Here are two new really cool Cavalli-Sforza gene maps (scroll towards the end to see the maps). I have modified my analysis of the races of mankind accordingly by splitting East African Race into Sudanese-Barya, Amharic and Tigrean somewhat arbitrarily, but I think nevertheless appropriately. Along with the Egyptian split-off, I now have 90 minor races of man.
The Barya are a settled agricultural group on the border between Eritrea and Sudan.
For one thing, Nilotic and Bantu are clearly defined groups, and there is not much more distance between them than between the new groups from East Africa.
The Pygmies of Africa. Pygmies go back probably 45,000 years ago in Africa and this is about when they split with other Africans. Research is very difficult in this area because it is a steaming jungle where bones do not tend to survive to be examined tens of thousands of years later. Pygmies are one of the most diverse of the main Negroid African groups, as you can see in the gene map below.
Their short size is an adaptation to a jungle where it is very hot. A small body dissipates heat better than a larger one. Consider a one-bedroom apartment in which an air conditioner is good enough to cool off the whole place. Now put that air conditioner in a mansion. It won’t cool it down much. This is why large bodies heat up quite a bit in the tropics. If you are small and compact, you cool off so much better.
I split Mbuti Pygmies off into their own race, and also the Biaka Pygmies along with the Sara Nilotics in a Biaka-Sara Race. This race is quite strange because Biaka Pygmies look like the folks above, and the Sara Nilotics look something like a Tutsi. This goes to show you how genes can cluster together groups that look dramatically different.
The Biaka are located in the Central African Republic. However, the Sara are located in the Central African Republic alongside the Biaka. They are also located right next door in Chad. Their geographic convergence may explain their genetic clustering.
All of these groups over there in Ethiopia are incredibly ancient.
It is my opinion that it is from this region that Caucasians descended about 45,000 years ago in Africa. A closer bet for the common ancestor is probably the Masai to the south in Kenya.
The Masai of Kenya. The possible remnants of the African Blacks that birthed the Caucasian race in East Africa 45,000 years ago. Look hard at grandma, White Supremacists. The one on the left looks like she could be a proto-Caucasian or really more a pre-Caucasian. These people may also be considered the Hamites of East Africa, though the term is not used much anymore.
The Masai are with the Shilluk, the Nuer, the Dinka, the Luo, the Turkana, the Karanojo and the Mabaan in a Nilotic Race.
The Caucasoid appearance of many of these folks is often said to be due to Caucasoid admixture, and this is true, but there is also excellent genetic evidence that this group may indeed have sprung forth the line that went to Caucasians.
A Turkana woman of Kenya. She seems to have more of a Negroid appearance. Perhaps the Turkana are the remains of the group that split off Caucasians. The are Nilotics. The Turkana have been studied a lot by anthropologists because their culture has a lot of free interpersonal aggression (that is, it is allowed and not sanctioned), yet they have a low homicide rate. Perhaps they are letting the steam out?
In contrast, Eskimos, New Guineans, and Bushmen have cultures that are low-conflict and affectional yet have high homicide rates.
The Turkana are members of the same Nilotic Race described above.
Also, on the basis of the second chart, I will gingerly split Egyptians off from Egyptians, Libyans, Moroccans and Tunisians.
A very cute Tunisian woman. This woman is clearly mostly European in phenotype. She could be a Spaniard or an Italian. Tunisians are members of the North African Race. This group includes Tunisians, Canarians, Moroccans and Libyans. It is probably made up of a Berber base overlaid with Arab invaders.
There is some Black admixture, but not a great deal – it probably averages about 13% across the group, but some groups such as the Kabilye of Algeria are 1.5% Black. These lighter groups may include more Southern European admixture.
This is a Black Berber from Morocco. The Berbers are probably on the line between Blacks and Whites. In many cases, it is pretty hard to throw them into either Black or White. The Berbers do indicate the truth to the Leftist “race is amorphous” game. There is a bit of truth to all sorts of things, but that does not make them true in toto.
A Moroccan man who could clearly be a Spaniard. Clearly genes were going back and forth across the Sea here quite a bit. Black genes are only 4% in Spaniards.
A Moroccan Berber boy. Berbers are clearly one of the essential ancient Caucasian stocks. They were formed in East Africa long ago, then went from there west to North Africa, their homeland. Then there are all sorts of complicated movements back and forth between North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus and even India involving them and other proto-Caucasian groups.
All of these movements are part of the process of the creation of the various Caucasian subraces and were occurring 20-50,000 years ago. The Berbers go back 50,000 years in the region. One of their main lines came out of Palestine, and from there, they moved west. There is another line in the Berbers from NE Africa, but it is more of a Caucasoid line than a Black line.
