Category Archives: Europe

It Is Up to Russia to Save the World from Nazism Again

GGGGG writes:

Love the Fuhrer with all your heart and soul, and love other Aryans as yourself.

All Xtian countries are fascist countries, when the money runs out. You never read Lenin?

It sounds like a crazy thing to say, but the West is so extreme in its support of fascism in all of its forms since World War 2, and honestly we strongly supported fascism even before WW2. Scarcely was the ink dry on the VE-Day documents and the US was recruiting Nazis left and right to form armies to fight the USSR. US support for anti-Soviet and anti-Russian Nazism started on that day in 1945 and honestly has never stopped. What do you think the NATO stay-behind Gladio Network was/is? It was a grouping of armed fascists and Nazis run by NATO itself.

Hmmm well almost all of the Christian West is now supporting the Ukrainian Nazis at an extreme level to where they are nearly threatening to go to war for their Nazi buddies. Only Russia stands in the way of the Nazi Horde. World War 2 all over again. This time it is so much worse though. Last time around we could count on much of the West joining Russia to fight the Nazi Beast. Now almost the entire Left has lined up alongside the Nazis!

I think I am going to start calling the West the Nazi West. It is not that we are Nazis ourselves but that we are arming, funding and going to extreme levels to support Nazism in the Ukraine. We are threatening war against the only nation on Earth that has stood up and said no to Nazism.

Maybe this will be like WW2 all over again when it was up to Russia to save the world from Nazism.

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Filed under Eurasia, Europe, European, Fascism, History, National Socialism, Nazism, Political Science, Regional, Russia, Ukraine, USSR, War, World War 2

100% Solid Proof that Both Political Parties Are Backing Nazis in the Ukraine.

Here.

The Donbass Battalion are one of the private militias in the Ukraine that fights alongside the government. However, they are not an official part of the Ukrainian military. All of these private militias are 100% pure dyed in the wool National Socialist Nazis (racist fascists). It is much harder to make the case that the Ukrainian Army itself is a Nazi Army. Certainly they do bad things, but most of the soldiers are just simply conscripts with little understanding of politics or ideology so it is hard to call them full-on Nazis. But that description describes the Donbass Battalion in spades.

The leader met with the National Republican Institute and the National Democratic Institute. These are both outgrowths of the two political parties and they are both very nasty and wicked organizations. That the NRI and the NDI really are are political party organizations that work hand in hand with the CIA to subvert sovereign regimes all around the world.

You name a sickening US intervention in the past 60 years, and the NDI and NRI have been up to their necks in it. Guatemalan Civil War, Salvadoran Civil War, overthrow of Allende, Colombian Civil War, Vietnam War, Iraq Occupation and the War on the Iraqi People, the Timorese genocide. They were involved in coup attempts against Venezuela and Ecuador and successful coups against Paraguay and Honduras.

As you can see, support for America’s Nazi allies is a bipartisan project as is almost all US foreign policy.

One wonders how the American people feel? Do the American people realize that US is supporting a Nazi government and helping them to kill antifa anti-Nazi partisans in the east of the lands who took up arms to defend themselves against the Nazi Beast?

The Donbass Battalion will be trained by the US military. So the Pentagon is now training real, pure, 100% Nazis.

The Ukrainian government is the first Nazi government that has appeared in Europe since 1945. The Barack Obama Administration is the first US government ever to install a Nazi (racist fascist) government anywhere on Earth. That alone is reason enough to condemn Obama to the pits of Hell.

 

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Filed under Democrats, Europe, Fascism, Geopolitics, Government, History, National Socialism, Nazism, Obama, Political Science, Politics, Regional, Republicans, Ukraine, US Politics, USA, War

Biden Blames US Allies for Rise of Radical Islamists in Syria

Biden is 100% correct on this. Here he accuses Saudi Arabia, Qatar, UAE, and Turkey of flooding money and guns into the Syrian rebels, pretty much to anyone who would fight Assad. Their attitude was that if Al-Nusra, ISIS and Al Qaeda were fighting Assad, then it was worth it to fund and arm them. We have the Qatari Defense Minister on record saying just that.

The campaign to fund and arm the Syrian rebels was being run by the US, NATO and its allies Turkey, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Qatar out of the US Embassy in Ankara, Turkey. The best evidence seems to indicate that the US only wanted to fund and arm what they called the moderate rebels in the Free Syrian Army and the US opposed arming Al-Nusra, Al Qaeda, ISIS and the more radical Islamists.

However it was well known that many of the guns and much of the cash given to the FSA ended up in the hands of Islamists. Also all of the money and guns given to FSA type groups often ended up in the hands of more radical groups as FSA-type groups evolved into more radical groups.

The notion that the US directly armed and funded Al-Nusra, Al Qaeda and ISIS and/or other radical Islamists is weak and lacks good supporting evidence at the moment. However, the US and its allies certainly fueled the fire that has turned Syria into the charnel house that it is.

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Filed under Democrats, Europe, Islam, Middle East, Politics, Radical Islam, Regional, Religion, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, US Politics, USA

The Truth about the Maidan Riots, Part of the CIA Coup that Overthrew the Ukrainian Government

Not exactly what the media is telling you, right?

We have Katharine Ashton and the Estonian Vice President on the phone in a hacked phone call that you can hear recorded discussing that investigations revealed that all of the fatal shots were done by the Right Sector, none by the police. The police had no snipers or sniper rifles. All of the bullets came from one type of gun, and the cops did not have that type of gun. All fatal shots came from one building that was occupied by the Right Sector at the time. That physician herself in the video says that the same people shot both the cops and the protestors.

Also a Ukrainian Parliament member who absolutely hates Russia did his own investigation and concluded that the Berkut were 100% innocent of the sniper killings. However, he did not assign blame to anyone.

The Right Sector Nazis were trained by NATO for a couple of years before this. The training camps were NATO training camps in Poland.

