Dr. Melba Ketchum Bigfoot DNA paper is good. I have now read a bootleg copy of the 63 page paper I obtained a few days ago. At the same time, I obtained a number of supplementary charts, graphs and whatnot that go may or may not go along with the official version of the paper that you get for $30.
The paper is good. I like it a lot. I thought she did an excellent job on it. It is also very well written. The conclusions are as we discussed earlier on this blog. The MtDNA is human, and the NuDNA is some sort of a archaic hominid in the genus Homo.
Particularly interesting were the extreme measures taken to guard against contamination of the DNA with human DNA by handlers and other animal DNA. There was no DNA from any other known animals present in any of the samples. None of the samples had any human DNA contamination that would explain the results. The samples were very, very pure DNA, purer than one usually gets from humans.
From Bigfoot Forums:
“The team, led by Dr. Melba S. Ketchum, DVM, of DNA Diagnostics in Nacogdoches, TX, sequenced the three whole nuclear genomes using the next-generation Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform at University of Texas, Southwestern from a tissue sample, a saliva sample, and a blood sample.
The three genomes all attained Q30 quality scores above 88 on the Illumina platform, significantly higher than the platform average of 85, indicating highly-purified, single-source DNA with no contamination for each sample. The three Sasquatch genomes align well with one another and show substantial homology to primate sequences.” (from the PR release).
NOTE: The Three Q30 Scores of the three Genomes,with over 90 GB of Raw sequence for each sample (Comprising greater than 30x coverage) were 88.6, 88.4 and 88.7 respectively. The Q30 is the percent of reads that have the statistical probability greater than 1:1000 of being correctly sequenced (According to Illumina, a pure single source sample would have a Q30 score of 80 or greater with an average of 85).
Therefore, not only were the 3 sequences submitted from a single source, but the quality of the sequences were FAR ABOVE the average 85 Score on genomes sequenced using the Illumina Next Generation Sequencing Platform AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS Southwestern in Dallas, Texas”.
A Further comment was: “The high quality of the Genomes can be attributed to the STRINGENT EXTRACTION PROCEDURES UTILIZED WHEREBY THE DNA WAS REPEATEDLY PURIFIED”.
The MtDNA results, while human, were odd, with some SNP’s (mutations) and other variations not present in any known human samples. The NuDNA samples were very odd, with a combination of human and archaic Homo DNA of a very novel type. Many NuDNA genes had SNP’s far in excess of the known human standard. Further, the NuDNA codes far away from any known humans on this Earth. In distance from humans, it is further away than Neandertal and even from Denisovans. This implies a split in the NuDNA line of possibly up to 1 million years ago.
The NuDNA results look nothing at all like what one would get from human contamination. The paper goes to great lengths to rule that out and explain the reasoning behind it. Nor are the NuDNA results what one would expect based on contamination with known animals. The paper also explains that very well.
Nor were the samples degraded. Degraded DNA has a particular appearance to it that this DNA lacked. Ketchum utilized a degraded human DNA control to test her sequences against it.
One geneticist said that the results look like what you might get if the sequences failed to amplify well. Ketchum explains in the paper that she had a great deal of difficulty getting the sequences to amplify with many failures to amplify, partial amplifications and whatnot. This is because the primers she was using were designed for humans. She had to utilize next generation, very modern and cutting edge sequencing methods to get this very interesting DNA to amplify at all. Whether the results can be explained by “failure to amplify well” is not something I am capable of commenting on.
Another geneticist said that the odd results including the bizarre mixture of single and double strand DNA (apparently not seen in any other known species) can be explained by artifacts of the testing process. I am not competent to comment on that. Apparently this very odd looking DNA (when observed under electron microscope) is what people were talking about when they said that the DNA was from aliens or angels or was “not of this Earth.” Wally Hersom and David Paulides have been very big on this explanation. Surely, this bizarre DNA is very odd, but Bigfoots are very odd creatures. It’s certainly possible that they might have a novel DNA structure.
Other attacks on the paper are much sillier. Most center around the notion that Bigfoots are apes and therefore they could not breed with humans. But Ketchum’s paper states emphatically that Bigfoots are not apes. They are hominids, probably Homo Heidelbergensis (that is my opinion and not Ketchum’s – nowhere in the paper does she name the archaic Homo that they think is in the NuDNA line). Obviously another hominid could have bred with humans.
Another compliant is that Melba has not uploaded her sequences to GenBank yet. But apparently she is waiting to do just that.
I do not feel that this paper is a failure at all. What is occurring is what I predicted would occur. The scientific community refuses to accept the existence of this very real species, and they refuse to accept this DNA evidence for that reason. I have been predicating for a long time now that science would not accept the DNA evidence no matter how good it was.