The truth is that almost all North Africans, whether they call themselves Arabs or Berbers, are really related to Berbers. Genetically, the Berbers are: 34% East African non-Black (North African), 27% European, 21% Near Eastern, 12% Black, 6% North African.
More Moroccan Blacks here. In the South of Morocco, the folks get pretty Black, though they are often still considered Berbers. There are White Berbers and Black Berbers, and it is quite hard to stick Berbers into either group.
You almost have to place Berbers on an individual basis into Black or White, which in a way makes folly of ethnic nationalist obsession with racial category while at the same time adding fuel to the “no such thing is race” line, which is actually folly, but like much folly, carries a grain of truth.
Much is made of the race of the ancient Egyptians by both Blacks, including Black Supremacists, who are probably even stupider than the White kind, and of course White Supremacist idiots, who always chime in on all these race debates and get it all wrong.
An Egyptian man in a market. As you can see, they are mixed-race people. This man clearly has some Black in him. Check out the water pipes. Egyptians are members of the Egyptian Race. North Africans other than Berbers fall into three races – the Algerian Race, the North African Race and the Egyptian Race.
White Supremacist types claim that Egyptians were Caucasian and not Black, and this is true more or less, although modern-day Egyptians are about 9% Black. Common anthropological knowledge is that the Egyptians who built the pyramids and those of today are racially nearly identical folks. No matter what all went down millennia ago in the Nile Valley, the people didn’t change much.
Egyptians from the Aswan Dam region of Egypt. As you can see, they have either been out in the desert sun a lot or else they are part Black. Moving south, Egyptians get a lot darker and probably a lot Blacker. At some point, we are into a new race altogether that I call the Nubian Race, but I am not even sure where that line is.
I dated a woman from Egypt once, with clearly ~30% Black in her. She said the reputation with Arab men in Cairo was that the Black woman was hot, and the Arab woman was more for a wife. Part-Black women were quite sought after for this purpose. So much for White Supremacists who say no one wants a part-Black woman.
It is interesting how White Supremacists claim Egyptians for the purpose of denying Blacks their Great Civilization need, but at the same time reject Egyptians scornfully as non-Whites unfit to live in White countries. Cognitive dissonance?
Blacks say Egyptians were Black, but that is really just pitiful, because Blacks are grasping for some kind of ancient glory in Ancient Egypt, for it is a great civilization.
There is no need for such folly. Most ethnic groups do not have histories of earth-shattering civilizational achievements. This is true even in groups with fairly high IQ’s like Filipinos, Indonesians, Malays, Thai and many Amerindian groups. We could go on and on.
African Blacks have a history that is not really anything to be ashamed of, especially from around Nigeria and West Africa. South of that, things are a lot poorer culturally, but those were probably mostly Bushmen stocks who got swept away by the Bantu Expansion coming out of the border of Cameroon and Nigeria 3,500 years ago.
All of the existing Sub-Saharan Blacks can claim the heritage of the Bantu Expansion, except for the San types. It is true that the San have not achieved much culturally, but they are not the same Black subrace as almost all African Blacks, nor are they the same race as US Blacks, so don’t conflate San with African and African-American.
This is really fodder for another post, but the horrible White Supremacist line of Sub-Saharan Africa as an eternal backwater of idiocy and stagnation is not correct. Nor is it true that Black African achievements all came by way of North Africans. Therefore, there is no need for Blacks to go on pitiful fishing expeditions in Egypt in search of ancient Black glory.
These charts are from the Majority Rights wiki, which is one of the worst of the mainstream White Supremacist sites. However, they do have tons of nice genetic stuff to poach, so poach we will. The first map below is an excellent one of all of the races of mankind, and I decided that every group on the tree was a separate race in the piece linked above, and broke many of them down further.
There were some exceptions. I put Japanese and Korean into one race, even though the Japanese would be insulted by that. The truth is that all good data shows that they cannot be separated genetically, so Japanese Supremacists who hate or dislike Koreans (arguably most Japanese people in Japan) need to rinse out their brains.
Fighting between brothers is always particularly horrible, as the cops used to say when they would come out when my brothers and I were pretty much trying to kill each other in our folks’ house for a while there.
The important point is the profound distance of the Negroids and the East Africans from everyone else and even from each other.
I am not going to say they are subspecies at all (this is a most horrible habit White Supremacists have when they discuss race). All humans can mate and we may be very closely related, although there is intense debate about this now coming from race realists and especially White Supremacists.
I don’t think human descent went according to this chart if you look at it like a flow chart, as Blacks did not go to Whites and then to Asians.
Note that in the map below, Filipinos are the one Asian group most closely related to South Chinese. How odd.