Whether the US/NATO was behind the snipers is not proven, but we know for sure that the snipers were all Maidan people themselves – Right Sector people.

Also polls have now proven that 80% of Maidan protestors were Nazis. 80% of them say that Stephan Bandera was a hero. That proves they are Nazis right there. The Maidan was a huge Nazi rally from Day One.

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Filed under Democrats, Economics, Eurasia, Europe, European, Geopolitics, History, Journalism, Middle East, Obama, Politics, Regional, Russia, Syria, Ukraine, US Politics, USA, War

National Socialism in the Ukraine

Every single thing that this brilliant author says in this video is 100% true. Ukraine is a fascist country, and it has been one ever since it was independent in 1991, although most of the fascism was covered up and underground as opposed to being explicit.

One can argue that there are two fascisms. There is nonracist fascism and racist fascism. A good argument can be made that not all fascism is explicitly or overtly racist. For instance, Mussolini’s regime in Italy was not explicitly racist, although it was very much fascist. You might possibly be able to say the same thing about Franco in Spain and Salazar in Portugal.

On the other hand, there is another fascism that is explicitly racist in character and that is fascism that is similar to the Nazi type that prevailed in Germany under the National Socialist regime. Just for the sake of shorthand, let us call this National Socialism since that is what the Nazis called themselves.

There were similar National Socialist type regimes during WW2 in Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Norway, the Netherlands, Denmark, France, Poland, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania and notably in Croatia, Ukraine, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

The Nazism was particularly acute in Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Finland and Croatia, where National Socialism was quite popular among the masses. We could call this Popular Nazism or Nazi Populism.

In other countries such as France, Italy, Albania, Serbia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, Czechoslovakia and Poland, there were simply Nazi occupation regimes in place, possibly with local collaborationist administrations, however these occupation-collaborationist regimes were not very popular among the people and resistance was significant at the base or ground level.

Based on the definitions elaborated above, the present Ukraine government is racist-fascist or a Nazi/National Socialist regime. It would also be classed as Popular Nazism or Nazi Populism since this Nazi government is very popular with the masses.

It also appears based on figures cited in the video that 80% of Ukrainian nationalists are Nazis. We base this on a survey that found that 80% of Maidan activists regarded Bandera as a hero. So those Maidan demonstrators that all of you Westerners were cheering for were nothing but a bunch of Nazis. You guys feel good about yourselves now?

Maidan protestors were simply typical Ukrainian nationalists. Notice I said Ukrainian nationalists and not Ukrainians. It is not known how many Ukrainians could also be called Ukrainian nationalists, but the figure it doubtless quite high as Ukrainian nationalism is popular in Ukraine.

And with that background, we leave you with the video. You can see why the Russians in the east voted to split away and then took up arms to liberate themselves from the Nazi regime. How can you blame them?

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Filed under Ethnic Nationalism, Eurasia, Europe, European, Fascism, Government, History, National Socialism, Nationalism, Nazism, Political Science, Racism, Regional, Russia, Ukraine, War, World War 2

NATO Nazis Torture and Murder a Young Partisan Woman

These are Barack’s best friends, Obama’s Nazis. This young woman was tortured, her toe was chopped off, she was weighted down with a stone and thrown into a river. The Adair Battalion, a staunch ally of the United States, did this at their torture/murder center in Lugansk. This woman’s crime is unknown, but she may have been charged with supporting the anti-Nazi partisans in the area.

Notice the US MRE nearly. The US has sent millions of dollars of MRE’s to their Nazi allies in the Ukraine. As you can see, America loves its Nazi friends.

Is America a Nazi country? If so, it makes sense that we support Nazis. If not, why are we supporting Nazis in Europe?

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Filed under Europe, Regional, Ukraine, USA, War

Paul Goble is CIA

Here is his ridiculous, idiotic blog. It is called Window on Eurasia but really it is all about Russia. And Russia-hating. On Goble’s blog, every day in Russia, the sky is always falling. Collapse is always right around the corner. And Mr. Putin’s evil regime is doing its evil deeds for the day.

Mr. Goble is Agency. He’s been CIA forever. Right now, he’s an old man who walks with a cane, and I think he’s more CIA than he’s ever been. I wonder if he ever wasn’t CIA. I am starting to think that when he popped out of his Mom’s womb, he was already an asset, a wailing babe in toddling but an asset nonetheless.

Let us look at his CV:

Goble served as special adviser on Soviet nationality issues and Baltic affairs to Secretary of State James Baker. Under George Bush Sr.. The State Department and the Agency are the same thing. You think all those “diplomats” working out of consulates around the world are really diplomats? Come on. We see here that Goble is an old Cold Warrior.

Director of Research and Publications, Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy. Azerbaijan is the US’ base in Eurasia. It is a gigantic land based aircraft carrier for the United States and Israel.

University of Tartu (Estonia), former Professor. There are hardly any bigger Nazis and Russia-haters on Earth than the Balts. So of course CIA Paul took a teaching position at Nazi U.

Voice of America, Senior Advisor to the Director. VOA is CIA. Has been from Day One. It is also pure propaganda. The sad fact when the USSR was around, it was always a contest to see who was lying more, the VOA or the Soviet press. It was often a close contest. Personally, I think Pravda was a lot more honest than VOA, but that’s just me. VOA, a project of the Cold War, was never shut down, and it still broadcasts hate propaganda against the Russian people to this very day. The is no reason for its existence anymore, but Frankensteins are hard to kill after you make one.

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Assistant Director for Broadcasting and Director of Communications. RFE/RL is another CIA operation. The Agency set it up and has been running it from Day One. There is no reason for this stupid Cold War dinosaur to exist anymore, but there it is, stomping along just like Jurassic Park. RFE/RL is an extremely dishonest media organ. It exists for the sole purpose of disinformation, lying and propaganda. The Russian media is far more honest and less propagandistic, and that is sorry right there. The Russian media has a reputation, earned or not, as being extremely dishonest and propagandistic. Any media outlet with a more dishonest rep than the Russian media is truly pitiful.

