Book Self-Publishing

I really do not mind this in a sense. Finally authors are starting to get back some of their rights, and it is pretty hard to publish at a publishing house these days. At any rate, authors have been complaining about ripoff publishing houses forever. Amazon does give authors 30% royalties on book sales. The thing is that Amazon and self-publishing is threatening to put mainstream publishers out of business. A lot of people are celebrating this as publishers are widely hated by authors, but there is a downside.

First of all, I have read many self-published books. With few exceptions, they looked like crap. The layout is usually bad when it it not horrible, reprinted photographs are of horrifyingly bad quality for some reason, they are full of errors in need of an editor or a proofreader, and they are organized chaotically.

Even the paper on the covers and the pages looks cheap and the typesetting often seems off. And the fonts seem to suck too for some reason. I do not understand why any of this is true but apparently the whole process is done on the ultra-cheap. The books also give off the impression that they were printed by a computer somehow, which quite possibly they were. For whatever reason, books from publishing houses do not look like this or give off this impression.

Authors do not know layout and design so their books like they were designed by small children. They don’t know fonts or typesetting either.

Publishers know and excel at all of these things. So ebooks have been great for writers and maybe for readers by exposing us to a lot of new talent, but quality has plummeted.

I have tried to complain about this to some authors but they will not hear of it. Their books look wonderful. Period.

Suffice to say that if these folks had published with a real publisher their book would not look like crap. I have read recent books printed by publishers, even small publishers, and they all looked extremely professional.

The publishing houses are retaliating by trying to set up a model whereby authors can get 40-50% of royalties on their books. I am not sure how this is going to work but that may be the only way they can survive the competition by Amazon.

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Die Office Die

Death to Microsoft Office. I have been using this application for some time now, and I must say that I quite like it. It’s not bad, and you really might want to give it a try. It’s not perfect, but then I do not know how to make it work either. The big problem with Office of course is proprietary formats.

Death to Microsoft.

Death to Bill Gates.

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Filed under Computers, Software

Monopoly Capitalism Is Worthless

Proprietary formats, the natural product of computer software monopolies,  are all shit, and they are one reason why computer software is one of the most evil capitalist industries on Earth. Quite literally, competing applications refuse to work with each other. Not only that but they try to attack each other and shut each other down.

What if your Evilco microwave would not work unless you had all other Evilco products in the kitchen. What is it refused to work because it detected a Worldco coffeemaker. What if every time you went to use your Worldco coffeemaker your microwave would make it break and not work right? What if in order to make your microwave work, you had to buy all your other kitchen appliances from Evilco too? What sort of bullshit is that?

What if the biggest car companies took over all the gas stations and made it so that only their cars would run on a certain gas brand. There you are on the highway, running out of gas in your Toyota, and the only gas station up ahead is a Ford station where the gas only works on a Ford.

Computer software is a natural monopoly like power, water, gas, roads and phones. All natural monopolies are either owned by the people or regulated by the people in the interest of the people to keep the monopolies from getting out of hand and abusing the people too much with their market power. It’s worked pretty well except for phones because we stopped regulating phone companies a long time ago.

High speed internet and cable TV are also natural monopolies and as such ought to either be run by the people or at least regulated by the people. Instead they are unregulated monopolies and they are abusing consumers in horrifying ways.

Worse, there is really nothing you can do about it. In any given area, DSL is owned by Evil Phone Company A. Sure their service is overpriced, evil and shit, but you have nowhere to go. You can go to Evil Cable Company A, but they’re just as evil as the phone company. The cable and phone companies each have a monopoly in your area and each other abuses customers as much as they get away with. And they don’t compete on price either. Instead the phone and cable companies collude to fix prices at a very high level.

E-publishing is a catastrophe. Sure Kindle sounds cool, and there are nice things about the device. However, Amazon’s Mobi and AWZ3 formats refuse to read the formats of its competitors, Barnes and Noble’s Kobo format or iBooks’ ePub format. So if you buy a Kindle, you now have to buy all your ebooks from Amazon for all of eternity!

It would be like if your bookshelf only held certain books. You would have to buy all your books from Satan Booksellers because if you bought them from any other booksellers, the books would simply fall off your Satan Booksellers bookshelf. So you’re locked in.

This is shit. It’s like if you buy a Ford car and Chevrolet owned half the roads in town and the Chevy roads slowly destroyed the tires on your Ford car. So if you want to get around town, you need to buy a Chevy just to drive on certain roads. What these assholes are doing, from Bill Gates to ATT to Comcast to Amazon to the rest, is they are forcing you to buy their shit. I thought capitalism was supposed to be about choice? I thought capitalism was supposed to be about competition. Once you get rid of choice and competition in capitalism you have gotten rid of the two best things about capitalism, and you may as well go to socialism where the State Shoe Company is the only outfit making shoes.

I do not necessarily mind regulated capitalism that accentuates the positive things about capitalism (I think capitalism has some great aspects, and Karl Marx agreed with me), while at the same regulating and attacking the negative aspects of capitalism that assault workers, consumers, the environment, society and life itself, but I do not see the point of monopoly capitalism. It seems like it is just a gigantic pile of steaming shit. The only people who get anything out of it are the whores who slut it up with the monopolists. Everybody else gets fucked. Even the monopolists’ own workers get screwed because monopolies tend to treat their workers a lot worse than companies in competitive industries.

What is wrong with Americans? They act like they love monopolies. What are we, a nation of masochists?

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Filed under Capitalism, Capitalists, Computers, Economics, Government, Labor, Scum, Software, USA

The Changing of the Mind

For some reason in the West we regard this as a great evil. Not all of the political ads about “flip-floppers.” I mean if you change your mind, you are…evil!

But of course it is nothing of the sort and scientific method of empiricism itself is rooted in such a concept.

I will say that most human beings definitely do not want to change their mind too much. They will on certain things, but things like political beliefs are hard and fast. However, change does occur.

Both of my parents strongly disliked homosexuality. My father was outraged by male homosexuals and considered them weird and insane. Both were against gay marriage. My mother was more sympathetic to lesbians than to gay men, and I kept calling on this crap and pointing out what bullshit it was, but she kept defending it on moral and public health grounds, mostly around gay male promiscuity, which is unfortunately a legitimate critique.

They moved to a small town to retire and met some very nice gay people, in particular gay men. Most were associated with their church and I can confirm that they are very good human beings. Anyway, apparently these experiences were sufficient to get both of them to change their minds as they made friends with some gay men. They both came around to gay rights and I believe even gay marriage. My mother in particular reverted her longstanding opposition to it.

This was very interesting to me because for one thing, political opinions do not seem to change a whole lot, especially later in life. They get fixed and then they are hard and fast. This showed me that human beings can actually – gasp – change their damn minds!

I change my mind all the time about everything under the sun but then I have OCD, and we really don’t believe in anything as the nature of the illness causes you to doubt so many things, even the obvious. I actually love to change my mind sometimes. At other times it may be painful but it is always pleasant to believe in the truth, ugly or beautiful. I am not into pretty lies.

“The man who is ridiculous is he whose opinions never change.”

- Barthelemy, French poet.

Pretty much describes most people but there you go. To change your mind, especially politically is to suffer humiliation. You have to admit that you were wrong and you were an idiot for a long time. Humans do not like to admit they were wrong. This is an attack on the ego and we can’t handle it so we use ego defenses to defend against ego attacks. So people keep believing the same crap they have always believed simply to preserve ego strength, which strikes me as idiotic but there you go – the human condition.

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Filed under Politics, Psychology

A Rating Scale for Sexual Orientation

Tobias writes:

I don’t like the way you scale homosexuality and heterosexuality, even though I know what you mean and it isn’t wrong, but I wouldn’t scale as a ratio of the two orientations, but rather an absolute ratio, which makes in my opinion more sense, since not everyone has the same sex drive.For example imagine a scale of 1 to 100, 1 for minimal sexual attraction and 100 for maximum sexual attraction. Someone could theoretically have a number of 90 for both females and males, while someone else has 20 for males and 80 for females. In your scale the first guy would have 50% for female and 50% for males, while the other one would have 20% male and 80% female and thus it could look like the second guy is more attracted to women, even though the first guy is actually more attracted to women.

First of all I would like to thank my good friend Tobias for his excellent comment. I use this scale a lot in therapy with my clients and everyone likes it a lot.

Here is the scale once again. I got the idea for it from a book on sexology by a sex therapist.

100-0: Maximum heterosexual, minimum homosexual
90-10: Maximum heterosexual, incidental homosexual
80-20: Maximum heterosexual, significant homosexual
70-30: Maximum heterosexual, strong homosexual
60-40: Maximum heterosexual, very strong strong homosexual
50-50: Maximum heterosexual, maximal homosexual
40-60: Maximum homosexual, very strong heterosexual
30-70: Maximum homosexual, strong heterosexual
20-80: Maximum homosexual, significant heterosexual
10-90: Maximum homosexual, incidental heterosexual
0-100: Maximum homosexual, minimal heterosexual

Maximum would mean maximum for that person.

