Nuclear DNA: As I promised in an earlier post, we can now release preliminary data on Bigfoot nuclear DNA from Dr. Melba Ketchum’s DNA study. I have had this nuclear DNA information for months now but have been unable to release it because it was given to me off the record. I just now got the go ahead to run it.
Three samples were tested for nuclear DNA, and we have results from all three. Subsequent testing concluded that all three samples tested positive for Bigfoot on DNA. To understand what I mean when I say “tested positive for Bigfoot,” see here.
One of the samples was Larry Jenkins’ Bigfoot toenail from Arizona, the other sample was from the blood collected on a plate at a habituation site in Crittenden, Kentucky and the third was blood from JC Johnson’s Bigfoot skunk kill in the Four Corners area of New Mexico. Images of all three were on the Internet at one point, and some images can still be found on the Net, despite many takedown orders.
We have results for a single gene, the MC1R gene. According to Wikipedia, MC1R is one of the key proteins involved in regulating mammalian skin and hair color. This gene was described to me as the “hair color gene” and sources said, “In Bigfoot, the default hair color is red.”
All humans have a distinctive marker on this gene. All share a single polymorphism that differentiates them as humans from apes and even primitive hominids like Neandertal. In Neandertals, one polymorphism is different from humans.
Out of the ~1000 polymorphisms in this gene, all three Bigfoot samples differed from humans in a single polymorphism.
Sources told me that this polymorphism in two of the three Bigfoots was exactly the same in each one, a shocking finding. The third polymorphism was different. When dealing with single gene, it doesn’t make sense to use phrases such as “within the human range”. Terms like that only make sense when discussing, say, an entire MtDNA sequence.
The two polymorphisms were not in GenBank, nor were there any human results even remotely close in that database. It is barely possible that either of these two strange polymorphisms could show up in any one random modern human, but I do not believe that is the case.
That either result would show up by chance in three separate random humans is for all intents and purposes statistically impossible. Further, I do not believe that it occurred at all. That is, statistically, the odds are against it are so extreme that we can be reasonably sure that these were not three random humans.
One thing that we do not know, unfortunately, is whether or not the Bigfoot samples contained the single polymorphism that is diagnostic for humans (see above).
However, if you look above, you can see that this gene is very well studied in humans. In fact, it seems to be studied to death. So far, 20 different polymorphisms of the MC1R gene have been identified in humans. As far as I am concerned, that is all the polymorphisms of this gene that exist in humans. The fact that two unique and brand new polymorphisms of this gene were found in Bigfoots, polymorphisms that do not exist in humans at all, means only one things to me: that the gene is from a non-human.
I would assume that these bizarre nuclear DNA results on this single gene are what made the Ketchum Study conclude that we were dealing with something non-human in terms of the nuclear DNA.
We do have the 4-letter DNA alphabetic codes for the polymorphisms, but we will not print them as we do not want to upset Ketchum’s findings. For now, let us call them XXXX where each X is an alphabetic letter in the genetic code.
There are concerns that this revelation will jeopardize Ketchum’s study. Because we are not publishing the four letter code itself, we do not believe there is any risk of that.
The nuclear DNA findings above are extremely tentative and are based on conversations with sources over a period of months. To be honest, neither my sources not I understand genetics very well.
My understanding of the final results of the DNA of the entire nuclear genome, not just the MC1R gene, of various Bigfoot samples is that it is quite a bit aways from human. How far away is uncertain.
From three different sources, we heard something along the lines of “1/3 of the way from a human to a chimp.”
However, another source thought it was closer than that. Two different sources referred to Neandertal and Denisova. They both said something along the lines of, “Whether it is closer to Neandertal or Denisova, I am not sure.” One source also referenced late Erectus trending into archaic or early Sapiens. An example of that would be Heidelberg Man.
If the nuclear side is 1/3 of the way from a human to a chimp, the split between Bigfoot and man took place 2.2 million YBP (years before present). If it is instead closer to Neandertal – Denisova – Heidelberg Man, we are looking at a Bigfoot – human split of ~750,000 YBP.