 

Special Advisor on Soviet Nationality Problems, U.S. Department of State. In other words a CIA (excuse me, State Department, no wait, they are the same thing) project to stir up trouble in all of the USSR’s ethnic minorities in order to cause chaos, dysfunction, violence and hopefully the breakup of the state. Stirring up shit for no good reason. By the way, the USSR treated its minorities way better than we do.

Deputy Director, Research Department, Radio Liberty. Radio Liberty is another stupid Cold War relic that lost its reason to exist, oh, about 20 years ago. It stumbles on to this very day, spewing hate and incitement at the Russian people. Just like its brethren, this explicitly propagandistic radio station was birthed by the Agency.

Analyst on Soviet Nationalities, Department of State’s Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Central Intelligence Agency. Ah yes! Here we get to the red meat. Mr. Goble is a CIA agent! Is, was, always will be. Because the thing is, you see, is that there is no such thing as ex-CIA. Once you are CIA, you are always CIA. That’s how it works. Sort of like the Hotel California, where you can check out anytime you like, but you can never leave?

 

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Filed under Azerbaijan, Cold War, Eurasia, Europe, Geopolitics, Government, History, Israel, Journalism, Near East, Politics, Regional, Republicans, Russia, US Politics, USA, USSR

Barack Obama – Liar in Chief

Here.

This man has been getting worse and worse the past few years. It seems like every time he opens up his mouth about foreign policy, it’s an endless spew of lies from the first sentence to the last. Most US Presidents are horrific liars (it is actually a mandatory qualification for the job) but I cannot remember another president who has lied so unashamedly and bald-faced as this monster of a President. I am kicking myself for voting for him. I thought Bush was bad. I knew the Bushies are outrageous liars. Remember the WMD bullshit? Remember the Saddam – bin Laden bullshit? Well here is Barack, doing his best to channel George Bush.

This speech at the UN was one of the most disgusting, repellant, sad, frightening and downright Orwellian speeches I have ever heard.

War is peace.

Truth is lies.

Aggressors are victims.

It’s looking like Groundhog Day. Every year from now on, time will freeze.

No matter what year it is, it will always be 1984.

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Filed under Democrats, Eurasia, Europe, Government, Obama, Politics, Regional, Russia, Ukraine, US Politics, War

Is Peace in the Ukraine Possible?

Great article from the Saker. Everything in this article is 100% fact. As you see, this entire article is completely contradicted by everything you read about the Ukraine in the Western media. That is because almost everything you read about the Ukraine in the Western media is a lie or at least horrifically biased. At best, you simply are not getting the real and whole picture of what is going on there, and at worst, you are being fed nothing but lies.

This article lays out the truth. The only way to develop the Ukrainian economy is via an alliance with Russia and the Russian bloc. Going with the EU will not work and will only destroy and economically colonize Ukraine. The plan to join the EU called for selling off 100% of Ukraine’s industry to Western thieves and carpetbaggers. How is selling off all your industry going to develop your country. Alliance with the EU means the end of Ukrainian agriculture also. Ukrainian agriculture cannot even compete with Turkish agriculture. How is that going to fly?

The article is also correct in that there are two different types of Ukie nationalists. There are Galician nationalists in the West – the real, true blue hardcore Nazis, and the Kievan nationalists in Kiev, for whom Ukie nationalism is more of a phrase and a cynical way to get votes. The Kiev nationalists care about money and money only.

The problem is that there is no way out. The Kievan nationalists will not stop the calls to genocide and support for raw Nazism (Ukrainian National Socialism) coming out of Galicia. No peaceful Ukraine is possible until that sort of incitement slows down. Mobs of tens of thousands of frenzied Nazis waving Ukie flag and screaming, “Knives for the Russians!” are what set this whole armed conflict off in the first place.

As long as the Nazism continues, the conflict will never end and there will be no peace. At any rate, 80-90% of residents of Novorussia are dead set on an independent country. And after all of the killing, they will never live in an independent Ukraine ever again. The nation of the Ukraine as an ideal with 1991 borders is dead and gone forever, never to be revived.

The future prospects for the economy are for collapse. As that happens, more regions will start to break away, as the author suggests. Already the real hardcore Nazis (Galicians) are talking about overthrowing the government.

Really the only way out is regime change in Kiev. But that will not happen peacefully. As the author suggests, a deal could be made. The Novorussians could cut a deal with the Galicians for Galician independence. The Novorussians would go free and the Galicians would go free. It would be a tough pill to swallow, but the Galicians may buy it. But that would require the rebels to conquer Kiev. That will be hard to do because as the rebels go further West, they will run into more resistance the further West they go. So far they have been seen as liberators, but as they go west, they will be seen more and more as occupiers, and guerrilla war will start up.

The Novorussians and even Russia could live with an independent Galicia. Let them go free and Seig Heil until they drop. Let them have their statues to all their Nazi heroes. Let them join the EU and the West. The EU and West love Nazis anyway, so the Galicians will be right at home.

With a free Galicia and Novorussia, a rump Kievan Ukraine could have the possibility to develop as an independent country…perhaps.

Transcarpathia is already gone. They declared their independence months ago. There is no way that those Hungarians and Rusyns are living in a Nazi country with those Ukies. Forget it.

The future for the Ukraine does not look good. From here it looks like more war. Actually it is fine with me as I think that is just what Ukraine needs. All of Novorussia is not even liberated. Maybe half of it is. There is no way that the other half of Novorussia will live under those Nazis. There is a large armed guerrilla movement in Kharkiv who have stated that they are not a party to any ceasefire. There are also armed guerrillas in Zaporozhye. They have also stated that they want no part of the ceasefire. 90% of the residents of Mariupol want independence from this Nazi Ukraine. This model is not going to work.

Is Peace in the Ukraine Possible?

by M.Khazin

translation by “G’ of М.Хазин, Может ли быть мир на Украине?