First of all, I think we ought to accept that males who are:

50-50: Maximum heterosexual, maximal homosexual
40-60: Maximum homosexual, very strong heterosexual
30-70: Maximum homosexual, strong heterosexual
20-80: Maximum homosexual, significant heterosexual
10-90: Maximum homosexual, incidental heterosexual
0-100: Maximum homosexual, minimal heterosexual

have a biologically set drive, fixed by age 15, that is maximally homosexual. They are turned on more by males than by females, except for the 50-50’s. I think we should be kind to these men because I do not think they chose these orientations.

The data I have shows that 0-100’s seem to ~3% of the male population. However, if you include all men from 0-100 to 40-60, it seemed like that included up to ~7% of all males. I estimate these because it was a bar graph and you had to estimate values. So there may be more than a bit of truth to the 10% are gay chestnut.

When we test heterosexuals with gay and straight stimuli in the lab, they come out like this: maximum heterosexual, minimum homosexual.

For homosexuals, it is typically maximum homosexual, minimum heterosexual.

For a while, bisexual men were consistently testing maximum homosexual, minimum heterosexual, exactly the same as gay men, and there were debates in the sexology community about whether bisexual men even existed or whether they were all just gay men who were lying.

However, recently a number of men were found who claimed to be bisexual and scored something like maximum heterosexual, maximum homosexual, so the conclusion in the field now is that true male bisexuals do indeed exist.

Your scale is not bad. You are going on the basis that some folks have different sex drives. On my scale, keep in mind that each higher number including the 50-50’s, means maximum.

The thing about my scale is it does nothing for intensity. All it points out is the ratio of homosexual to heterosexual attraction in any given individual.

To tell the truth, all of those numbers in my scale are fixed by age 15. Sex therapists have tried to change males  from gay to straight, and not only can they not do so, but they can’t even move them around on the scale. They have also had some 90-10 and 80-20 straight guys come in who had a bit of homosexual attraction which bothered them and they wanted to be rid of it, but he was not able to move them on the scale either.

After a while he stopped taking new male patients who wanted to change their sexual orientation as he said he could not take their money in good conscience. He then patiently explained to them how he felt that these ratios were fixed early in life, possibly at birth, and could not be altered by any known therapeutic method.

He thought that the ratios must be biological and must have been fixed early in life somehow. He suspected since birth but I am not so sure. Whether those values are fixed before age 15 is not certain because in the study I read, the youngest male was age 15. In order to study younger males, we are now studying the sexuality of young male teenagers and pubertal boys, and it might be hard to get funding for that or legal problems may arise.

This same therapist also found that there was a correlation between his scale and masculinity and femininity in males. That is to say that on the scale, the stronger the homosexual attraction was in the man, the more feminine he was. And conversely, the stronger the heterosexual attraction was, the more masculine the man was.

Now that is not to say that there are not rather feminine heterosexual men and some very masculine homosexual men, but there does seem to be a trend whereby males act more masculine the stronger their heterosexual drive is and more feminine the stronger their homosexual drive is. The sexologist felt that masculinity-femininity ratios in men were set very early in life just like their sexual orientation and perhaps in tandem with it, and he had the feeling that their degree of masculinity or femininity was biological.

I am not sure if that is true, but it is interesting to think about.

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Filed under Gender Studies, Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, Psychology, Sex

Why Women Complain about “Street Harassment”

John said:

My first year in LA I went to a Christmas party advertised on a gym flyer. My date was one of three girls, out of ~60 people. Soon after I went to watch my dance teacher perform at a club, a gay club it turned out. With all the attention I thought, “Is this what it’s like for pretty girls every day?” But for them interest is greater than zero in practically any guy, so I think it’s more bothersome and/or more awkward to be hit on by gays.

Yes I lived in and worked around Hollywood for years. LA is gayer than Frisco if you ask me, especially the Hollywood area, which is insanely gay.

I was a young man when I was living there in my mid-20’s. Apparently I was a handsome young man because people kept telling me that, and I kept getting offers to be a male model, but I did not want to do work in the biz so I kept turning them down. Anyway, for whatever reason, I was massive gay-bait at the time. I would be driving down the street and all these guys in their cars and on the street would be rubbernecking everywhere I went. So many guys in cars were rubbernecking me and not watching the road that I always thought there was going to be a car accident.

In parts of that town, if you walk into say a coffee shop or a restaurant, it might be 75% gay guys. So I would walk in there, and every one of them would stop whatever they were doing and look at me like I was dinner. And they would stare at me real bad the whole time I was in there. And the waiters would be way, way, way, way too friendly. It was rather unnerving and after a while, I didn’t even want to go to certain establishments that were overrun with gay men.

One time I was working at this editorial shop in Beverly Hills. The area is full of gays if you don’t know already. After I worked there a bit, I figured out that this really tough looking guy wearing a leather jacket was always standing next to a wall every time I got off work. Pretty soon I figured out that he showed up there about 4:50 PM I guess just to wait for me to get off work. I would look out the window to see if he was there and he would eye-lock me and I would think, “Oh  no! The fag’s there!”

I had to walk past to him to get to my car. He would start watching my work window at maybe 4:50 and then he would watch me every inch of the way down the street to my parking garage. It was like running a gauntlet.

It really scared the crap out of me and freaked me out bad. I was terrified to leave work and walk by that guy every day. The last ten minutes of work and then leaving the building and walking to my car I would be literally shaking the whole time. He did this for a couple of weeks, and I then guess realized I was hopeless and disappeared.

I used to hang out in Hollywood every weekend for years. Sometimes late at night I would go the ready teller and get some money. There was a nearby Bank of America on Santa Monica Boulevard. But on Friday and Saturday night that street turns into the most insane gay cruise scene you have ever seen in your life. I have no idea how many gay men are on that street on those nights, but you could swear it’s 100,000 or more.

So it would be midnight, and I would go to the ready teller on Santa Monica. I would park my car and walk down Santa Monica a bit before turning into the bank parking lot. Over the five minutes it took to walk to and from the bank, maybe five or ten carloads full of guys would catcall at me, “Woo hoo! Yeah! Oh baby! Hey sexy! Come to papa! Hey cutie! Hey stud!” and every other thing you could think of. Plus a lot of wolf whistles. I am not sure if I minded all that much as it was rather flattering, but it was also pretty unnerving.

I tell these stories to women and they usually respond by saying, “Now you know what we women have to go through every single day!”

I think I am empathize with them now.

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Filed under California, Gender Studies, Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, Man World, Regional, Sane Pro-Woman, Sex, USA, West

What Language Is This?

This one is weird as Hell, but it is one of the official language of an independent country. I really do not expect you to get this but it is spoken in the same region as a prior post in this series. It is spoken quite close to Europe. This is actually a Romanization of the alphabet as the language is written in a non-Roman alphabet. I will say that this language has more or less the same name as the name of the country itself.

Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra
xtu

AƤSNY AHWYNŢĶARRA — 1994 šyķwsa abcara 26 rzy Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra Ireihaʒou ailatwara 12-twi aaƥx́ara iadnakyleit, 1999 šyķwsa źţaaramza 3 rzy žwlarzeǵtwi bźyţiirala iaķwšahaţxeit, 1999 šyķwsa źţaaramza 3 rzy žwlarzeǵtwi abźyţiira aan irydyrkylaz aƥsaxra alagalany.

aķ. Aqwa, 2001 š.

Soderžanie

1 AƤSNY AHWYNŢĶARRA
1.1 AKTWI AXY. ŚAĶWGYLAŚA AŚAŢAĶWA
1.2 AØBATWI AXY. AUAØI ATWYLAUAØI RZINĶWEI RXAĶWIŢRAĶWEI
1.3 AXƤATWI AXY. AZAKWANƤCARATW MḉRA
1.4 AƤŚBATWI AXY. ANAGƷARATW MḉRA
1.5 AXWBATWI AXY. AƷBARATW MḉRA
1.6 AFBATWI AXY. AŢYƤANTWI AXALANAPXGARA
1.7 ABYŹBATWI AXY. RIAŠARAĶWEI  AIŢAXWAƤŠYŚAĶWEI

AƤSNY AHWYNŢĶARRA

Harţ, Aƥsnyžwlar, hxatwhwaaķwcaratw zin aƥsţazaara ialarcwo, žwlary zeǵy rzy nasyƥla aƥsţazaarei aønucqatw gwţynḉrei harzyķwƥo, auaøytwyøsa izinķwei, ixaķwiţraķwei, auaažwlarratw hwoueiķwšwarei śaķwyrğwğwo, gweizharala irylahhwoit, eǵyśaķwhargyloit Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra.