At the moment, we just don’t know how far away the nuclear side is from humans. We have statements from people close to the Ketchum project, but we don’t know how accurate those statements are. In the end, all we have is conjecture.
Ketchum’s peer reviewed study. The study has been out for peer review for about 9 months now – February 2011 to November 2011. Websites are quoting me as saying that Ketchum is unwilling to make the changes that the peer reviewers want. That’s a misquote. My sources are simply speculating that, based on her “bullheaded” personality, Ketchum may be unwilling to make the changes the peer reviewers request.
Truth is we have no knowledge whatsoever of how the peer review is going, but it does seem to be taking awhile. This implies a long and drawn out process.
We are also not certain of Ketchum giving a May 2012 publication date. That date is simply being thrown about because Ketchum will be appearing at a Bigfoot conference in the Pacific Northwest on Homo sapiens hirsutti on that date.
“Human DNA means humans.” This is one of the charges against Ketchum’s DNA findings that is being bandied about on skeptic sites. The allegation is familiar: all of the samples have been contaminated with human DNA. However, sources have informed me that if there is one thing that is not going on in Ketchum’s findings, it human contamination.
Ketchum has gone to extreme lengths to guard against human contamination of her samples. If findings are coming back “human” on MtDNA, it either means that Bigfoot MtDNA is human, or it means that the samples are of Homo sapiens sapiens. The notion that the samples are contaminated can be completely ruled out.
That the samples are actually of humans cannot be ruled out on MtDNA basis alone, but the implications if this is true are staggering. It means, for one thing, that Justin Smeja’s Bigfoot steak is actually a slice of human being!
How will Adrian Erickson release his video? Erickson will probably release his video upon the release of DNA findings, either Ketchum’s or the Erickson Project’s possible European study, depending on which of the two studies releases data first.
The form of release will probably be a DVD. After that, there may be negotiations with Hollywood for sale of partial rights on television.
Larry Surface’s Ohio Bigfoot video. Sources indicate that preliminary analysis by video experts on the Surface video has began. Initial findings indicate that the bipedal hominid figure in the video is “hairy.” This suggests that the figure may in fact be a Bigfoot.
Justin Smeja’s original post on Taxidermy.net. We already discussed this finding in our previous post. The original thread from Taxidermy.net is almost impossible to get. Only a few people have it, and they won’t let anyone else see it. Nevertheless, our team* got ahold of a copy.
In the post, Smeja admits to shooting the Bigfoot in the back as it was running away. In addition, Smeja repeatedly refers to the creatures as “bears,” though he says over and over that they are the strangest bears he had ever seen. He also refers to grizzly bears a few times when talking about the Bigfoot he shot, possibly due to the huge size. Nevertheless, he titled the post, “If You Saw Bigfoot, Would You Shoot It?”
Keep in mind that the thread was only one month after the Sierra Kills. Smeja did not believe in Bigfoots at all at the time of the shooting. Even after talking to several people who told him he just shot two Bigfoots, part of Smeja still cannot wrap his mind around that fact, so he keeps trying to rationalize that somehow he shot two of the weirdest bears on the face of the Earth. He theorizes that the Bigfoot he shot may have been a bear that got two of its legs shot off and then learned to walk upright on only two legs.
The concept of Bigfoot is still so weird to him that his mind refuses to believe it, and he is backing up into bizarre bear explanations to make sense of the insensible.
There is a possibility that we may be able to post all of Smeja’s relevant comments from the Taxidermy.net thread in totality, word for word, sometime soon. This should add much to the debate swirling around the Sierra Kills.
*One or more persons, which may or may not include me.
Smeja’s Bigfoot steak is for sale. First of all, we do not believe that Smeja has a single small Bigfoot steak. By his own admission, we calculated that he has 7.5 pounds of steak. He gave Ketchum 1/4 of that, which was a ~2 pound slice. So he still retains ~6 pounds of steak. We recently received word from sources that Smeja has been trying to sell some or all of that steak. Asking price was reportedly ~$10,000. We believe that there were no takers.