 

The devaluation of the Ruble and the Yevtushenkov affair have so saturated our mass media that it would seem desirable to stand aside and address a more substantial theme. Namely; under what conditions can the Ukraine know peace? Not just any ‘peace’ but a peace without wholesale disintegration of the country into petty fiefdoms, without a bloodstained dictatorship, without ethnic cleansing and without genocide. In order to answer this question, it is necessary, above all, to look at Kiev and Donetsk.

They should be part of one state. However the 10s of thousands killed and the open exhortations to genocide which have been issued by the dominant political forces in Kiev (for example: the phrase ‘Russians, clear off back to Moscovy’, which is directed at people who are not only currently inhabiting Lugansk and Donetsk but who have lived there for centuries, could be considered, formally from the point of view of international legal norms to fit the definition of genocide and, without doubt, that of ethnic cleansing) render such ‘cohabitation’ within the framework of a usual state simply impossible.

The people of Donetsk and Lugansk (we include the Odessa massacre, even though it differs, in part from the others ) will never relinquish their right to justice against those who are guilty of the massacre of civilians and, similarly, the Kievan nationalists are unlikely to stop uttering phrases of the sort: ‘ We’ve barbecued that [Colorado Beetle] bitch.’ or other such endearments.

In theory the only way that Kiev can go back to normal would be in the context of sustained economic growth. In that case it might be possible to brush the nationalist slogans back under the carpet and for everyone to benefit from the resultant financial in-flows, but here Kiev has fallen into a trap of its own making.

It is a simple fact that economic growth is only possible in collaboration with Russia and the Eurasian Economic Union. There is simply no other option. There is not even any real perspective for the development of agriculture; one would just need look at the example of Bulgaria, where the climate is noticeably more clement than that in Ukraine. Ukraine finds it impossible to compete with Turkey. Once the European Union association agreement comes into force there will be no means of regulating the influx of Turkish agribusiness and the only profitable way to engage in agriculture will be in a vegetable garden. It is sufficient to look at the example set in that neighboring former Soviet state, Moldova.

Insofar as Kiev has adopted a radically anti-Russian model, the chances of growth in that country are precisely zero. The European Union has no money and judging by the way that the crisis is developing the prognosis is not positive, and even if we were to look, more optimistically, into the medium term at the global economic situation, the European Union is most likely to help out the Eastern European Countries and the Baltic States before it bails out Ukraine. Nothing personal, just business.

And this means that Kievan Nationalism is going nowhere. It has no choice as it will be impossible for it to maintain its grip on power otherwise. Moreover it has achieved some success insofar as the United States has enacted sanctions against Russia and coerced its allies in Europe and the wider world to do likewise.

There is only one problem: For how long will they be willing to prosecute these sanctions for the sake of Ukraine? Kiev’s issues will continue to mount, insofar as the only way that it can deal with the growth of democratic sentiment in the South East (it is clear that the struggle is for freedom and democracy, regardless of how discordant that sounds from the point of view of the contemporary Western mass media) is by the use of military force. It is far from certain that this particular problem can be resolved by military force.

In summary we can say that, judging by the development of negative economic trends, the intensity of internal confrontation in Kiev will constantly grow. In turn those wishing to live under their guardianship will become fewer and fewer. The cohesion of the Ukrainian state will melt like snow in the heat of the summer sun. As that happens the state will become more and more aggressive So we expect to see a contradiction in answer to the question that we posed. Is it possible to establish peace in the Ukraine?

I intentionally have not referred in general to Ukrainian nationalists, rather specifically to Kievan Nationalists. The fact is that Galician Nationalists and Kievan Nationalists are not the same. The latter always had significant sources of income (be it the budget of the USSR, Ukraine etc.), however the former have been forced to be much more pragmatic. Furthermore they have been unable to understand that they cannot hold Kiev. This is because any government in Kiev, in correspondence to their stability, will in the first instance, fall not upon the Russians in the Donbass, but rather upon the genuine committed nationalists. Today this is what Poroshenko is doing. This was clear earlier and I wrote about this earlier in the year.

Rather than being an idea (which moreover is distinctly unappealing to the EU), Nationalism for Kiev is an instrument. There is no requirement for committed nationalists. The requirement is for cynics, who are happy to articulate nationalists’ slogans in order to gain control over the budgetary and gas revenue flows. Thus, regarding the situation in recent months, committed nationalists(which for our purposes we shall name ‘Right Sector’) have come to look more and more seriously at breaking away from Kiev. Moreover, Kiev earlier distributed budgetary money to them (received from Donbass and other regions) and now there is no more budgetary money to distribute.

However Galicia by itself cannot breakaway from Kiev. Kiev, for whom the slogan (‘for the unity of the Ukraine’) has become totemic, will never agree to it. This means that, as well as the rebels in the Donbass, there is also appearing a new force, which is also interested in the collapse of the country. In this way, from the above, we can formulate the picture below of the future Ukraine.

Should the Rebels from the South-East reach an agreement with the Galician nationalists, then they will take power in Kiev. In that case, the insurgents, proponents of the former Soviet Union and the slogan ‘friendship of the Peoples’ will, through the creation of a multi-ethnic ethnic state, put an end to nationalism and re-establish peace in the Ukraine.

Galicia, as it were, in gratitude for its assistance, would receive either independence, probably as part of a confederation or quite possibly full independence as a separate state. It is clearly difficult to imagine a state where in some schools they teach that Bandera is a fascist criminal and in others – that he is a hero. But that remaining part of the Ukraine will be a peaceful, unified state, entering, one would imagine the European Economic Area.

Should agreement not be reached and the insurgents not achieve victory (either by circumstance or by result of foreign intervention), then the intensifying confrontation in Kiev will inescapably lead to the break-up of the country into petty fiefdoms with a correspondingly low quality of life and norms of governance. At present we enumerate five of these; Novorossiya, Hetmanshina (Cossak, with Kiev as its capital), New Khazaria (under the control of the oligarch Kolomoiski) and Galicia. We also consider one more statelet, Transcarpathia which is likely to be dissected and integrated into neighboring countries.