AKTWI AXY. ŚAĶWGYLAŚA AŚAŢAĶWA

AXWŢAĆ 1 Aƥsny – žwlar rxatwhwaaķwcaratw zin inaķwyršwany, ţouryxla iśaķwgylaz, suverentw, demokratiatw, zintw hwynţķarroup. “Aƥsny” (“Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra”), “Respublika cakyla akoup, eiqaroup.

AXWŢAĆ 2. Ažwlarmḉra – Aƥsny ahwynţķarratw mḉra śaţas iamoup. Aƥsny asuverenitet nyqwgaøysi ui amḉra xycxyrţasi iamou Aƥsnyžwlar roup. Ažwlar rymḉra aƥsţazaara ialadyrcwoit dara rxala ma rxaţarnakçwa ryla.

AXWŢAĆ 3. Aƥsny – žwlarbźaratwi azin ialaxwu-eǵyrţ ahwynţķarraķwei iarei rybźara iśaķwnargyloit aiķwšahaţratw eizyqazaaśaķwa. Žwlarbźaratwi aiķwšahaţraķwa rybźacaśei, aḱyƥx́ rarbaśei, ryśaķwyrğwğwaśei, rƥyrgaśei śaķwyrgylaxoit zakwanla.

AXWŢAĆ 4. Aƥsny śaķwgyloup araionķwei (Gagratwi, Gwdouţatwi, Aqwatwi, Gwylryƥśtwi, Oḉamḉyratwi, Tqwarḉaltwi, Galtwi) aķalaķ́ķwei (Gagra, Gwdouţa, Afon Čyç, Aqwa, Oḉamḉyra, Tqwarḉal, Gal) zcazkua aţouryxtw dǵylķwa Saʒny, Bzyƥyn, Gwma, Dal-Cabal, Abźua, Samyrzaqan ryla. Aƥsny iaku, laḱysra zķwym, zyçwgara qamlo twyloup.

AXWŢAĆ 5. Adǵyli eǵyrţ aƥsabaratw aagarţaķwei ažwlar irxatwup, Aƥsny aønucqa urţ rxy iadyrxwoit eǵyryx́ḉoit ažwlar ryƥsţazaarei rʒ́ausi śaţas izlarymou ala. Aƥsabaratw aagarţaķwa rnyqwgaśei rxarxwaśei irydhwalou azcaaraķwa rţyƥ iķwcaxoit Aƥsny azakwanķwa ryla.

AXWŢAĆ 6. Aƥsny hwynţķarra byzšwas iamoup aƥsua byzšwa. Aurys byzšwa, aƥsua byzšwa inavargylany, ahwynţķarratwii eǵyrţ eiueiƥšym aushwarţaķwei ryqny axarxwara amoup. Aƥsny iķwynxo eǵyrţ ažwlar gwyƥķwa zeǵy rxatwy byzšwa iaķwiţny axarxwara ahwynţķarra azin rnaţoit.

AXWŢAĆ 7. Ahwynţķarratw mḉra Aƥsny imøaƥgaxoit azakwanƥcaratwi, anagʒaratwi, aʒbaratwi mḉraķwa ryla eixšany. Azakwanƥcaratwi, anagʒaratwi, aʒbaratwi – ix́yƥšym mḉraķwoup.

AXWŢAĆ 8. Aƥsny axarxwara amany irśoit iaǵaldyršoit aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara, iara azinmḉxaraķwa ryønucqa axaķwiţra amany. Aţyƥantwi axalanapxgaratw usbarţaķwa ahwynţķarratw mḉra ausbarţaķwa reilazaara ialaʒam.

AXWŢAĆ 9. Abri ireihaʒou azintw mḉra amoup. Aƥsny irydyrkylo azakwanķwei eǵyrţ azintw ncaķwei iaśašwalazaroup.

AXWŢAĆ 10. Aƥsny axatw hwynţķarratw simvolika amoup – ahwynţķarratw biraq, adyrga, ax́yʒrašwa – urţ šeiķwyršwatwu śaķwdyrgyloit zakwanķwa ryla. Aqwa (Suxum) – Aƥsny iahţnyķalaķ́up.

AØBATWI AXY. AUAØI ATWYLAUAØI RZINĶWEI RXAĶWIŢRAĶWEI

AXWŢAĆ 11. Aƥsny ryķwšahaţup eǵax́ḉoit auaøy izinķwa Eiçyrzeiƥšu Adeklaraçiei, aekonomikatw, asoçialtw, apolitikatw, akuĺturatw, atwylauaøratw zinķwa irzynarxou Žwlarbźaratwi Apaktķwei, iara ubas eǵyrţ eiçeiķwšahaţny irydyrkylax́ou žwlarbźaratw-zintw ncaķwa zeǵy ryqny iarbou azinķwei axaķwiţraķwei.

AXWŢAĆ 12. Auaøy içšoup ixadarou azinķwei axaķwiţraķwei. Darbanzaalak auaøy dšoup ixy daķwiţny. Azakwani aʒbarei rčaƥx́a zeǵy eiqaroup milaţlei, xacalei, ƥhwyslei, byzšwalei, xylcśţralei, mallei, macuralei, nxarţa ţyƥlei, dinlei, duneixwaƥšyśalei, ideologialei, çwaƥššwaxwylei hwa eilyx qamcakwa.

AXWŢAĆ 13. Auaøy ƥsabarala imoup aƥsţazaarei, axaķwiţrei, axatw mali, aʒw dilamḱysua aqazaarei rzin.

AXWŢAĆ 14. Darbanzaalak auaøy ixatw ƥsţazaarei, ixatwi, iţaaçwaratw maʒei, ix́ʒ-iƥša ax́ḉarei, inamysi, idinxacarei, irčiaratw usi, ixwyçrei, iažwei, iduneixwaƥšyśei dryķwiţup.

AXWŢAĆ 15. Darbanzaalak auaøy irhwaçwara, irgwaqra, iahaţyr alarqwra, iakwym iaķwyršwara zalšom.

AXWŢAĆ 16. Darbanzaalak auaøy daķwiţup dax́ço-dax́aaua, iţyʒţyƥ alxra, šwqwyla-byğ́šwyla, eǵyrţ açharažwhwaraķwa ryla aimadara amaʒa.

AXWŢAĆ 17. Auaa zeǵy axeidkylarei, aţynḉratw eizaraķwei, aiçymøasraķwei rymøaƥgara azin rymoup.

AXWŢAĆ 18. śaķwgylaśa mḉyla aƥsaxra, ahwynţķarra ašwarţa aţargylara, bʒ́arla eibyţou arxwţaķwa reičkaara, auaa soçialla, milaţla, dinla reiḉyrḉara xyķwkys izmou auaažwlarratw xeidkylaķwei, apartiaķwei, acysraķwei reičkaara qalom.

AXWŢAĆ 19. Darbanzaalak auaøy dryķwiţup aøny-agwara, aekonomikatw, aʒ́atw xaķwiţra, acaradyrra, aƥsśara, axwšwtwyratw çxyraara, asoçialtw manšwalara.

AXWŢAĆ 20. Auaøy iøny-igwara laḱysra aķwym. Aʒwǵy azin imam, iztwu dazyrazymkwa, iøny aønalara, zakwanla ianyśaķwyrgyloi ausʒbara azin aninaţoi ryda.

AXWŢAĆ 21. Darbanzaalak auaøy izinķwei ixaķwiţraķwei ahwynţķarrei ausʒbarei išyryx́ḉo ala agwragara imazaroup.

AXWŢAĆ 22. Aƥsny aus aueit axaradara aprezumpçia. Axara zdyrco xara imam xwa dyƥx́aʒoup, axara šidu eilkaaxaanʒa, azakwantw mḉy zoux́ou ausʒbaratw lax́yţarala iśaķwyrgylaxaanʒa. Axara zdyrco axara šidym aśaķwyrğwğwara iara iualʒam.

AXWŢAĆ 23. Darbanzaalak iaankylou ma iţakyu auaøy, danaanyrkyla ma danţark inarkny, azin imoup adukat içxyraara ixy iairxwar, azin imoup iara ubas idukat dyqamkwa ičaxwy rimţar.

AXWŢAĆ 24. Iqaicaz açwǵourazy acyxwtwantwi axaradcarala axara zdyrcax́ou darbanzaalak iara ubri açwǵourazy eiţa iusʒbara zalšom.

AXWŢAĆ 25. Aţakƥxyķwra śaķwzyrgylo ma izyrymḉua azakwan čyç iiasx́ou aus ailyrgaraan mḉy amaʒam.

AXWŢAĆ 26. Darbanzaalak azin imoup ahwynţķarratw usbarţaķwei amacurauaai zakwandarala iax́iznyqwaz iaxq́any iouz aƥyrxaga ahwynţķarrala axarţwaara.

