in the Debaltsevo pocket.

Relevant towns in the Debaltsevo pocket.

As you can see, there are two roads out of Debaltsevo to the north. That is the escape route and the route through which the Ukies need to reinforce their forces in the pocket and evacuate their wounded and cycle their forces out of it. The main road is blocked at Lovginovo, which was taken by the NAF in a dramatic raid a couple of days ago. The Ukies have since tried to take the town but have failed. In the past day, the Ukies made six attempts to take the town, but they were all repelled. A day before, the NAF took Nizhne Lozovoye, blocking the only other road out which goes through Novogrigorevka.

In addition, the NAF has taken Chernukhino, Uglegorsk, Sanzharovka, Kalinovka and Vergulevka.

The Ukies hold Debaltsevo, Novogrigorevka, Svetlodarsk and Mironovsky.

However, Debaltsevo is under heavy attack and the NAF is currently inside the town and house to house fighting is going on. In recent days, the NAF has also assaulted Mironovsky and Svetlodarsk.

Yesterday there was very heavy fighting in Kalinovka, Sanzharovka and the surrounding heights and Chernukhino, all held by the NAF. A 2,000 man Ukie force is now positioned near Svetlodarsk and is intended to push south towards Lovginovo to break the siege.

Novorussian progress, September 2014-February 2015.

Novorussian progress, September 2014-February 2015.

This map is circulating around pro-Ukie sites. It does look like the NAF has managed to conquer a lot of land in the last 5 months. Good for them!

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Ukraine Sitrep February 8, 2015

This is one of the best and easiest to read Ukraine sitreps on the Net. Please feel free to read and repost. Much of my data comes from Russian-language sources.

New map of the fighting dated February 1-2.

New map of the fighting dated February 1-2. Click to enlarge. Use this map to locate the towns described in the sitrep.

Latest updated force strength figures:

Ukies: 61,000 (41,000 regular army, 20,000 irregulars)

NAF: 36,000

Ukies have more men, but the NAF has more and better equipment.

Once again, the main fighting is around the Debaltsevo pocket where 3,500 NAF troops have surrounded 8,000 Ukies. Tonight, there is a major NAF push underway to attack the Debaltsevo pocket from all sides.

Today, the NAF took Redkodub. Reports that it was taken earlier were in error.

The video above shows NAF troops after Redkodub was taken.

Also today, the strategic town of Nyzhnje Lozove 3 miles north of Debaltsevo was taken by the NAF. Reports that the NAF took this town earlier were in error.

Most of Chernuhino has been taken by the NAF. Ukies remain in only a few areas.

In addition, the NAF seized another part of Debaltsevo itself.

There was heavy fighting and shelling today in Uglegorsk and Kalinovka. Although the NAF have reportedly taken both towns, there is still a lot of fighting going on, especially in Kalinovka.

The NAF assaulted Maloorlovka in the south of the pocket.

Fighting also spread to Mironovsky and Mironivka in the north of the pocket as the NAF assaulted both towns.

There was heavy fighting today in Svetlodorsk with both sides attacking each other.

In amazing news, the NAF claims to have surrounded Troitskoe. It is great news if it is true.

The Ukies shelled Bryanka for the first time in a long time.

Reports that the NAF has taken Popasnaya are in error. There is heavy fighting going on, and most of the city has been destroyed but the Ukies are still quite strong here.

From Popasnaya to Lugansk, there are no significant changes, but in the Kryimskoe area, attacks and counterattacks by both sides have resulted in failed Ukie attempts to take Checkpoint 31 and Novotoshkovskoe.

Northwest of Donetsk, the NAF seized a checkpoint on the outskirts of Avdeevka. Most of the civilians have left Avdeevka. When the Ukies first arrived, they raped many women and killed some men. When the locals gathered to stage protests, the Ukies opened fire on them, killing some of them. The Ukies then began raids on all of the stores and homes, stealing whatever they wanted – they did this in Mariupol also. After a while, most of the civilians left and all that were left were old people and women with small children. The Ukies go into the woods and fire artillery at the town and then come back and say that the NAF is shelling the town and trying to kill the civilians. The women in town say that 50% of the male population has joined the NAF.