But nobody has said that the process of disintegration will stop there. Anyone who doubts it should read Bulgakov. The mentality of the people in the Ukraine has not significantly changed since then. It is difficult to even conceive how a normal man can live in these conditions.

If we believe that the best outcome is a united (that is relatively united, without either the Crimea or Galicia) Ukraine, a Ukraine which is peaceful and prosperous, it is essential that the insurgents take control of Kiev. Until this happens, the war will continue. Unfortunately, there is simply no way of stopping the war and preserving Ukraine until Kiev falls to the insurgents.

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Filed under Agricutlure, Economics, Ethnic Nationalism, Eurasia, Europe, Fascism, Journalism, National Socialism, Nationalism, Nazism, Political Science, Regional, Russia, Ukraine, Ultranationalism, War

A Reclassification of Many Common European Languages

Many common European languages are better seen as more than one language. I have been studying this issue for years, and this is some of my preliminary data. It is not yet in a publishable form, but it will give you some idea of the concepts that I am working with.

 

Kashubian

Really two separate languages as opposed to one.

North and South Kashubian are separate languages. Speakers in the north can’t understand those in the south.

 

Cimbrian

Really three separate languages as opposed to one.

Lusernese Cimbrian, Sette Comuni Cimbrian, Tredici Communi Cimbrian (Tauch). Based on structural and intelligibility differences, the three dialects could be considered separate languages.

 

West Frisian

Really three separate languages as opposed to one.

Schiermonnikoogs (Skiermuontseagersk) is an archaic West Frisian dialect, poorly understood by the rest of West Frisian, that is spoken on the island of Schiermonnikoog. It is actually spoken more in the north of Groningen than in Friesland.

It is in serious decline since WW2 due mostly to immigration from the mainland. The newcomers arrive speaking a West Frisian dialect from Groningen, Vastewal. There are only about 100 speakers left. However, many others speak a “weak” Schiermonnikoogs. Courses in Schiermonnikoogs have been popular since the 1960’s, and there have been a number of publications in the language.

Hindeloopers is an archaic West Frisian dialect, really a separate language, that is spoken on the SW coast of Friesland in the town of Hindeloopen. It has very conservative phonetics and vocabulary, much of it from Old Frisian. Hindeloopers is slowly becoming more like Standard Frisian due to increased exposure of its speakers to Standard Frisian and immigrants moving to the area. It is hard for other Frisian speakers to understand.

 

North Frisian

Really five separate languages as opposed to one.

North Frisian is four different languages as far as % cognates is concerned. Mainland (including Halligen Frisian), Öömrang-Fering, Sölring and Halunder/Heligolandic. Also, Hallig is not very intelligible with other mainland varieties like Mooring.

 

Manx Gaelic

Really a living language as opposed to an extinct one.

There are now 2,000 people who claim to speak Manx. Some are raising their children in Manx.

 

Breton

Really probably five or six separate languages instead of one.

Vannetais is a separate language. It is not intelligible with Leonard, another main dialect. Spoken in Brittany – the entire area of the department of Morbihan (with the exception of Belle Isle and regions around the Faouët and Gourin): Valves, Pontivy, Lorient, Plouay, Guémené-sur-Scorff, Baud, Auray, Quiberon, Sarzeau and the commune of Finistère Arzano.

Further, West Vannetais cannot understand East Vannetais.

Leonard is a separate language, not intelligible with Vannetais. Spoken in Leon (Leon or Bro Leon), the northern third of the department of Finistère (Brest, Morlaix, Plouguerneau, Landerneau, Saint-Pol-de-Léon, Landivisiau, Ouessant).

Leonard is about as far from Vannetais as it is from Cornouaillais. Intelligibility between Vannetais and Cornouaillais is not known.

Cornouaillais may be a separate language due to its distance from Leonard.

Groisillon, spoken in the Groix, is reportedly hard to understand for speakers of other dialects. It may be extinct, but more likely there are a few speakers left. Breton reportedly has 77 different dialects.

The new Neo-Breton taught in the schools often can’t be understood by traditional speakers because it is full of borrowings from Cornish and Welsh.

 

Asturian

There are two languages – Eastern Asturian and Central/Western Asturian instead of one.

 

Leonese

There are two languages – Eastern Leonese/Extremaduran and Central/West Leonese instead of one. Extremaduran is intelligible with Eastern Asturian.

 

Aragonese

Navarese is not really spoken anymore or it is just a Spanish dialect. Benasquesque/Ribacorgano is a separate language in between Aragonese and Catalan. Far northern and far southern Aragonese cannot understand each other.

 

Gascon

Apparently more than one language. Aranese is apparently a separate language.

 

Languedocien

Apparently more than one language.

 

Auvergnat

Apparently more than one language.

 

Limousin

Apparently more than one language.

 

Provencal

Apparently more than one language.

 

Walloon

Walloon is four separate languages instead of one.

East Walloon – Barvaux, Huy, Liège, Hesbaye Liégois, East Liégeois, Verviers, Malmédy. South Walloon – Marche-en-Fanenne, Bastogne, Neufchâteau, Saint-Hubert, Bouillon. Central Walloon – Basse-Sambre, Nivelles, Rochefort, Dinant, Namur, Charleroi, Beaumont, Chimay, Philippeville, La Louvière. West Walloon – East Brabançon, Jodoigne, Wavre, Hesbaye Namur, Gembloux, Sombreffe, Eghezée.

 

Francoprovençal

This is more than one language. It may well be up to an incredible 24 different languages or even more.

Dauphinois, Jurassien, Lyonnais, Savoyard, Vaudois, Valdotan and Piedmont and are the major dialects, and all are probably separate languages.