AXWŢAĆ 27. Aƥsny atwylauaø hwa iƥx́aʒou ari ax́ʒ zixyxxom, itwyla dzalçaxom, nasǵy daç̌a hwynţķarrak dzaţaxom.

Aƥsny iara atwylauaa agwra dnargoit, urţ atwyla anţycǵy išax́ḉo, išyrxylaƥšua.

AXWŢAĆ 28. Žwaa šyķwsa zxycyz Aƥsny atwylauaø abri Aƥsny azakwanķwei iśaķwdyrgylaz azinķwei aualƥśaķwei zeǵy inagʒany inapačy iqoup.

AXWŢAĆ 29. Aƥsny atwylauaai ui iķwynxo zeǵi irualup azakwan inaķwyršwany ašwaxtwķwa ršwara.

AXWŢAĆ 30. Aƥsny iqou darbanzaalak iualup Aƥsny azakwanķwei ryķwnyqwara.

AXWŢAĆ 31. Darbanzaalak auaøy iualup eǵyrţ auaa rzinķwei rxaķwiţraķwei haţyr ryķwcara.

AXWŢAĆ 32. Darbanzaalak auaøy iualup iaaikwyršany iqou aƥsabara ai3aharei ax́ḉarei.

AXWŢAĆ 33. Aƥsadǵyl ax́ḉara Aƥsny atwylauaa zeǵy irualƥśoup.

AXWŢAĆ 34.  ialkaau zinķwak reiķwyƥx́aʒara iaanagom ažwlarbźaratw-zintw ncaķwa ryla eiçrydyrkylaz eǵyrţ azinķwa map ryçwktwup ma ilarqwtwup hwa.

AXWŢAĆ 35. Aƥsny irydrymkylaroup eǵţyrmyźroup auaøy izinķwei ixaķwiţraķwei aƥyzxua ma ilazyrqwua zakwank iadamxarǵy.

Azinķwei axaķwiţraķwei ryƥkraķwak alagalazar qaloit zakwan maçarala  śaķwgylaśa ax́ḉarazy, ašwarţadarei auaažwlarratw eičkaarei ryrğwğwarazy, auaøy igwabziarei inamysi ryx́ḉarazy, iara ubasǵy aƥsabaratw ryçharaķwei, i3ydou ma aibaśratw ţagylazaaśei raan.

AXƤATWI AXY. AZAKWANƤCARATW MḉRA

AXWŢAĆ 36. Ari iśaķwnargylaz azakwanƥcaratw zinmḉxaraķwa zeǵy Žwlar Reizara – Aparlament imøaƥnagoit.

AXWŢAĆ 37. Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara śaķwgyloup 35-øyk adeputatçwa ryla.

Žwlar Reizarax́ alxraķwa møaƥysueit zeǵy eiçyrzeiƥšu, eiqarou, iznyktwiu alxratw zintw śaţa inaķwyršwany, maʒa bźyţirala.

Žwlar Reizara azinmḉxaraķwa čhwaras irymoup xwy-šyķwsa.

Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa ralxśa aƥqaraķwa śaķwnargyloit zakwan.

AXWŢAĆ 38. Aƥsny Žwlar Reizarax́ ddeputatxarç ilšoit 25-šyķwsa zxycua, alxratw zin zmou darbanzaalak Aƥsny atwylauaø.

Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra Axada ma Aministrçwa Reilazaara ialaxwu, nasǵy ahwynţķarratw usbarţa ailazaarei aʒbaratw ushwarţaķwei irycanakua amacuraţyƥķwa aanyzkylo, mamzarǵy aƥara zxyršwaaua daç̌a usurak znapy alaku, arcaøratw, anaukatw, arčiaratw usķwa alamcakwa, Žwlar Reizara alaxwxara ilšom.

Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa Žwlar Reizaračy imøaƥyrgo rusurazy Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra irzounaźueit rʒ́abaaƥsa.

AXWŢAĆ 39. Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa rylaḱysra zinʒam, urţ rymḉxara ačhwara aaiaanʒa. Urţ raankylara, rţakra, reimdara azin yqam, açwǵara ax́yruz aţyƥ ačy iaankylamzar, iara ubasǵy xaţala rgwaţara zalšom, eǵyrţ auaa ašwarţa iţazyrgylo dara akǵy rydbalamzar. Rylamḱysra aƥyxra azcaara Žwlar Reizara iaʒboit.

AXWŢAĆ 40. Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa rualƥśa anagʒaračy ralxçwa rydcala ičahwaxarç zalšom.

AXWŢAĆ 41. Čyç ialxu Žwlar Reizara raƥx́atwi ailatwara aaiƥx́oit Aƥsny Axada alxraķwa ryśţax́ myzky aønucqala.

AXWŢAĆ 42. Žwlar Reizara iara ailazaara aqyntwi ialnaxueit Aihabi ui ixaţyƥuaai, eǵyrţ amacurauaai, eičnakaaueit akomissiaķwei agwyƥ 3ydaķwei.

Žwlar Reizara Aihaby Žwlar Reizara ailatwaraķwa møaƥigoit, Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa rzinmḉxaraķwa rynagʒaračy açxyraara riţoit, iaţaxu adyrraķwa ryla eiķwiršwoit, Žwlar Reizara aķwcaraķwa inapy rycaiøueit.

Aihaby dalyrxaanʒa, čyç eičkaau Žwlar Reizara raƥx́atwi ailatwara møaƥigoit ķwrala dara zeǵy ireihabu Žwlar Reizara adeputat.

AXWŢAĆ 43. Čyç ialxu Žwlar Reizara ausura ianalaga inarkny uanʒatwi Žwlar Reizara azinmḉxaraķwa ncwoit.

Žwlar Reizara imøaƥnagoit šyķwsyk ø-eilatwarak (aaƥyntwi ailatwara, ţagalantwi ailatwara).

Žwlar Reizara ausuśa areglament ihwaaķwnacoit.

AXWŢAĆ 44. Žwlar Reizara iaʒbozaalak iaţaxu adeputatçwa rxyƥx́aʒara yqazaroup. Azakwanƥcaratw ncaķwa rydkylarazy, 3ydala iazgwanaţaz aky akwymzar, iqazaroup Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa rzeiƥš xyƥx́aʒara aqyntw reiharaøyk. zakwani daç̌a zakwanķwaki rydkylara aan iqazaroup axƥa ryøxwţak irycarkua rbyźķwa Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa rzeiƥš xyƥx́aʒara aqnytw.

AXWŢAĆ 45. Žwlar Reizara iadnakylaz iarban zakwanʒbatwzaalak Aƥsny Axada iznagalatwup.

Aƥsny Axada inapy acaiøyr, ui azakwanʒbatw aḱyƥx́ iairboit Žwlar Reizara ianadnakylaz inarkny žwoxwymš ryønucqala.

Azakwan amḉ aiueit ianyrḱyƥx́ inarkny, eiha ix́šwany azakwan amḉ aiura, azakwan axaţa ianyśaķwnargylo ada.

Azakwanʒbatw Aƥsny Axada daķwšahaţymzar, ui Žwlar Reizarax́ irǵeźueit, dzyķwšahaţym azgwaţany. Aøyntwtwi axwaƥšra aan axƥa ryøxwţak irycarkua abźķwa ryla azakwanʒbatw rydyrkylazar, Aƥsny Axada inapy acaiøyroup, eǵţiźroup.

Aƥsny Axada azakwanʒbatw aniou inarkny žwamš ryønucqala Žwlar Reizarax́ imyrǵeźzar, usqan azakwanʒbatw zakwanxoit, Aƥsny Axada inapy acaiøyzar eiƥš. Azakwanʒbatw zakwanxaʒom ailatwara axgara iaxq́any Aƥsny Axada Žwlar Reizarax́ izmyrǵeźzar.

AXWŢAĆ 46. Aƥsny Žwlar Reizaračy azakwanƥcaratw ƥśgara azin rymoup Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwei, Aƥsny Axadei, Aƥsny Ireihaʒou Aʒbarei, Aƥsny Aprokuror Xadei.