Reports that the NAF has taken most or all of Peski are in error. Actually, the Ukies continue to hold most of the town amid heavy fighting.

An NAF reconnaissance group carried out an action in Ukie-controlled Karlivka, northwest of Donetsk. I cannot find that town, but it seems to be near the airport.

West of Donetsk, another NAF reconnaissance group carried out an action in the Ukie-controlled part of Marinka.

The Ukies continue to mass forces in the Elenovka and Dokuchaevsk area for a major assault.

South of Donetsk, Ukie shelling of Dokuchaevsk and Komsomolsk resulted in the deaths of 4 civilians.

On the front line from Granitnoe to Mariupol, there have been no significant changes here.

The NAF seized a checkpoint on the outskirts of Mariupol.

The Ukies are attacking Shirokino, east of Mariupol.

A large NAF force is moving from Stahanov and Alchevsk towards Lomovatka and Vergulevka. That is in the direction of Debaltsevo.

Ukies are reporting that the NAF is attacking all along the front and is massing large forces for possible attacks on Debaltsevo and Mariupol.

The EU has now agree that the Minsk accord front lines are no longer operative and the armistice must be established at the new front lines, which means that the NAF gets to keep the territory they conquered in the offensive this month. This is a significant change on the part of the EU.

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Filed under Europe, Geography, Maps, Regional, Ukraine, War

Ukraine Sitrep February 7, 2015

This is one of the best and easiest to read Ukraine sitreps on the Net. Please feel free to read and repost.

New map of the fighting dated February 1-2.

New map of the fighting dated February 1-2. Click to enlarge. Use this map to locate the towns described in the sitrep.

Not much has changed in the past day. 3,250 NAF forces have still surrounded 8,000 Ukies in the Debaltsevo area. As you might gather, the main problem that the NAF has in this area is a lack of forces. This is true overall across the entire front.

Today it was reported for the second time that the NAF had seized Chernuhino. The earlier report was in error, and this one is also. The NAF have still not taken the town and street to street fighting is ongoing. There are many civilians still here, and there situation is very dire. Reports out of Chernuhino are contradictory. Some say that the NAF have been routed and pushed out of the town after taking heavy casualties. Others say that the Ukies have gained control over much of the town and have reinforced their positions there, but the NAF still holds part of it. At any rate, the news out of Chernuhino is not positive for the NAF.

Although the NAF retains Uglegorsk, the Ukies continue to shell the town. NAF control over Uglegorsk is less than full as the Ukies are still on the outskirts of town.

The NAF did overrun several checkpoints in the area in the south of Debaltsevo pocket. One area is south of Kamyanka (between Nikishno and Olhovatka) southwest of Nikishno where it says Mogila Ostraya on the map. The other area is south of Slavne, a bit north of Maloorlovka.

Otherwise there were few changes in the Debaltsevo pocket as efforts to evacuate civilians continue.

Map of the Debaltsevo front lines before the current offensive.

Click to enlarge. Map of the Debaltsevo front lines before the current offensive.

On the map above, one can see that the NAF has made significant progress. They have captured Uglegorsk and are actually inside of Debaltsevo itself on the western outskirts. They have pushed in quite a ways from Fashchivka and Yuzna Lomuvatka on the eastern part of the Debaltsevo pocket. They have pushed right up to the edge of Svetlodarsk. The NAF has pushed all the way up to Kurdyumivka to the north of Gorlovka. Southwest of Gorlovka, the NAF now control Verhnetoretskoe. To the east, the NAF is right on the outskirts of Troitskoe. However, the Ukies have taken Zolote.

The Ukies are said to control Troitskoe, but this is not completely true as a major NAF push into the city has resulted in the a Ukie battalion being surrounded.