Franche-Comte, spoken in Neuchâtel, Vaud North, Pontassilien, Ain, Valserine is a separate language.

Faetar is a separate language from Arpitan. It split off in 1400 and has undergone heavy influence from Standard Italian and Apulian. It has 1,400 speakers in two towns, Celle and Faeto in Apulia in southern Italy. Language use is still vigorous even though most people in the towns are unemployed or retired. A few work in the fields.

Bressan has some internal diversity. The youngest speakers are about 60 years old now, but there are still dialect associations that promote it strongly. Bressan was the main mode of communication here until the 1970’s. Bressan itself is probably a separate language.

Forézien is now almost extinct. Forezien is apparently a separate language.

Geneva, Fribourgeois, Neuchatel, Valaisan and Vaudois are the dialects of Switzerland, and all of those are probably separate languages too.

Valais has some of the strongest dialectal differentiation in the entire Arpitan region. Valais is divided into two large languagesWest Valais spoken around Lake Geneva and East Valais spoken around Sion. Intelligibility is poor between the two poles.

In Valloire, Valmeinier and Valle Arvan at the far southern end of Savoyard, between St. Jean de Maurienne and Modane, a Savoyard dialect – Southern Savoyard – is spoken that is not intelligible with the rest of Savoyard. It is also different in Valloire, Valmeinier and Valle Arvan, but intelligibility among those three varieties is not known. Probably heavy influence of Occitan in this region. Possibly three separate languages here.

In Valloire, all persons over 60 use Arpitan as a daily language. St. Michel-Modana Savoyard is a separate language.

Valloire is a separate language. It is not intelligible with the dialect spoken in Albanne near St. Jean de Maurienne. Valmeinier, Valle Arvan and St. Michael de Maurienne also appear to be separate languages. The speech of Albertville and Chambery could be called South Savoyard. Dauphinois is still widely spoken in the villages around Villard de Lans south of Grenoble.

In the Savoyard area from Mt. Blanc to Geneva to Montreaux to Evian to Abondance, there is good intelligibility among dialects. This could be called North Savoyard. As one moves to the south, it gets harder to understand. North Savoyard and South Savoyard seem to be two different languages. In the Val d’Illiez area between Montreaux and Martigny, some Arpitan dialects are spoken that are very different from everything else.

 

Romansch

There are actually five or more separate languages instead of one. Each dialect is a separate language.

Upper Engadine: Puter, Lower Engadine: Vallader, Upper Rhine: Surselva, Lower Rhine: Sutselva, in between: Surmeiran. Romansh is actually 5 different languages, at least. Intelligibility is probably on the order of 80% or so, though testing might be nice.

Val Bregaglia/Valtellina Romansch (Bergajot) is an old Romansch dialect formerly widely spoken in the Val Bregaglia and Valtellina region of Italy. It is now only spoken by the elderly and a few younger people. It is mostly a mixture of Puter Romansch and Ladin with an overlay of Western Alpine Lombard Italian. It was the lingua franca in the region 100 years ago, but has since been replaced by Western Alpine Lombard Italian. Not intelligible with the rest of Romansch or with Italian. Some intelligibility of Ladin, some of Romansch, less of Ticinese Italian.

Bergajot is spoken in the Bregaglia Valley near Chiavenna and upwards towards Switzerland. It is more Italian than Puter Romansch, but Puter Romansch and Bergajot speakers can understand each other. This was probably the natural extension of Romansch to the south, but the language was never written down, and Italian was adopted as the written language, so what developed was a cross between Romansch and Italian.

Unknown whether Bergajot is a separate language or part of Puter Romansch.

 

Ladin

Ladin is a number of separate languages instead of one. Possibly 12 or more different languages.

Western Ladin includes Fassan, Gardenese, Novi, Nones and Solandro.

Fascian Ladin or Fassan Ladin: Spoken in Val di Fassa and variants in Moena and Canazei in the Fassatal Valley of the Dolomites. There are 8,620 residents, of whom 60-75% speak Lain as a mother tongue. There are two main varieties, Canazei Fascian in the upper valley and Moena in the lower valley. Heavy Italian influence. Fassan is Dolomitic Ladin. Spoken in Trentino Province.

Brach Fascian: Spoken in the center of the valley in Soraga, Pozza di Fassa and Vigo di Fassa. Intelligibility with Moena or Canazei is unknown, but may be nearly intelligible. Possibly not intelligible with Fiemmese Ladin.

Moena Fascian: Spoken in the lower part of the Val di Fassa. Canazei Fascian has problems understanding Moena Fascian. Spoken in Moena, Mazzin, Vigo de Fassa, Pozza and Soraga. Intelligibility with Fiemmese or Brach is unknown but may be nearly intelligible.

Gherdëina Ladin: spoken in Val Gardena or Gröden Valley, South Tyrol, by 8,148 inhabitants, 80-90% of the population. This dialect is close to German. Spoken in Bolzano, extremely protected. Gherdëina is described as “completely different” from Fascian, Anpezan and Cadore. Val Badia can understand Gherdëina but Fassa cannot. Part of South Tyrolean Ladin. Intelligibility between Gherdëina and Novi Ladin is unknown but probably good.

Nones/Solandro Ladin: spoken in Val di Non (as Nones) and with variations in different parts of the valley and the adjacent lower Val di Sole (as Solandro) in Trento Province just north of Trento and just west of Bolzano.

Nones has a lot of German words in it. Two different forms – Nones and Solandro or Solander. Solandro is spoken in Val di Sole, Val di Peio and Val di Rabbi (as Rabies). The last linguistic census of 2001 found that more than 7,000 residents in Val di Non and Val di Sole spoke Ladin. It is uncertain whether Nones/Solandro is a language of its own. Some say it is part of the Trentino language. Nones/Solandro is basically a Ladin dialect transitional to Trentino East Lombard. Often referred to as Anaunico Ladin. Val Badia and Fassa cannot understand Nones.