AXWŢAĆ 47. Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra Žwlar ReizaraĶ

1) iadnakyloit Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra azakwanķwei;

2) iadnakyloit aţyƥantwi ahwaaķwa ryƥsaxraķwa iryzku aķwcaraķwa;

3) iazyʒyrøueit atwylačy ţagylazaaśas iqoui, ahwynţķarra aønucqatwi, adwnyqatwi apolitika axyrxarţa xadaķwei, nas urţ rymøaƥgarei iryzku Aƥsny Axada inaśţymţaķwa;

4) iaxwaƥšueit eǵyśaķwnarğwğwoit ahwynţķarra abiuʒ́et, ui anagʒaraǵy xylaƥšra aznaueit;

5) iadnakyloit aśauğatw, aśauğatw-useilyrgaratw, amøaķwcaratw-ʒ́atw, atwylauaøratw, atwylauaøratw-useilyrgaratw, ainyršwaratw uhwa azakwanƥcaraķwa, aʒbareičkaarei aprokuraturei iryzku azcaaraķwa;

6) imøaƥnagoit Aƥsny azakwanķwei reilyrkaara iazku ausķwa;

7)iśaķwnargyloit Aƥsny Ahwynţķarratw hamţaķwei, ahaţyrtw, arratw x́ʒalkaaķwei;

8) iśaķwnarğwğwoit, išyƥnargo rylanahwoit Aƥsny Ahwynţķarrabźaratw eiķwšahaţraķwa;

9) ialnaxueit Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara Aihabi ui ixaţyƥuaai;

10) amacura ianaţoit, rxy iaķwiţnatwueit, azakwan inaķwyršwany, Aƥsny Axada iķwirgylo Aprokuror Xadei, Amilaţtw bank Axantwaøi, eǵyrţ amacurauaai;

11) iadnakyloit Aministrçwa Reilazaara ialaxwu ʒ́ouky bźyţirala iʒbou rygwramgara rylahwara iazku aķwcaraķwa;

12) Aƥsny Axada axara idnacoit ui imacura niźrazy;

13) irylanahwoit amnistia;

14) iaʒboit aibaśra rylahwarei ainyšwara rybźacarei iryzku azcaatwķwa;

15) iaʒboit Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa rylamḱysra azcaatwķwa;

16) iaʒboit i3ydou aţagylazaaśei aibaśratw ţagylazaaśei ralagalara ax́ynʒazinrku;

17) inanagʒoit Aƥsny azakwanķwei iadyrco eǵyrţ azinmḉxaraķwa.

AƤŚBATWI AXY. ANAGƷARATW MḉRA

AXWŢAĆ 48. Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra aønucqa anagʒaratw mḉra Aƥsny Axada imadoup.

Aƥsny Axada Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra xys damoup.

AXWŢAĆ 49. Aƥsny Axada ialxra møaƥysueit zeǵy eiçyrzeiƥšu, eiqarou, iznyktwiu alxratw zin aśaţala, maʒa bźyţirala, xwy-šyķwsa ačhwara aţany.

Aƥsny Axadas dalyrxueit milaţla iaƥsuou, 35-šyķwsa ireicamkwa, ķǯ-šyķwsa ireihamkwa izxycua, alxra azin zmou Aƥsny atwylauaø.

Aƥsny Axadas aʒwy ineiƥynkylany ø-čhwarak ireihany ialxra zalšom.

AXWŢAĆ 50. Aƥsny Axada imḉxaraķwa rynagʒara dalagoit ţouba aniu inarkny, imḉxaraķwa rynagʒara daqwycueit ičhwara anaailak, čyç ialxu Aƥsny Axada ţouba aniu inarkny.

Aƥsny Axada ialxśei, ialxra ačhwarei śaķwyrgylaxoit zakwanla.

AXWŢAĆ 51. Aƥsny Axada imacura danaxagylo, Aƥsny Žwlar Reizaračy ţouba iueit Ireihaʒou Aʒbara aʒbaøçwa adƥx́alany. Aţouba atekst Žwlar Reizara iśaķwnarğwğwoit.

AXWŢAĆ 52. Aƥsny Axada izinmḉxaraķwa neigʒonacy, apolitikatw partiaķwei auaažwlarratw xeidkylaraķwei iç̌rylairxwuam.

Aƥsny Axada Žwlar Reizara dadeputatʒam, ahwynţķarratw, auaažwlarratw usbarţaķwa irycarkwa iarbanzaalak daç̌a macurak idikylar qalom, axaƥśgaratw nalacany.

Aƥsny Axada iśaķwyrgylou ačhwaraķwa raan iusurazy ianaśaxoit iʒ́abaaƥsa Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra aqyntw.

AXWŢAĆ 53. Aƥsny Axada:

1) dyrxylaƥšueit auaøy izinķwei ixaķwiţraķwei, Aƥsny azakwanķwei, ui ažwlarbźaratw xydcaķwei rynagʒaśa;

2) ihwaaķwicoit aønucqatwi, adwnyqatwi apolitika axyrxarţa xadaķwa;

3) ahwynţķarra daxaţarnakup ažwlarbźaratw usķwa rqny;

4) inapy rycaiøueit ahwynţķarrabźaratw eiķwšahaţraķwa;

5) imøaƥigoit Aƥsny ašwarţadarei ahwaaķwa rylamḱysrei rzy iaţaxu ausķwa, eičikaaueit, xadaraǵy aziueit zystatus zakwanla ihwaaķwcaxo Ašwarţadara Asovet;

6) iśaķwirğwğwoit Aƥsny aibaśratw doktrina;

7)Aƥsny Ar Ƥyzas drymoup;

8) ahwaanyrçwtwi ahwynţķarraķwei žwlarbźaratwi eičkaaraķwei rqny Aƥsny adiplomatiatw xaţarnakçwa yķwirgyloit, irxynhwueit;

9) iśaķwirğwğwoit ahwynţķarratw, aekonomikatw, asoçialtw, akuĺturatw, amilaţtw čiara aprogrammaķwa;

10) Aƥsny iax́acanakua ialiršoit afinanstw, akredittw politikei, anauka, acaraiura, akuĺtura, agwabziara, aekologia, asoçialtw eiķwšwara irydhwalou apolitikei rymøaƥgara;

11) ialiršoit atwylauaøra, axatw mal azyqazaaśaķwa, abiuʒ́et-finanstw sistema, ašwaxtwķwcara, iaahakwyršan iqou aƥsabara ax́ḉara, ahwynţķarratw macura ryzcaaraķwa iaku rzakwanƥcaratw møaķwcara;

12) Žwlar Reizara ailatwaraķwa rylatwara azin imoup, ianaaiţaxxo aamţazǵy ažwa iţalatwup;

13) atwylauaa ršwarţadara ax́ḉarazy, azakwan inaķwyršwany Aƥsny ialeigaloit a3ydaţagylazaaśei aibaśratw ţagylazaaśei, ubri anaøs urţ aţagylazaaśaķwa Žwlar Reizara iśaķwnarğwğwoit;

14) Aƥsny Žwlar Reizaračy iara izinmḉxaraķwa inaryķwyršwany iķwirgyloit Amilaţtw bank Axantwaøi, Aprokuror Xadei, eǵyrţ amacurauaai rkandidaturaķwa, iara ubas Žwlar Reizara ialeigaloit urţ rxy raķwiţtwra azcaaraǵy;

15) iśaķwirgyloit Žwlar Reizarax́ alxraķwa rymøaƥgara;

16) amacura ieiţoit iaǵamixueit Aƥsny aķalaķ́ķwei araionķwei rqny anagʒaratw mḉra axadaçwa;

17) dryxwaƥšueit anagʒaratw mḉra ausbarţaķwa reičkaarei rusuśei ryzcaaraķwa;

18) aministrraķwa, aushwarţaķwa, araionķwa, aķalaķ́ķwa rxadaçwa, iara ubas aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara ryncaķwa aƥixueit, urţ Aƥsny azakwanƥcarei irčagylozar;

19) iryleihwoit areferendum ixaƥśgarala, Žwlar Reizarei Aƥsny Ireihaʒou Aʒbarei rydcala, azakwan išahwo inaķwyršwany;

20) Žwlar Reizarax́ ineigoit atwylačy ţagylazaaśas iqoui, Ahwynţķarra aønucqatwi, adwnyqatwi apolitika axyrxarţa xadaķwei rtwy zhwo esyšyķwsatwi anaśţymţaķwa, ineigoit ahwynţķarratw biuʒ́etʒbatwķwei, ui anagʒara iazku ahasabyrbei;

21) azin imoup Žwlar Reizara izaamţanym ailatwaraķwa raaƥx́ara;

22)iʒboit azakwan inaķwyršwany Aƥsny atwylauaøra azcaaraķwa;

23) ialiršoit axara anaźra;

24) iraneiśoit ahwynţķarratw hamţaķwa, iriţoit ahaţyrtw, arratw iara ubas i3ydou ax́yʒlkaaķwa;

25) iśaķwirgyloit astandartķwa, aetalonķwa, akapanrei ašwaga-zagei rakķwa;

26) ineigʒoit Aƥsny azakwanķwei idyrco eǵyrţ azinmḉxaraķwa.

AXWŢAĆ 54. Aƥsny Axada diçalyrxueit ui Ixaţyƥuaøǵy. Aƥsny Axada Ixaţyƥuaø ikandidatura yķwirgyloit Aƥsny Axada iţyƥ ax́ kandidats iqou.