Fig. 1: This is a racial map of the entire human genome. It is discussed above. This is just one of way of looking at racial differences in genes, which is all that matters in splitting race, if you ask me.White Supremacists, like phrenologists of yore, like to measure heads, but that is stupid, and neither is it all that productive.
Modern anthropologists only measure modern heads to compare them to older crania to look for relationships between extinct and ancient stocks from 12,000-44,000 years ago to living persons today. One reason to do this is to give us a visual example of what these extinct stocks looked like, but it doesn’t necessarily imply relationship, as there is a lot of coincidental convergence in human skulls.
I can show you photos of Caucasian-looking types from most racial stocks (the photos are at the end of the post). “Caucasian” is just one of the ways that the human face can form during recent evolution in the past 50,000 years ago. It’s sort of like a set of clothes being tried on by folks all over the globe.
There is one great race who made it their own, but Caucasoid appearances among unrelated existing or extinct stocks (Kennewick Man, for instance) do not imply relationship with modern Caucasians, extinct or modern. This is why White Supremacists are utter morons, as usual, for claiming Kennewick Man as ancient White Man in America. He looks like a Polynesian or an Ainu, and he’s not Caucasian, and that is that.
In a way, it’s just parallel evolution, and if that phrase makes you sick, just roll it around a bit in the mouth til it tastes good.
Fig. 2: This is a genetic map of the people of Africa. North Africans are mostly Caucasian people. This is probably because a large wave of ancient Caucasians came down out of the south of Europe 18,000 years ago into North Africa and conquered, pushed South, killed off or genetically swamped existing African Blacks to the point where North Africans are about 13% Black on average.
Down a bit to the Sahel, we find a population 53% White, but they look Black, so no White person on Earth will claim them as White. On the other hand, these are clearly mixed race folks.
In this region, the complex of social race reaches to new heights. Many Ethiopians insist that they are White and not Black, and apparently look down on Black Africans near them. On the other hand, the Sahelians are 47% Black, so to say they are not Black is mistaken also. And the end of the Sahara to the South, we enter the Heart of Darkness in Africa and a much darker group of people, except possibly in East Africa.
I said above I could show you photos from many obscure major races who seem to have developed a Caucasian appearance, in most cases through parallel development. Check it out.
I swear this Papuan guy looks like an old friend of mine from high school who was part Mexican and part Greek. A member of the Papuan Race. This is a major race of mankind in and of itself, completely distinct from all other groups. The closest group to them are the Aborigines, but the Papuans are extremely distant from them also. Curiously, Papuans are grouped within the Asian Macro Race.
Here is another Papuan dude who looks Caucasian to me, but maybe it is just the weird get-up hiding his features. Screw tats and dying your hair. I dare you to dress up like this and go out in public.
I am sure White Supremacists will scream, but this Ghanaian chief has a Caucasian appearance. He has about zero Caucasian admixture, like most West Africans. More convergence. A member of the West African Race. This group is closely related internally and even to Bantus and Nilotics.
Although this seems odd given the deep genetic divergence of Africans, it seems that within Africa itself, things are not extremely diverse. This is probably because so many Africans have been breeding in with each other for so long.
Now, this Fijian cat looks really cool, and I swear he looks Caucasian too, but maybe I am just imaging things again. Anyway, he looks great. Fijians are often thought to be Melanesians, and they are, but they also have heavy admixture of Polynesian. And yes, those are completely different races altogether, and their relationship to each other is quite controversial.
Melanesians are clearly related to the Australian – Papuan split that split off from Negritos 50,000 years ago in the South Pacific. They are a geographically vast, extremely diverse and poorly understood race. In the West of their lands, in Eastern Indonesia, they have some Taiwanese admixture, but no more than 20%. Polynesians are either totally Taiwanese, or a mixture of about 1/2 Taiwanese and 1/2 Polynesian.
This is still being fleshed out as I write this, and it is quite a hot area of theory, with new findings coming out all the time. The battle is between separate theories, Fast Boat and Slow Boat, for the birth of the Polynesians. It’s not clear who is winning right now, but it’s really an area for another post.
Melanesians are members of the Melanesian Race. I included them under a major race called Oceanians, a subgroup under the Macro Asian Race. The group includes Fijians, Vanuatuans, New Ireland Islanders, Papuan Melanesians, and Indonesians from the islands around Alor in the far east.
- Bulbeck, D., Rainer, D. Groves, C., Raghavan, P. The Contribution of South Asia to the Peopling of Australasia” and the Relevance of Basel’s Naturhistorisch Museum to the Anthropological Collection to the Project Aims. Bull. Soc. Suisse d’Anthrop. 9(2) 49-70.
Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., P. Menozzi, A. Piazza. 1994. The History and Geography of Human Genes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
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