Intelligibility between Nones and Solandro is uncertain, but they are considered to be part of one language. There are two main dialects of Solandro, one in the lower valley and one in the upper valley. The lower valley has heavy Nones influence, and the upper valley is more conservative and has Celtic influences.

Lower Valley Solandro in the lower valley is spoken by 4,000 people in the towns of Caldes, Terzolas and Male and has heavy Nones influence.

La Montàgna Solandro is very conservative and very different. It is spoken in Termenago and Castello in Pellizzano and in Ortisé and Menàs in Mezzana. It is very conservative and has almost nothing to do with the valley dialects such as Pellizzano and Ossana.

Pellizzano-Ossana Solandro is spoken in the towns of those names and the two are very similar. This dialect resembles Eastern Lombard. Many miners came from Lecce and Como in the 14th Century to work in mines here, and this accounts for the Lombard influences on the lect. It is spoken by 500 people in Pellizzano and 800 in Ossana. May be intelligible with Vermiglio Solandro.

Rabies Solandro spoken in the Val di Rabbi is one of the most conservative forms of Ladin in existence.

Nones has 30,000 speakers, but there is some debate over whether it it Ladin or not. Solandro is also under question about whether or not it is Ladin. It has 15,000 speakers.

Central Ladin: (transitional to Alpine Venetian).

Val Badia-Marebbe Ladin (Maréo/Badiot Enneberg/Abtei): Gadertal and Val Marebbe (formerly in Val Luson and lower Val Badia), South Tyrol, by 9,229 inhabitants, 95% as their mother tongue. Mareo/Enneberg/Marebbe are three names for the Mareo version which is spoken in the lower valley. Badiot is spoken in the upper valley.

The language varies from town to town. Less Germanized than Gherdëina, probably the closest to a pure Ladin. Spoken in Bolzano, extremely protected. Maréo/Badiot is said to be “completely different” from Fascian, Anpezan and Cadore. Part of South Tyrolean Ladin. Intelligible with Gherdëina. Not intelligible with Fodom.

Fodom, Alta Val Cordevole, Buchenstein or Livinallese Ladin: spoken in the municipalities of Livinallongo Col di Lana, Colle Saint Lucia and Arabba in the villages of Cherz, Alfauro and Varda in Belluno by about 80 to 90% of the population as their mother tongue. Fodom has two very different dialects, one in the main valley, Livinallongo Col di Lana Ladin, resembling Val Badia and the other, Colle Saint Lucia Ladin, looking more Italian. Heavy Venetian and Italian influence. Considered part of Dolomitic Ladin. Not intelligible with Val Badia. Similar to Agordo Ladin Venetian.

Intelligibility with Anpezan is not known. Intelligibility with Rocchesano Ladin is unknown but may be good.

Eastern Ladin (transitional to Alpine Venetian-Friulian)
Near Belluno in Belluno Province.

In practice, Eastern Ladin except Anpezan is regarded as a separate language from Dolomitic Ladin.

Eastern Ladin – differences.

Anpezan, Ampezzo or Ampezzano Ladin: Cortina d’Ampezzo, Belluno. Similar to Cadore Ladin. Spoken in the Ampezzo Valley of the Dolomites. Heavy Venetian influence, but has many archaic qualities since it was under Austrian rule for 400 years – longer than the surrounding areas. Halfway between Ladin and Venetian. Anpezan is said to be “completely different” from Fascian, Maréo/Badiot, Gherdëina and Cadore.

Considered part of Dolomitic Ladin. Intelligibility with Fodom is not known, but Anpezan is not intelligible with Val Badia. Anpezan can understand Central Cadore, especially Oltrechiusano Ladin. Oltrechiusano and Anpezan form a sort of a grouping.

Central Cadore Ladin (Cadorino): Spoken in Valle di Cadore, Pieve di Cadore, Perarolo di Cadore, Calalzo di Cadore and Domegge di Cadore, except Comelico and Sappada, with Venetian influences. It is spoken in the Cadore all the way down to Perarolo di Cadore. Below Perarolo, it turns into Venetian. It is not uniform and differs greatly across the area. Pozzale Ladin is very archaic, with Oltrechiusano traits. Calalzo Ladin and Domegge Ladin are also archaic.

Pieve di Cadore Ladin, Tai di Cadore Ladin, Sottocastello Ladin, Valle di Cadore Ladin, Calalzo di Cadore Ladin, Domegge di Cadore Ladin, Ospitale di Cadore Ladin and Perarolo di Cadore Ladin have few speakers left. In these places, a variety of Cadore Venetian is now spoken. Sometimes included in Ladin and sometimes not.

Eastern Cadore Ladin (Cadorino): Spoken in Lozzo di Cadore, Vigo di Cadore, Lorenzago di Cadore and Auronzo di Cadore. More conservative than Central Cadore. The Laggio Ladin of Vigo and Auronzo is very archaic, similar to Comelico. This is apparently a separate language from Central Cadore.

Aurunzo di Cadore speaks Aurunzo Ladin, an Eastern Cadore dialect. Also spoken in Rizzio. The dialect of Aurunzo is very archaic, similar to Comelico. Aurunzo is very similar to Oltrepiavano, but it is very different from Comelicese. Oltrepiavano/Aurunzo di Cadore may be a single language.

Comelico, Comelicese or Comeliano Ladin: widespread in Comelico, Belluno. It is the most conservative of the Eastern Cadore dialects, even more conservative than Anpezan. Similar to Cadore but could also be confused with Friulian. The Comelico dialect could be divided into two sections: 1) Eastern Comelico: towns of Costalissoio, Campolongo, San Pietro di Cadore, Mare, Presenzio and Cosalta di Cadore; 2) Western Comelico: towns of Candide, Casamazzagno, Dosoledo, San Nicolò, Cosat, Parola, Danta, Santo Stefano, Campitello and Casta.

 

Friulian

Friulian may be up to five separate languages instead of one.