Aƥsny Axada Ixaţyƥuaøys dalxzar qaloit alxra azin zmou, 3ǯ-šyķwsa ireicam, ķǯ-šyķwsa ireiham Aƥsny atwylauaø.

Aƥsny Axada Ixaţyƥuaø, izinmḉxaraķwa neigʒonacy, apolitikatw partiaķwei auaažwlarratw xeidkylaķwei iç̌rylairxwuam.

Aƥsny Axada Ixaţyƥuaø Žwlar Reizara dadeputatʒam, iarbanzaalak eǵyrţ ahwynţķarratw, auaažwlarratw usbarţaķwa irycarkua macurak daxagylar qalom, aičyrçaaratwķwaǵy nalacany.

Aƥsny Axada Ixaţyƥuaø ianaśaxoit iʒ́abaaƥsa, ui iazyƥcwou aamţaķwa inaryķwyršwany, Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra aqnytw.

AXWŢAĆ 55. Aƥsny Axada Ixaţyƥuaø Aƥsny Axada idcala inaigʒoit ui inapyncaķwak, Aƥsny Axada diƥsaxueit, ui danyqam ma iusķwa rynagʒara anilymšo.

AXWŢAĆ 56. Atwyla zeǵy ačy anagʒaratw møaƥgatwķwa azeiƥš xylaƥšra ryţarazy Aƥsny Axada Aƥsny Aministrçwa Reilazaara napxgara aziueit.

Aministrçwa Reilazaara śaķwirgyloit Aƥsny Axada, ui iara inapacaqaǵy iqoup.

Aministrçwa Reilazaara ialaxwup Aƥyza-ministr, Aƥyza Ixaţyƥuaa, Aministrçwa, zakwanla iazgwaţou eǵyrţ amacurauaa.

AXWŢAĆ 57. Aƥsny Aministrçwa Reilazaara išyneibaku ma ui ialaxwu ʒ́ouky rmacura aanyźra azin rymoup.

Amacura aanyźra Aƥsny Axada ičaƥx́a iķwdyrgyloit. Ui azin imoup idikylar ma map açwikyr.

AXWŢAĆ 58. Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara Aministrçwa Reilazaara ialou ruaʒwk iax́ agwramgara aanarƥšyr, usqan ui azcaara Aƥsny Axada ičaƥx́a iķwnargylar alšoit. Azcaara cyxwaƥcwala izyʒboǵy Aƥsny Axada ioup.

Aƥsny Aministrçwa Reilazaara aičkaarei ausurei hwaaķwcaxoit zakwanla.

AXWŢAĆ 59. Aƥsny Axada izinmḉxaraķwa rxarxwara zalšom śaķwgylaśa aƥsaxrazy, zakwanla ialxu eǵyrţ ahwynţķarratw mḉra ausbarţaķwa reimyrprazy ma rusura aankylarazy.

AXWŢAĆ 60. Aƥsny Axada, iara izinmḉxaraķwa rhwaaķwa dyrţymckwa, aus zua azakwanƥcara aśaţala, nasǵy ui anagʒarala iţiźueit Aƥsny ax́ynʒanaʒaaʒo amḉ zmou ausƥqaķwei adcaķwei.

AXWŢAĆ 61. Aƥsny azakwanķwei iryķwymšwo Aƥsny Axada iķwcaraķwa aƥyxzar qaloit Aƥsny Ireihaʒou Aʒbara aķwcarala.

AXWŢAĆ 62. A3yda ţagylazaaśei, aƥsabaratw ryçharaķwei, aibaśraķwei raan Aƥsny Axada azin imoup iţiźyr azakwan mḉy zmou, xymƥada iaarlasʒany inagʒatwu, iara ubri aamţazycwq́a Žwlar Reizarax́ inaçhatwu aķwcaraķwa.

AXWŢAĆ 63. Aƥsny Axada ixaţara laḱysra aķwym. Aƥsny Axada ix́ʒ-iƥšei iahaţyri azakwan iax́ḉoit.

AXWŢAĆ 64. Aƥsny Axada iţoubei, Aƥsny azakwanķwei eileigar, imacura damxzar alšoit.

Abri aøyza aķwcara adnakyloit Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara, Aƥsny Ireihaʒou Aʒbara aixśala śaţas iqacany, Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa rzeiƥš xyƥx́aʒara aqnytw axƥa ryøxwţak irycarkua eihau bźyla, maʒa bźyţirala.

AXWŢAĆ 65. Aƥsny Axada ianaaiţaxyu aamţazy imacura aaniźyr ilšoit. Imacura aanyźra azcaara aʒboit Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara. Aʒbara rydyrkyloit axƥa ryøxwţak irycarkua abyźķwa ryla.

AXWŢAĆ 66. Aƥsny Axada damyrxyr, iƥsţazaara dalcyr, imacura niźyr ma izinmḉxaraķwei iusķwei rynagʒara ilymšar, urţ iusķwa yiasueit Aƥsny Axada Ixaţyƥuaø iax́. Aƥsny Axadaǵy, ui Ixaţyƥuaøǵy rmacura iamyrxyr, iƥsyr, rmacura aanryźyr, ma Aƥsny Axada iusķwa rynagʒara rylymšar, urţ ausķwa yiasueit Aƥsny Aƥyza-ministr iax́. Aƥsny Axada iusķwa rynagʒara ari axwţa3 ačy eiķwyƥx́aʒou aʒwǵy ilymšar, urţ ausķwa yiasueit Žwlar Reizara Aihaby iax́.

AXWŢAĆ 67. Aƥsny Axada iusķwa nazygʒo auaøy izinmḉxaraķwa amḉ rymoup, Aƥsny Axada iusķwa rynagʒara ilzmyršo amzyzķwa aƥyxxaanʒa, ma Aƥsny Axada čyç dalyrxaanʒa.

Aƥsny Axada čyç ialxraķwa møaƥgaxaroup xymyz ryønucqala. Ubysqan Aƥsny Axada iusķwa nazygʒo azin imaʒam areferendum rylahwara, Aƥsny arç̌eiraķwei aiţaxwaƥšrei iryzku ažwalagalaķwa ryķwyrgylara.

AXWBATWI AXY. AƷBARATW MḉRA

AXWŢAĆ 68. Azinʒbara Aƥsny inazygʒo aʒbara maçaroup.

Anxamøatw eimakraķwa eilnargoit Ainyršwaratw ʒbara.

Aʒbareičkaara Aƥsny iśaķwyrgylaxoit zakwanla.

AXWŢAĆ 69. ʒbaøçwas iqalar rylšoit 2c-šyķwsa zxycyz, ireihaʒou azincara ialgax́ou, azintw zanaaţla xwy-šyķwsa ireicamkwa ausura aƥyšwa zmou Aƥsny atwylauaa. Aƥsny Ainyršwaratw ʒbara Aihabi ui aʒbaøçwei alnaxueit Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara Aƥsny Axada iažwalagalala.

AXWŢAĆ 70. Aʒbaø iusķwa rynagʒara ialeigʒar qalom iarbanzaalak daç̌a hwynţķarratw macurak ma aʒ́aƥsa zxyršwaaua iarbanzaalak usurak, arcaøratw, anaukatw, arčiaratw usķwa rakwymzar.

Aʒbaøçwa iazalxu ačhwaraķwa rzy iranarśoit rʒ́abaaƥsa aƥara Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra aqnytw.

AXWŢAĆ 71. Aʒbaøçwa alyrxueit xwy-šyķwsa čhwaras iryţany. Aʒbaøçwa laḱysra ryķwym, ix́yƥšym, Aƥsny azakwanķwei roup znapacaqa iqou.

Aʒbaø aśauğatw ţakƥxyķwra idcara zalšom zakwanla ihwaaķwcamkwa.

Aʒbaø izinmḉxaraķwa imxra ma raankylara zalšom, zakwanla iśaķwyrgylou cacğwyk amamkwa.

AXWŢAĆ 72. Ausķwa reilyrgara aʒbaraķwa zeǵy rqny iaartny imøaƥysueit, zakwanla iśaķwyrgylou xţysķwak ianryxwaƥšua ada.

Aʒbararčiara møaƥysueit ialaxwu naq-aaq reindaţlarei zinla reiqararei śaţas iamany.

AXWŢAĆ 73. Aƥsny aʒbaratw mḉra ireihaʒou usbarţas iamoup Ireihaʒou Aʒbara.