There is still heavy fighting in Poposnaya, and much of the town has been destroyed. The NAF is still stuck in the eastern outskirts and unable to advance. This battle is stalemated.

From Popasnaya east to Stanitsa Luganska, all is quiet. This front has been stalemated for a while now.

The NAF lost ground west of Gorlovka just east of Dzerzhinsk around Shumni. The Ukies are now back in the northwest suburbs of Gorlovka and Gorlovka is once again under heavy shelling.

Heavy fighting continues in Peski, but the pace has slowed in the past few days. The report a week ago that the NAF took Peski is in error. In truth, they took most of the town, but the Ukies are still in the eastern outskirts and fighting is ongoing.

Dokuchaevsk once again came under heavy Ukie shelling.

In the first heavy action in Mariupol in a while, the NAF overran a Ukie checkpoint east of the city.

Peace talks are ongoing, but they are not likely to be very productive. Kerry is threatening to arm the Nazis, but this may be an empty threat. The best proposal still entails no independence or recognition for Novorussia, only very limited self-rule and decentralization and no lifting of the sanctions on Russia. This is clearly unacceptable from the Russian and NAF point of view. Lavrov recently suggested the rebels do not have strong ties to Russia. “Don’t think that they follow orders,” he said. This implies that Russia is going to take a hands-off approach to the NAF and let them do whatever they want to within limits. Most recent proposals to allow the NAF to acquire their newly conquered territory in the past few weeks.

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Filed under Democrats, Eurasia, Europe, Geography, Geopolitics, Maps, Obama, Politics, Regional, Russia, Ukraine, US Politics, War

Ukraine Sitrep February 6, 2015

This is one of the best and easiest to read Ukraine sitreps on the Net. Please feel free to read and repost.

New map of the fighting dated February 1-2.

New map of the fighting dated February 1-2. Click to enlarge. Use this map to locate the towns described in the sitrep.

There has been very little change in the situation in the past day. Nevertheless, there has still been very heavy fighting, mostly in the Debaltsevo area. The NAF lost an incredible 70 KIA in one day yesterday.

Most of the fighting is centered in the Debaltsevo area. Although the NAF took Sanzharovka on January 22, fighting has nevertheless been ongoing there. Even today there were heavy battles with mortars and automatic weapons as the Ukies are only 1/2 mile out of town.

The video above shows heavy fighting ongoing in Sanzharovka. The NAF has taken the town, but the Ukies are just outside, and heavy battles with mortars and small arms are ongoing. I do have a feeling that the man in the winter uniform whose face is blacked out may indeed be an active duty Russian soldier. Otherwise there would be no reason to black out his face. But you can see that the vast majority of these NAF forces are not “Russian army.” Note where the NAF troops are arguing over how to use a handheld weapon that they have acquired. They don’t know how to use it and are looking around for the manual to figure out how to work the thing. Obviously not on duty Russian military. Duh.

Redkodub has apparently finally been taken by the NAF.

Although Nikishino has indeed been taken by the NAF after being held by Ukies for 6 months, in truth the Ukies are still located on the high points in the Nikishino suburbs. An attempt was made to dislodge the Ukies from here, but it failed. There were 7 NAF KIA and a lot more wounded. The leader of the group did not want to try to take this position, so he was arrested by NAF officers on charges of not following orders.

Very heavy fighting continues in Chernuhino. The Ukies hold half the town and the NAF holds the other half. The NAF claims that the Ukies are using human shields in this town. There are still quite a few civilians here, but the Ukies are preventing them from leaving. They are holed up in basements and the situation is very grave, similar to that of the Debaltsevo civilians. Some civilians tried to leave town to the east in a small convoy, but Ukie National Guard forces fired on them, and they had to turn around.  A Ukie group from Chernuhino left town and tried to break through the Debaltsevo encirclement, but they were repulsed.

The NAF is now in Komuna, which is right on the western outskirts of Debaltsevo.

Komuna is highlighted on this map in orange. It is right on the western outskirts of Debaltsevo.