Is it possible that Melba botched the paper and screwed up her proof of Bigfoot? We all know that she had real Bigfoot samples she was dealing with in the study, so all that remained was for her to successfully isolate the DNA and then prove that it was from Bigfoots and not something else. I feel that she did this, but I am not a geneticist. But perhaps she did botch it. I don’t have the expertise to make that determination.
Much has been made of the fact that Melba published in her own journal. However, she did say that it passed peer review in a journal called the Journal of Advanced Multidisciplinary Exploration in Zoology. However, Melba stated that the journal’s attorneys said that if they published the paper, it would destroy the journal’s reputation, so they said they would not publish it. Melba responded by purchasing the journal and renaming it DeNovo Journal.
Melba describes in detail her tribulations at the altar of modern science. Many journals refused to even so much as look at her paper. Others leaked the names of her peer reviewers and did all sorts of unethical things. This is what Melba has been putting up with for 16 months now at the hands of the “scientific community.” They simply flat out refuse to believe that her findings are true, so they won’t even read or pass via review her paper no matter how valid her findings are.
Given these circumstances and the fact that she did finally pass review at an obscure journals, Melba was right and proper to purchase the journal named above when even it refused to publish her findings despite passing them via review. She did the right thing. The findings are correct, Bigfoots exist, and Melba has proven it in my opinion. This information had to get out to the public, and she persevered and did the right thing.
I think the community should all get behind Melba right now, whatever her moral failings. She has been up there on the cross suffering for all of us, for our entire community, for 16 months now, while the legions of science poked her with their lances and jeered at her. She did it for us. She suffered for all of us. All of the pain we all suffer from skeptics – she took all of our pain and bundled it up for us into one giant mass and took it up there with her on the cross of Bigfootery, where she been slowly dying, being tortured to death, for over a year now. Our pain is her pain. Our torture is her torture. She took our pain and made it hers so we wouldn’t have to suffer it too.
This whole episode has been very hard on Melba. You can see it in her face and hear it in her voice. She says if she had to do it over again, she wouldn’t do it. But she did it. She took it on the chin for us all, falling on the grenade so we might live. And how many of us have her back? Basically none of us.
Adrian Erickson Project video released. An Erickson project video of Matilda the sleeping Bigfoot has been released. It is about 18 seconds long and shows what looks like a bundle of fur on the ground in the forest. It takes one giant breath during the footage. The camera then switches to Dennis Pfohl explaining that analysis of the footage showed the Matilda was breathing at 6 breaths per minute.
Matilda is an adolescent female Bigfoot that was part of the Erickson Project. She, her mother and her father were residing in the woods near a property on Mann Road in Crittenden, Kentucky. She was filmed as part of the study, and in addition, blood and tissue from her fingers was obtained and tested as part of the DNA paper. This was obtained by super-gluing glass shards to a paper plate and then putting food on it. Matilda went for the food and cut the tips of her fingers on the glass. Amazing she still came back around for more pancakes after that.
Later in the study, Matilda become pregnant and then had a little baby Bigfoot. It’s not known who the Mack Daddy was who knocked her up, but it was probably not her father as it is hypothesized that Bigfoots have an incest taboo. Probably the presence of a curvaceous, hormonal, nubile, boy-crazed teenage Bigfoot hottie in the woods attracted some Bigfoot gangsta G who homed in on the hairy teen sexpot and knocked her up.
The 18 second video is only part of a longer 6 minute video. At the end of the video, Matilda wakes up.
There is indeed another video of Matilda walking towards the camera. Matilda has small, “perky,” uplifted breasts that are typical for adolescent female Bigfoots. As you can tell from the Patterson footage, as Bigfoot chicks age, they get a serious case of the sags. Fans of 1970’s porn will be happy to see Matilda, as unlike most young women these days, she refuses to shave even in the slightest.
In the video, the wary and wily feral teen then spots the camerawoman. Upon spotting the human, the defiant teen Bigfoot snarls and growls at the camera, then turns and walks away. When she growls, the hairy hottie reveals black gums and two long fanged incisors. I knew teenage girls were snotty little brats, but this is taking things to a new low. That beats Mean Girls by far!
Disposition of Erickson Project footage. I broke the news a while back that Erickson had sold out of Bigfootery and that Melba now has access to his footage. As the release of Erickson’s video in tandem with the study indicates, Melba indeed has access to Erickson’s material. In addition, I believe that National Geographic TV also has access to Erickson’s material. I know for a fact that Nat Geo has some of Erickson’s material at this very moment, acquired via Melba.
Ketchum tried to get Justin Smeja to tamper with his Bigfoot sample! Amazing story that is just breaking right now. Smeja is the man who shot and killed two Bigfoots in the Sierra Nevadas of California in 2010. A source has informed me that Melba asked Smeja to tamper with his sample after she realized that she was not going to get any more of it. She had been bothering him for all of his sample for some time.