Aƥsny Ireihaʒou Aʒbara4

1) iryxwaƥšueit ausķwa Aƥsny Axadei, Žwlar Reizarei,iara ubas ahwynţķarratw mḉra eǵyrţ ausbarţaķwei ma aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara usbarţaķwei irydyrkylaz aķwcaraķwa raķwšwarei raķwymšwarei irydhwalou azcaaraķwa zeǵy ryla;

2) iryxwaƥšueit ahwynţķarrei aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara ausbarţaķwei rybźara içwyrcua aimakķwa irydhwalou ausķwa;

3) iryxwaƥšueit alxraķwa rylcšwaķwei alxraķwa rymøaƥgaśei iryzku ausķwa;

4) azin amoup iaʒbar iarbanzaalak aimakķwa, mamzarǵy agwaanagara ahwar iadhwalou azcaaraķwa iryzkny;

5) imøaƥnagoit aśauğatw, atwylauaøratw, anapxgaratw ʒbararčiara;

6) Aƥsny aʒbaraķwa zeǵy iryʒbaz ausķwa azakwan raķwšwara iaśklaƥšueit;

7) aʒbaraķwa zeǵy irnaţoit ausʒbaratw eičkaaraķwa raan izyķwnyqwaša anapxgaratw eilkaaraķwa.

AXWŢAĆ 74. Aƥsny aʒbaraķwa ryķwcaraķwa śţyrxueit Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra ax́ʒala.

AXWŢAĆ 75. Aƥsny Aprokuror Xadei ui inapacaqa iqou aprokurorçwei4

açwǵauratw usķwa reilyrgara azakwan iax́ynʒaķwšwo iaśklaƥšueit;

iadgyloit ahwynţķarratw xaradcara aʒbaračy;

aʒbara ialargaloit Aƥsni ui atwylauaai ryx́ḉara iazku aššyƥx́yʒķwa;

ahwynţķarratw usbarţaķwei, aţyƥantwi axalanapxgaratw usbarţaķwei, amacurauaai zakwandarala eiķwdyršwaz ancaķwa raƥyxra ma ryriašara azcaara yķwdyrgyloit.

Aƥsny Ahwynţķarra aprokuratura ausbarţaķwa irymoup iaku ailazaara, urţ rzinmḉxaraķwa møaƥyrgoit iarbanzaalak daç̌a mḉraķwak irx́yƥšymkwa.

AXWŢAĆ 76. Aƥsny Aprokuror Xada imacura iaţarei iamxrei møaƥnagoit Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara Aƥsny Axada iažwalagalala.

Eǵyrţ aprokurorçwa rmacura ieiţoit Aƥsny Aprokuror Xada.

AXWŢAĆ 77. Aprokuratura ausbarţaķwa rzinmḉxaraķwei, reičkaarei, rusurei hwaaķwnacoit azakwan.

AFBATWI AXY. AŢYƤANTWI AXALANAPXGARA

AXWŢAĆ 78. Aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara møaƥgaxoit araionķwei aķalaķ́ķwei, eǵyrţ ailanxarţaķwei rqny.

AXWŢAĆ 79. Aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara atwylauaa imøaƥyrgoit rxatwgwaƥxara išiašou aiţahwarala ma aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara alxratw usbarţaķwa ryla.

Aƥsny aķalaķ́ķwei araionķwei rqny anagʒaratw mḉraķwa rxadaçwa Aƥsny Axada ialixueit aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara ailazaara aqnytw.

Aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara ailazaara aičkaarei azinmḉxaraķwei śaķwyrgylaxoit zakwanla.

AXWŢAĆ 80. Aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara ausbarţaķwa iśaķwdyrgyloit aţyƥantwi abiuʒ́et, aţyƥantwi ašwaxtwķwei, aƥaralxraķwei rnapačy iqoup, išyrţaxu rxy iadyrxwoit aţyƥantwi amal, iryx́ḉoit auaažwlarratw eičkaara, ihwaaķwyrcoit dara ryønucqatw eilazaara, iara ubas iryʒboit aekonomikatw, asoçialtw uhwa dara rhwaaķwa irţaʒo, eǵyrţ ahwynţķarratw usbarţaķwak irycarymkua azcaaraķwa.

AXWŢAĆ 81. Abri azakwanķwei ryla iśaķwyrgylou aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara azinķwa ryƥkra ahwynţķarratw usbarţaķwa irylšom. Aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara zakwanla imøaƥnago ausķwa aç̌rylagalara zalšom.

AXWŢAĆ 82. Aţyƥantwi axalanapxgara usʒbarala axyx́ḉara iaķwiţup, azinmḉxaraķwa axy iaķwiţny, ƥyķwslarada imøaƥnagalarç azy.

ABYŹBATWI AXY. RIAŠARAĶWEI AIŢAXWAƤŠYŚAĶWEI

AXWŢAĆ 83. Aƥsny aiţaxwaƥšrei ariašarei ryzcaaraķwa ryķwyrgylara rylšoit Aƥsny Axada, Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara, Aƥsny Ireihaʒou Aʒbara, Aƥsny Aprokuror Xada.

AXWŢAĆ 84. Aƥsny ariašaraķwa rydyrkyloit Aƥsny Žwlar Reizara adeputatçwa rzeiƥš xyƥx́aʒara aqnytw axƥa ryøxwţak irycarkua abźķwa ryla.

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Açyxwtwantwi aƥsaxraķwa abri adaq́a aqny: 12:26, 8 xwažwkyra 2013.
otdeĺnyx sluḉajax mogut dejstvovat́ dopolniteĺnye uslovija. Podrobnee sm. Uslovija ispoĺzovanija.

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Filed under Linguistics, Spot the Language

Why Should One Follow This Advice about Learning New Languages: “Don’t Look up Every Single Word You Don’t Know”?

This advice by Anne Zahra, Berkeley Linguistics PhD, strikes me as excellent. If you agree or disagree or just wish to comment, feel free to respond in the comments.

Research in language acquisition sets a very high bar on word recognition with respect to good comprehension in a foreign language – 95%+ (I have read some research that sets it as high as 98%). You can exercise your eyes all you want, and you can indeed learn a language using text containing lots of unknown words…but you aren’t going to understand the text in question well unless you comprehend nearly every word in it.

So what are you going to do?

Look, word study works. Flashcards, quizlet.com, it’s all great. You must use these tools to speed up the learning process. You need 5,000+ words to speak socially, maybe 7000+ to read typical English texts. Academic study requires more. But you can’t get it all from just reading if you want to know academic language.

But word study is not enough. You need the reading too. Word study and reading create a synergy that drives up proficiency. This is proven.

Vocabulary learning is not about memorizing a definition. It’s about understanding a word the way a mechanic understands a part. It’s about depth of word knowledge. You must know how words are used – their various meanings, the expressions they belong to, and the grammar associated with them – or you have some data about the language in your memory but no functional abilities in the language.

When I was 19 I took a credit exam in French so I could skip to advanced courses. I asked for advice on how to prepare, and I got lots of opinions, but in the end I did what works for me – intensive study of one text. And I chose a hard one. On purpose. I wanted to absorb a lot of vocabulary and see complex sentences.  And this book delivered:

I studied this book word for word, sentence for sentence, for months.  With a dictionary and a Bescherelle (a kind of verb dictionary).  Why? Because context. A text involves redundancy. It has a structure. It’s purposeful and intended to deliver a message. The more time you invest in the text, the more you gain – vocabulary, grammar, style, and culture.

I assumed that if I could read even a few pages in this difficult book and take Céline’s sentences apart with even minimal success, I could well understand anything on a standardized exam.

This proved to be true.

I went through the reading passages on that test and circled words I recognized for having studied them through the novel. There were lots of them, and they included verbs like bouleverser and éteindre – not the sort of words you’d find in an exam prep guide or workbook.

There is nothing wrong with looking up words when you read. People say it interrupts the flow of your reading. Really? What flow is going on if you don’t understand anything? Sailing over unknown word after unknown word does not make you fluent. Schoolkids the world over do that and aren’t more educated for it, so why would it be the way to master another language?

Picking an easier text may be more practical, but if it’s something you want to read, get out a dictionary and just do it. Look up as many words as you want.

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Filed under Applied, Language Learning, Linguistics

Do Languages Get More Complex Over Time?

From Quora:

  • Pidgin: languages which often form when groups without a common language interact tend to drastically simplify the grammar and lexicon of the contributing “parent” languages.

  • Modern English has enormously simpler morphology than Old English, which was perhaps in large part driven by contact and use by non-native speakers of English. Compare this to the Icelandic language which has mostly been spoken by an isolated and homogeneous community. Icelandic has been much more conservative in its morphology and Germanic-derived lexicon, which is today a lot like Old English (not surprising since they share a common Germanic ancestor).

For a long time, I would have agreed with André Müller’s answer about all languages being of similar complexity: some might be more morphologically complex, some might be more phonologically complex, some might be more syntactically complex, but overall things seem to balance out — and the ability of human children to learn all natural languages is a pretty interesting piece of evidence for this.

However, I no longer subscribe to this view; I’m much more in agreement with Marc Ettlinger’s answer that complexity varies wildly across languages and is influenced by many sociolinguistic and historical factors such as language contact. One of the most important and thought-provoking books I’ve read on language complexity is  John McWhorter’s What Language Is (And What It Isn’t and What It Could Be). I discussed this book in more detail in my answer to another question.