Komuna is highlighted on this map in orange. It is right on the western outskirts of Debaltsevo.

The problem in Debaltsevo is that 3,200 NAF troops are trying to defeat 5,500 Ukies. So the Ukies have numbers on their side.

There was a short ceasefire today to allow civilians to flee Debaltsevo. Quite a few left to Ukie controlled territory but few left to NAF territory. This is because the Ukies never told people that they could flee to NAF territory. The Ukies used the civilian evacuation to rotate fresh troops and move ammo into the city.

Kerry, Hollande and Merkel and trying desperately to negotiate a ceasefire now that their Nazi allies are losing big in the Debaltsevo encirclement. The Western offer has been unacceptable to Putin as it requires the NAF to pull back to the old Minsk lines. The Ukies are also offering Donbass limited decentralization which will not be satisfactory. Kerry is threatening that the US will arm its Nazi allies if Putin does not say uncle. The negotiations at the moment are going nowhere.

The NAF is attacking a town called Komunokova on the outskirts of Gorlovka. This is located halfway between Mayorsk and Svetlodarsk on the road between Gorlovka and Artemovsk.

Gorlovka was very quiet today.

There was very heavy shelling in Donetsk yesterday.

Besides Debaltsevo, the main other area of combat yesterday was Peski, west of Gorlovka near the airport. It appears that the NAF do control the town, but the Ukies appear to be situated right on the outskirts of town. The situation is fluid and the fighting is very heavy in this town.

In addition, there is heavy fighting in Avdeevka near Peski. A number of civilians were evacuated from this town, indicating that there is heavy fighting going on. An NAF group disguised as Ukie Adair Battalion members was operating in the town.

There has been little change in the front to the east, although Schaste has come under heavy shelling, and the Ukies are shelling Permovaysk.

To the south of Donetsk, Styila, Komsomolskoe and Starobeshevo came under heavy shelling by Ukies.

NAF troops dressed in Ukie uniforms intercepted a Ukie supply column in Mariupol. 16 Ukies defected to the other side and the column was seized.

As with previous days, the most focus has been on the Debaltsevo pocket, where 5,500 Ukies are trapped and surrounded. As far as the rest of the front, to be honest, it has been pretty stalemated for the last two weeks without major movements of the front lines.

The Ukies are fighting very well in this latest stage of the war, much better than they did last time. They hold their ground and fight very bravely. They are very reluctant to give up any territory. The Ukies in this round are definitely a highly formidable opponent.

The NAF said they would issue a call-up of 10,000 volunteers to augment their army and they said they hoped to have a 100,00 man army eventually. This was misinterpreted by the press as the NAF saying they were calling up 100,000 men. The truth is that the NAF could probably take in 75,000 volunteers in Donbass alone. The NAF are overwhelmed with men wanting to sign up and they simply lack open positions, uniforms and equipment for them. Furthermore, there appear be quite a few men taking shelter in Russia who may well wish to join the NAF also.

Evidence of Russian troops in Donbass is hard to come by. Most of the forces seen on videos are obviously NAF as they are too old, too out of shape or are improperly groomed to be regular Russian forces. Many NAF forces are fighting on their home turf. I have seen videos where they are walking through a town pointing out each house and saying who lives there.

However a great deal of the funding and equipment surely comes from Russia. The notion that the NAF is getting all of their weaponry from confiscations from the Ukies is a lie. Quite a bit of it is coming in from Russia, often in large convoys. Whether or not Russian troops are also coming across the border is hard to determine as the NAF has their training bases in Rostov so after training, these forces move across the border and could appear to be Russian troops.

It is surely the case that the Russian military is not only supplying the NAF but is also helping to train them at the Rostov bases. However the presence or quantity of actual Russian on duty military in Donbass is a question that is much more difficult to answer. At the moment we are not able to say conclusively whether there are any Russian troops in Donbass and if so how many how many there are. If they are there at all, their numbers appear to be quite small.

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