Repost from the old blog. Interesting stuff.
Development of agriculture in modern Blacks also seems to have led to high testosterone levels. Groups with the highest testosterone in the world today are primitive agriculturalists.
Hunter-gatherers tend to have lower testosterone. This is because in hunter-gatherer society, women need men to survive. So they grab one pretty quickly and get married.
In primitive agricultural societies, women do not need men, since they can farm on their own. So they can afford to be choosy. These societies have tended to develop in a polygynous way, where a few high-ranking males monopolize most of the females, and the rest of the guys get none. It’s kind of like high school, except it keeps going for your whole life.
Sub-Saharan Blacks are highly polygynous, and this resulted in intense competition for fewer women and selection for very robust male body types. SS Blacks are more robust than Whites on all variables. In Namibia, the polygynous Kavango have much higher testosterone than the much less polygynous !Kung.
Young Black males have higher levels of active testosterone than European and Asian males. Asian levels are intermediate to Blacks and Whites, but Asians have lower levels of a chemical needed to convert testosterone to its active agent, so effectively they have lower levels. Androgen receptor sensitivity is highest in Black men, intermediate in Whites and lowest in Asians.
US Blacks have the highest rate of prostate cancer on Earth, and the levels in African Blacks may be just as high.
Blacks do not retain high testosterone throughout life.
Blacks have much higher testosterone levels than Whites from age 7-24 (Abdelrahaman et al., 2005; Ross et al., 1986; Winters et al., 2001). After 24, the difference starts shrinking, and by the early 30’s, it is gone (Gapstur et al., 2002). In later years, White men have higher testosterone than Black men (Nyborg, 1994, p. 111-113). This makes it very difficult if not impossible to explain differing behavioral variables, including higher rates of crime and aggression, in Black males over the age of 33 on the basis of elevated testosterone levels.
Higher testosterone levels are linked to violent behavior.
There is also evidence that high testosterone is linked to lower IQ. Black females have higher IQ’s than Black males. Black female IQ is 2.4 points higher than Black male IQ. There are twice as many Black females as males with IQ’s over 120 and five times as many females as males with IQ’s over 140.
Studies suggest that high testosterone lowers IQ (Ostatnikova et al 2007). Studies suggest that increased androgen receptor sensitivity and higher sperm counts (markers for increased testosterone) are negatively correlated with intelligence when measured by speed of neuronal transmission and hence general intelligence (g) in a tradeoff fashion (Manning 2006).
Black boys’ exposure to high testosterone begins in the womb. Black mothers’ wombs have higher testosterone, and this feeds to the fetus.
Assuming that higher Black testosterone levels are a causative agent in Black crime, aggression and lowered IQ, experimental interventions could be tried: two pills – first one pill to lower testosterone to Black fetus’s brains by 20%, and possibly another pill to lower Black infant testosterone by 20% – could be beneficial. Such an intervention could possibly raise Black male IQ and decrease Black male crime.
Of course, in our insane PC anti-racist society, such interventions are banned now and forevermore as “racist.”
Abdelrahaman, E., Raghavan, S., Baker, L., Weinrich, M., and Winters, S.J. (2005). Racial Difference in Circulating Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin Levels in Prepubertal Boys. Metabolism, 54, 91-96.
Gapstur, S.M., Gann, P.H., Kopp, P., Colangelo, L., Longcope, C., and Liu, K. (2002). Serum Androgen Concentrations in Young Men: A Longitudinal Analysis of Associations with Age, Obesity, and Race. The CARDIA Male Hormone Study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 11, 1041-1047.
Manning, J. T. (2006). The Androgen Receptor Gene: A Major Modifier of Speed of Neuronal Transmission and Intelligence? Medical Hypotheses 68:4, 802-804
Nyborg, H. (1994). Hormones, Sex, and Society. The Science of Physiology. Westport (Conn.): Praeger.
Ostatnikova D., Celec P., Putz Z., Hodosy J., Schmidt F., et al. (2007) Intelligence and Salivary Testosterone Levels in Prepubertal Children. Neuropsychologia 45, 1378–1385
Ross, R.K., Bernstein, L., Lobo, R.A., Shimizu, H., Stanczyk, F.Z., Pike, M.C., and Henderson, B.E. (1992). 5-Apha-Reductase Activity and Risk of Prostate Cancer among Japanese and US White and Black Males. Lancet 339, 887-889.
Winters, S.J., Brufsky, A., Weissfeld, J., Trump, D.L., Dyky, M.A., and Hadeed, V. (2001). Testosterone, Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin, and Body Composition in Young Adult African American and Caucasian Men. Metabolism, 50, 1242-1247.
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