The tiny towns of Erto e Casso (dialects Ertano and Cassanese), Claut and Cimolais in Friuli Venezeia Giulia speak a Rhaeto-Romansch dialect that is transitional between Friulian and Ladin. Later it came under Venetian influence. Ladin was formerly spoken in a nearby area, which explains the Ladin influence.

The people say they speak Friulian, but the towns voted not to be included in the Friulian speaking region. The variety is not intelligible with the rest of Friulian. It is probably not intelligible with Ladin either. The name is Vajontino. The nearby village of Casso speaks some sort of Venetian, possibly Ladino Venetian. It is not really known what this lect is, whether it it is Friulian or Ladin at its base. It is probably a Friulian lect that came under serious Cadore Ladin influence.

In the town of Forni di Sotto on the border between the Comelico Ladin and the Friulian region, a dialect called Fornese is spoken that is often considered to be a part of Ladin. However, it is a cross between Carnico or Carnian Friulian and Cadore Ladin, especially Comelicano. It is said to be so different from the rest of Carnico that it is not even a part of that language. At the same time, it does not seem to be Ladin either.

Probably similar to Vajontino, but intelligibility between this lect and Vajontino is not known. Probably not intelligible with Cadore Ladin. This is basically a Friulian dialect that has undergone profound Cadore Ladin influence.

The Central Friulian of Gemona di Friuli in the north of the province has difficult intelligibility with Northern Friulian dialects spoken in Moggia Ugidense only 10-15 miles away.

In addition, Low Friulian has a hard time understanding Carnian Friulian in the far north.

 

Karaim

Karaim is two separate languages instead of one, Halich Karaim and Trakai Karaim.

 

Crimean Tatar

Crimean Tatar is two separate languages instead of one, Crimean Tatar and Turkish Crimean Tatar.

 

Gaguaz

Maritime Gaguaz and Balkan Gaguaz are two separate languages instead of one – see Ethnologue.

 

Basque

Basque is actually four separate languages instead of one- Standard Basque, Souletin, Vizcayan, and Gipuzcoan.

There is a unified Basque that everyone speaks so that they can understand each other.

However, there are cases where Guipuzcoan cannot understand Viscayan.

Souletin and Biscayan (France) do not understand each other.

Zuberoan or Souletin is spoken in France. It is not intelligible with the other Basque dialects. Souletin has influence from Béarnese, a dialect of Gascon (Occitan).

 

Yiddish

Yiddish is two separate languages instead of one, Western Yiddish and Eastern Yiddish.

 

Ladino

I am not sure Ladino is a separate language as it appears to be intelligible with Spanish.

 

Channel Islands French

This is actually four languages instead of one, Jerriais, Serquiais, North Guernesiais and South Guernesiais.

Jèrriais or Jersey French is a French language spoken on Jersey Island. Jèrriais has some intelligibility of Guernésiais. There are 2,874 speakers left. 15% of the population understands the language. The language is being revived. It is recognized as a regional language by the British government. Monolingual children were showing up at school as late as 30 years ago. There is a heavy English and some Breton influence.

Serquiais is a separate language spoken on Sark, descended from the Jèrriais of the colonists of the 1500’s. The remaining speakers are mostly elderly. It has suffered in recent years due to the influx of tax exiles. It is not inherently intelligible to Jèrriais or Guernésiais, nor with the Norman spoken on coast. There are only 20 speakers left. Serquiais is the most different of all compared to Standard French.

Guernésiais is spoken in Guernsey. It is recognized by the British government as a regional language. Guernésiais and Jèrriais have some intelligibility. There are 1,327 speakers. Speakers are mostly over age 64. 14% of the population have some understanding of the language. No intelligibility of Serquiais.

There are two Guernésiais languages, North Guernésiais, spoken in the lower parishes, and South Guernésiais, spoken in the upper parishes. There is poor intelligibility between them. Only one variety is being revived. Most Guernsey residents use some Guernésiais words in everyday speech without even knowing it. Speakers were evacuated to the mainland during WW2, and they quit speaking the language.

 

Arbëreshë Albanian

Arbëreshë Albanian is actually five separate languages instead of one, Sicilian Albanian, Calabrian Albanian, Central Mountain Albanian, Campo Marino Albanian and Molise Albanian.

Arbëreshë Albanian spoken in Italy is actually five separate languages, Sicilian Albanian, Calabrian Albanian, Central Mountain Albanian, Campo Marino Albanian and Molise Albanian. From a migration in the 1400’s-1500’s. Not intelligible with Standard Albanian. 80,000 speakers. Taught in some schools.

 

Arvanitika Albanian

Arvanitika Albanian is actually three separate languages instead of one.

Arvanitika Albanian is spoken in Greece. Thracean Arvanitika, Northwestern Arvanitika, South Central Arvanitika, dialects of Arvanitika, are actually separate languages. 50,000 speakers.

 

Greek

Greek is made up of at least seven different languages instead of one – Standard Greek, Cappodachian Greek, Cypriot Greek, Cretan Greek, Pontic Greek, Olympos Greek and Mariupolitan Greek.

Cappadocian Greek is not extinct at all as was previously thought. Thought extinct in the 1960’s, it was rediscovered in 2005.

Cypriot Greek and Cretan have marginal intelligibility with Standard Greek. Cretan has ~80% intelligibility and Cypriot ~60% with Standard Greek. Mariupolitan Greek is probably a dialect of Pontic Greek. See The Story of Pu: The Grammaticalization in Space and Time of a Modern Greek Complementizer by Nick Nicholas.

The dialect of Olympos, a village on the Greek island of Karpathos, is not even intelligible to other residents of the island.

Mariupolitan Greek is spoken in Mariupol in the Ukraine. This is a group of Greeks who moved into the area 200 years ago. Their Greek lect is still spoken to this day. It has a great deal of Turkic in it from Crimean Tatar so it is hard for Greeks to understand.

 

Turkmen

Turkmen and Trukhmen are two separate languages.

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