I agree with this. The nutty line in Linguistics is the PC line, “All languages are equally complex.” If you disagree with this line, they go nuts and virtually try to hound you out of the profession as an idiot or a heretic. It is nice to know that there are some PhD linguists who disagree – Ettinger got his from Berkeley!

Obviously Tsez is more complex than Malay.

Duh.

I have long thought that languages decrease in complexity over time and certainly as they become the commerce of a complex society.

The most complex languages are often spoken by the most primitive peoples. When I was in school, one of my professors told me that primitive people are often intelligent (as they are humans like us), but there is not a lot of intellectual stimulation around, so they are bored. Their languages are often fiendishly complex, and these people often spend their time experimenting with playing brain games with their complex languages by speaking in such a way as to emphasize the complex aspects of the language. So every day becomes a sort of a recreational IQ test for some fellow bored out of his head in the jungle.

Another question is whether these primitive people deliberately created these languages in their complex style because they were bored and wanted some intellectual challenge. I haven’t the faintest idea if that is true or not. I got roundly trashed as an idiot for saying this over at Reddit Bad Linguistics (where they hate me), but I got it from one of my PhD professors.

Do we know that primitive people like their complex languages as a form of intellectual stimulation? We do not, but it is a good hypothesis, and the idiots at Bad Linguistics haven’t proven it wrong yet so at the very least it’s inconclusive.

In fact, it is bordering on heresy in Linguistics to even say that primitive languages tend to be more complex that those of more modern peoples, but intuitively it seems to be the case.

For one thing as society gets complicated and industrialized, it helps to be able to communicate what you want to say as quickly as possible with the least amount of misinterpretation. After all, time is money. So perhaps this may be one reason why I believe languages become more complex with increasing development of society.

The suggestion from the answer by Lenski that languages become less complex over time may not be the case. Perhaps it is only a side effect of increased cultural modernization and increased number of speakers and contacts with other languages.

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Filed under Anthropology, Applied, Cultural, Language Learning, Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Sociology

Guys Staring at Guys

Jason Y writes:

Being openly gay can cause problems in gyms, stuff like that, cause guys think “Are you looking at me?”. I think that’s also why so much opposition to gays in the military.

Guys staring at guys can be a problem, but I never really worry about it.I suppose a lot of men have stared at me in my life, but I really think only a few of them were staring at me because they were gay or bi. When a gay or bi man stares at you, it has this particular vibe about. After you have gotten it a number of times, it is pretty unmistakeable and cannot be confused with anything else.

In Man World, the standard hypermasculine line about male stares is that they mean one of three things:

1. You want to fight me. You are staring at me because you want to fight. Typical response: Screw you idiot. You’re nuts. I ain’t fighting you.

2. You’re a fag. You are staring at me because you’re a homo and you want to suck my dick. Typical response: Screw you fag! You’re in the wrong town, weirdo. Frisco’s that-away!

3. First two are wrong? Ok, then you’re crazy. You’re staring at me because you are weird/crazy, whatever. Typical response. Screw you, you nut. I ain’t dealing you. You’re crazy.

Bottom line is in Man World, staring at other guys is pretty much not ok. As you can see, it means three possible things, and none of them are good. So don’t do it. Don’t stare at guys.

There are other types of reasons for male stares.

Hey, I like this guy! One straight guy to another. Sometimes they seem like they really like you and admire you for some reason. But you can tell they are straight due to the vibe.

What’s with that guy anyway? This can be good or bad. Unfortunately a lot of times it is not that great. But it might not necessarily be so bad. If has a bad vibe, you can usually pick it up.

Jesus Christ you are fucking weird, man. Yes, unfortunately, I have gotten this one before. You can try to analyze why they think you are weird, but it is probably not productive. Who knows why they think you’re weird? You will probably never figure it out in a million years and even if you ask them, they will lie. Best response is to go into “normal guy mode,” don’t let the look go to your head, and try to act, think and feel as normally as possible.

Wow I admire you, you’re my hero. I don’t get this one too much, but I got a lot more of it when younger. Obviously it is pretty nice.

Do you have some sort of a question you want to ask me about me or something? Here, you are staring at them in a questioning way, and they are doing it back. Hopefully follow it up with a conversation to prove that the staring was because you wanted to know something about him, maybe something interesting. Usually works out well.

Quit staring at me, asshole. Yeah, you started this one. Quit staring at the guy! Take a hint.

You know what? You annoy the Hell out of me, and I really do not like you one bit, you dick. Yep. Hopefully you will not get this one too much. I would try not to talk to this guy in the future. Guess what! He doesn’t like you! Hint hint. Don’t even try to figure out why he dislikes you because it is typically impossible to figure out and if you ask him, he will never tell you.

I hate you. Yep, unmistakeable. Break the glance and quit looking at him. Or stare him back down. I often go super aggro when they do this to me, rear up my body like I am Tyrannosaurs, turn into Ted Bundy in my head and stare them down back real hard to force them down. Usually they get scared or freaked out and back down. The objective is “to force him down.” If you force him to stop staring, then you won the domination contest. Obviously this could lead to fights, but it almost never does with me for some reason. After you force him down, back off completely, ignore him utterly, and do not antagonize him anymore. You won. Don’t push your luck.

Let’s fight! Yeah, this is a very bad one. I get it in bars sometimes. This guy is known as Mr. Psycho. He wants to fight you, and he has never met you, has no idea what you are like and knows nothing about you. In other words, he’s nuts. Leave him alone and ignore him, and he will stop after a while. If you challenge him, the game will quickly turn into “Somebody’s Going to Get Hurt.” Who knows after that!

Quit looking at my girlfriend/wife, you asshole! Yeah. You got the message. Quit looking at her. I do not get this too often. Some young White men are like this now. We have a lot of traditional Mexican men in their 30’s and 40’s in this town, and I have gotten this look a couple of times from them.

Challenge/querying. Well you are at the bar going into your bad-ass “I am a really nice guy but if you fuck with me I will slit your throat in a New York minute” thing. It sounds scary, but it’s a redneck bar full of White guys and they are all doing the same thing. In fact, they could all easily be serial killers except that they are smiling too much. The challenge stare is sort of like, “WTF is your trip dude?”

Look over at him or them, go out of psycho mode into “Hey I am a regular normal harmless guy” mode and look at them with an open face with no particular expression. Often he will break into a smile which is his way of saying he thinks you are ok. Smile back and him and forget about it. Congratulations. You just made peace.

I am sending you a message with this stare. Often not such a good message either. In many cases, they are saying, “I am communicating this message to you to teach you a lesson and get you to change your behavior because you are screwing up.” This person is trying to tell you something without uttering even one single word. The message they are trying to give you can be all sorts of things.

Think about where you are, what you are doing or just did, especially what you just said. The message may well be related to that. Also if any conversation follows, the message may be well relayed through all sorts of weird vibes about the conversation.

You get the booby prize! You get to decode the message in the stare. Oh boy. Often you cannot figure out the message, but it is pretty common to make guesses.

Your guesses may well be wrong, but sometimes some extremely complicated nonverbal messages can be relayed without the person ever uttering a single word along those lines. Once a friend of mine and I got the exact same very complex message from this man. I told my friend about it and he freaked out and told me had gotten the same vibe off of him.

Harmless guesses are probably ok, but weirder or more dangerous/pathological guesses should be avoided, for instance, anything with paranoid overtones. Your paranoid interpretation may be true, but paranoid conclusions should only be adopted as a last resort after all other solutions have been negated.

I am gay/bi/biqueerious/whatever and I think you’re sexy, stud. Yeah this is the homosexual stare. Thing is really most guy to guy stares are not gay stares, but definitely a few are. I cannot put my finger on it, but the gay stare has a particular vibe about that I cannot describe except that it seems sexual in some intuitive Gestalt sort of way that cannot be described. Have you ever had a woman look at you like you are a slice of roast beef right out of the oven? It looks like that.

It looks just like the look a woman gives you when she is ogling you, checking you out, thinks you are hot, or is fantasizing about you. It is the exact same look, just from a guy.

Often there is a weird persistence and sort of unbreakable, somewhat disturbing and creepy aspect to this stare. That is because they often act as if they are hypnotized by you. But women will sometimes give you the hypnotized stare too. You need to jump on that right away because it means, “Fuck me right now.” I do not get the hypnotized look from women too much anymore, but I have in the past for sure.

This gay stare can also look like, “Ohhh boy! I like him! Woo hoo!” often with a sort of half-criminal smile added in. Once again, this is the same look that women give you from time to time. It doesn’t necessarily mean she actually wants to screw you, but she is fantasizing for sure.

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Filed under Gender Studies, Heterosexuality, Homosexuality, Man World, Psychology, Sex