No one knows why she wanted all of the sample, but the folks around Smeja thought she wanted it so that no one would be able to replicate her results. When Justin refused to hand over the remains of what he had, in January 2012, Melba told him over the phone to tamper with the sample. Several people were in the room – including at least Justin, Justin’s wife and the driver who was with Justin the day he shot the Bigfoots – when she said that, and they all heard her make that statement via a speakerphone.
It’s not known why she wanted Justin to mess with his sample or how she wanted him to tamper with it. One theory was that by tampering with it, it would make the sample, possibly not from a Bigfoot, appear to come from a Bigfoot. But that does not seem to be possible. How do you tamper with a piece of bear meat to make it look like it came from a Bigfoot?
What is more likely is that she spitefully wanted him to tamper with his sample to make it damaged and unusable by any other researchers. Apparently she wanted to be the only researcher to have access to that sample. She was afraid that if he sent it off to someone else, they could publish and usurp her with the Bigfoot DNA data, stealing her thunder.
Melba is all about pure raw ambition, 100%. She has the morals of Bill Gates when it comes to doing or saying anything or using anyone in any way to achieve her single-minded ruthless goals. This type of sleazy behavior – trying to get Justin to basically destroy his sample so no one could one-up her – is exactly in line with what we have come to expect from this viciously competitive and morally stunted woman.
Justin did not take her up on her offer to tamper with his sample. It was this offer that seriously soured Justin and Bart Cutino on Melba. As Bart put it (not in these exact words), they both thought she was a sleazeball and a morally suspect person. Asking Justin to damage his sample was so sleazy and shady that they began to wonder whether this amoral behavior had shaded over into her study. In short, they both began to wonder whether she was morally reputable enough to conduct the DNA study. This was the main reason why they took Justin’s steak to an outside source, where it bizarrely tested for Justin’s DNA and Black bear, results that I cannot explain.
In Ketchum’s defense though, see the comments from Caz in the comments section of this post. Caz suggests that perhaps Ketchum was merely making a request to alter the sample so it could store more properly.
In regard to Ketchum and Smeja discussing modifying the sample, I know nothing, but you should leave open the possibility that the comments were well-intentioned. If a layperson held a sample that I deemed valuable, then I would be very concerned about its storage. Regular freezers (-20 C) are completely inadequate for biological storage. You need to store it in industrial-grade -80 C freezers.
Also, contamination can be problem not just for sequencing, but also because it degrades the sample, even when frozen at -20C. I would ask that the outer edges of the sample be cut away and the core stored properly. I don’t have any insider knowledge about the project. I am just saying the world has not yet heard the other side of the story.
Smeja’s Bigfoot steak in Ketchum’s DNA paper. Having read the paper, a fair amount of the paper is devoted to Justin’s piece of Bigfoot from the Sierra Kills. Not only were the hairs on the steak not aligned with any known animals, they did not look like human hairs either. A piece of the steak was sent off to a forensics lab in Texas where the team noted that superficially the skin, hair follicles and dermal layer appeared human, however all of these things differed from human beings in a number of ways.
In addition, the steak was one of three samples in which the full NuDNA gene was sequenced. The result for the steak was approximately 2.7 billion base pairs. In short, the description of the steak in the paper does not in any way support the findings of Justin Smeja (human)/Black bear that was found by the Canadian lab. The reason for the differential findings is not known.
List of labs Ketchum blind outsourced her material to. From the paper:
Analysis for Hire Laboratories Used in the Blind Study:
The following laboratories provided sequencing and analysis of samples in the study on a work for hire basis and were not initially told the origin of the samples being tested until after the samples were tested:
Family Tree DNA Genomics Research Center, 1445 North Loop West, Suite 820, Houston, TX
SeqWright, Inc., 2575 W. Bellfort St. Suite 2001, Houston, TX 77054
UT Southwestern Medical Center, 6000 Harry Hines Blvd. NA7.116, Dallas, TX 75235-9093
USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1441 Eastlake Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90033
Texas A&M University, Microscopy & Imaging Center, Department of Biology and Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, College Station, TX 77843-2257
Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843
Southwestern Institute of Forensic Sciences, 2355 North Stemmons Fwy., Dallas, TX 75207
Why not make the Ketchum paper available? I have been asked to make the entire Ketchum paper available for free. However, it is Dr. Ketchum’s copyrighted work, work for which she is now asking $30 a pop for people to purchase. As an author myself, I do not particularly like people stealing my work. Out of respect for Dr. Ketchum and because I am an honorable man, I will not put the entire paper online. That is another reason I have not been direct quoting much from the paper. I don’t want to seem to be violating her copyright.